Medvedki got its name for the large size, brown-brown color, massive clawed front paws and a hairy body, which makes it possible to compare this insect with a bear. There are several popular names for these insects: the cabbage, cricket-mole or cricket mole, earth craw, and wolf-cubs.
Kapustyanka animal is called for the love of young cabbage seedlings. The Latin name of the bear of the genus Gryllotalpa is translated as "cricket-mole". This is confirmed by the similarity with cricket in the structure of the body and the ability to make sounds. The bear is like a mole with the extended tassels of the front paws and the ability to burrow into the ground. The front of the insect resembles cancer: the structure of the head, shell, mustache and paws, somewhat similar to claws. The top bear is called because of the sharp claws on the front paws that resemble wolf's teeth.
Author photo: Fir0002, GFDL 1.2
Medvedka - description and photo. What does a bear look like?
Bears are large insects. The length of their body varies from 3.5 to 5 cm, and the thickness reaches 1.2-1.5 cm. From above, the body of the cabbage tree is painted in a silky brown-brown color, from below - in brownish-yellow. The body of the insect is covered with tiny hairs.
Author photo: Natasha Wright, Cook’s Pest Control, Bugwood.org
The head of the bear has a prognathic, or direct, position in relation to the body. Its axis coincides with the axis of the body, and the oral organs, which are powerful jaws, are directed forward.
Near the jaws are 2 pairs of tentacles.
Photo author: Frank Dorsman
The large, clearly visible eyes of the bear have a faceted structure and are located on the sides of the head.
On the head of the insect, filamentous antennae grow, slightly approaching for the pronotum. They are shorter compared to other representatives of the cricket mustache.
Photo by: Katpatuka, FAL
The large and flat pronotum of the bear with lateral portions (lobes) hanging down is a distinctive feature of the insect. Medium and posterior thorax of insect are connected. The head and front part of the animal's body are covered with a dense chitinous shell - a device for pushing and compacting the ground when digging holes. Because of this shell Medvedka resembles cancer.
The abdomen of Kapustianka is thick, reaching 1 cm in diameter, consisting of 10 tergites and 8-9 sternites. The top of the abdomen has anal and genital plates. Females do not have oviposition. On the last segment of the abdomen there are long, flexible cerci, covered with small hairs, or caudal appendages, which look like antennae.
Author photo: Clemens Stockner, CC BY-SA 3.0
Bears have 2 pairs of wings:
- The anterior ones are transformed into short and leathery elytra, covered with thick veins. In length, they reach only the middle of the abdomen. The left sheath of insects from the cricket superfamily is always covered by the right.
- The back pair is long, wide, transparent, membranous wings with thin venation. In a quiet state, they fold down like a fan under the elytra and extend along the abdomen in the form of harnesses. During the flight of the insect, the hind wings take an active part, while the elytra are involved only to a limited extent.
Males differ from females in venation of elytra. Wingless individuals of both sexes exist, but they are less common. By the way, the larvae have no wings.
Photo author: George Chernilevsky, Public Domain
The bear has 3 pairs of limbs, each of which consists of a basin, trochanter, hip, tibia, and 3-segmented foot.
By the way, the hearing aid (or organ of hearing) of the Medvedka, like in many other chirping orthopteran insects (grasshoppers, crickets), is located on the legs of the forelimbs and has an oval or narrow-slit shape.
The hind legs of the insect are strong and designed for movement, on their inner side there are 1-4 thorns. The forelimbs, like claws, are a digging apparatus. The thigh and shin are greatly expanded, and the foot is shortened. On the lower leg there are 4, and on the foot there are 2 teeth-thorn of black color, with which the bear cuts into the ground.
On the front legs of the bear are auditory holes. They have an oval or narrow gap shape.
Photo author: Pavel Korzunovich (PaKor)
What sounds makes a bear?
With the help of the friction of the hard front elytra, against each other, the bear makes sounds that can be heard at a distance of more than half a kilometer. Stridulation, or trills, promotes communication between insects. By the way, the stridulatory apparatus of the representatives of the cricket superfamily and the grasshoppers differ:
- In cricket vein, the bow is on the right elytra, and the vein, about which the bow rubs, is located on the left.
- The stridulatory apparatus of grasshoppers occupies a smaller area on the elytra and is not so developed.
In general, male polar bear sings, but females are also able to chatter. Medvedka can make sounds both day and night, both on the surface of the earth and underground. The invocative night trills of the males are loud, their sound is sharp and low. When moving along underground passages, insects make a shorter and deaf chirping. By the way, the sound power of a bear is 1.4 mW. For comparison: the cricket, this figure reaches 0.06 mW.
What does Medvedka eat?
Medvedka is the most common pest of vegetable, fruit, melon, berry, and horticultural crops. These insects damage roots, tubers, root neck, seeds, underground parts of plants, and sometimes even eat seedlings and young plants. Bears ruining potatoes, beets (table, sugar and fodder), cabbage, tomatoes, carrots, onions, beans, cucumbers, eggplants, peppers, turnips, turnips, radishes, pumpkins, watermelons, melons, sweet potatoes, grapes, poppy, hemp, sunflower , hops, tobacco, flax, strawberries, strawberries, various shrubs, parsley and other umbrella plants. Bears damage crops of wheat, rye, oats, barley, corn, rice, millet, soybeans, chumizy, payza, kaolin. In the southern regions they destroy more exotic plants: citrus fruits (oranges, tangerines, lemons), tea, cotton, peanuts, cotton. In nurseries and young orchards, trees such as apples, pears, plums, cherries, cherries, apricots, and peaches can suffer from a bear.
In the forests, the insect damages the roots of young oaks, beeches, pines, poplars, spruces and other trees. In addition to plant food, bears eat earthworms, larvae of May beetles, ladybirds, dragonflies and other insects.
Photo by: Jeroen Willemsen
Where does the bear live?
Medvedki are distributed almost everywhere in Europe (except Norway and Finland), in Central and Southeast Asia, in the Caucasus, on the islands of Japan, the Philippine Islands, in India, Vietnam, China, Indonesia. Also, these insects live in North Africa, Australia, and North and South America. In Russia, the bear is found everywhere - from the European part and to the Far East, except for the northern regions of the country.
The habitat of the bear is wet places, meadows, floodplains of rivers and other water bodies. Insects live mainly in underground tunnels. They dig in the fertilized, well-warmed, humus soil of vegetable gardens and melon fields, often found near irrigation canals, on wetlands. They love places with a high groundwater storage.
Author photo: AncienTor, CC BY-SA 3.0
Lifestyle Medvedki (Kapustianka)
In general, medvedki lead a hidden lifestyle. All day they are under the ground, making moves in the surface layer of the soil and eating the plants found along the way. They come to the surface only at night. The presence of bears at the site can be determined only by the winding, loosened rollers of the earth, the holes in the soil and completely healthy-looking plants, suddenly starting to die.
This is how Medvedka moves on the surface of the earth. Photo author: Natalia M. Pochireva
At night, medvedki crawl out of the mink to the surface and go to other areas in search of food. Sometimes they fly over considerable distances. Often they are attracted to the bright light. During breeding, the female bear flies to the sounds made by males for mating.
Medvedka quickly digs into the ground and moves, flies and swims beautifully, overcoming even significant water obstacles. The insect has adapted to swimming due to the fact that floodplain areas, the favorite residences of the bear, during the spring flood, are flooded with water.
Author photo: böhringer friedrich, CC BY-SA 2.5
Bears begin to multiply in the spring, after a mass release from wintering. Their fertilization is spermatophoric, like in other members of the orthoptera. Mating takes place underground. Offspring appears in the summer.
Insects prepare housing for their offspring: they dig complex, densely branched labyrinths around the roots of plants and at small depths (5-10 cm from the surface) arrange spherical nests about 10 cm in diameter. Individuals of both sexes take part in this process. Inside the ball is a nesting chamber the size of a chicken egg, the walls of which are well sealed. There the female bear lays from 300-350 to 600 eggs. This is a very important period for the survival of insects, because the offspring located underground depends entirely on temperature and humidity. The female does not move away from the nest, protecting it, maintaining ventilation and temperature. To do this, it clears the passages from the ground, eats up the roots of plants, casting a shadow on the nesting site. Eggs of a polar bear are similar to millet grains: oval, yellowish-gray, 2 mm in size.
After 10-20 days, depending on the temperature of the soil, gray, six-legged, wingless larvae (nymphs) emerge from the eggs, which live in the nest under the protection of the female for 20-30 days. At the end of this period of time, the female begins to die and after a while dies. After that, larvae larvae crawl, dig individual holes and begin to feed.
The development of larvae is long, with incomplete transformation. In different regions, this period is different. In the south, they develop within 1-2 years, in the north, 2-2.5 years. The larva of the bear resembles an adult, but with a smaller size, underdeveloped wings and genitals. In the early stages of development, they are very mobile, brisk and jump well, like grasshoppers. During the period of development from the larva to the adult, sexually mature individuals, the polar bear molt 8-9 times.
Larvae of the common bear. Author photo: Roman Špaček
Where and how does Medvedka winter?
The larvae are 2–6 years old (meaning 2–6 molts) and adults overwinter in soil, humus or manure. They burrow into the ground much deeper than in summer. The larvae deepen by 25 cm, adults - by 60, and sometimes 100-120 cm. They make winter indentations at an angle from 45 to 60 degrees. After wintering, the bears come to the surface when the temperature of the soil reaches 12-15 degrees.
Bear species, photos and names
Medvedki almost do not differ in appearance and lifestyle. Some can be distinguished from each other only by the number of chromosomes.
According to the latest research and information provided on the site orthoptera.speciesfile.org, the Far Eastern Medvedka (lat. Gryllotalpa fossor) is synonymous with the African medvedka (lat. Gryllotalpa аfricana).
Below is a description of several species of bears.
- Common bear(lat.Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa)
Widespread species. Insect body size reaches 3.5-5 cm, pronotum length 1.2-1.6 cm, elytra 1.3-2.1 cm, hind femur 1-1.3 cm. The body is colored dark brown, lighter brown-yellow belly covered with thick, fine hairs. Head and back almost black. Abdomen yellowish or olive hue.
Widely distributed in Europe, except for the Scandinavian countries. Also, the common bear lives in Russia, North Africa and some regions of Asia: in the Caucasus, Asia Minor and Western Asia, in the Middle East, Iran, and Kazakhstan.
Author photo: Tobias b köhler, CC BY-SA 3.0
- African bear (eastern bear)(lat.Gryllotalpa africana)
It has smaller dimensions than the common bear: the body is 2.0-3.5 cm, the length of the pronotum is 0.6-0.9 cm, the length of the elytra is 0.8-1.2 cm. The color is brown-yellow at the top and yellow at the bottom.
African bears live in Central, South and Southeast Asia, on the Japanese and Philippine islands, on Ceylon and Madagascar, in Korea, in the Far East of Russia, in Australia, New Zealand, in the tropics and subtropics of Africa.
Author photo: Bernard DUPONT, CC BY-SA 2.0
- Ten-bear bear(latNeocurtilla hexadactyla)
A variety characterized by small sizes: from 1.9 to 3.3 cm in length. Initially, these bears inhabited North and Central America, and from there they settled in South America.
Author photo: dogtooth77, CC BY-NC-SA
- Steppe bear(lat.Gryllotalpastepposa)
The morphological twin of the common bear, that is, absolutely similar to her in appearance. Insect length reaches 4-5.4 cm. Body color is brown-yellow.
The habitat of the Medvedka is Moldova, the south of Ukraine, the Southern District of Russia and the south of Turkmenistan.
Author photo: Lubomír Klátil
- One-Bear Bear (lat. Gryllotalpa unispina)
The length of the insect's body varies from 3.8 to 4.4 cm, the length of the oval pronotum is 1.1-1.3 cm, and the elytrums 1.5-1.7 cm. The structure of the body, lifestyle, nutrition, and reproduction of this insect are characteristic. for the whole family, as well as brownish-yellow color.
It is halophilic, that is, it is found on saline soils along the shores of seas and lakes, as well as on wet salt marshes. Single-bearing Medvedki live in the south of Moldova and Ukraine, in the Lower Volga Region of Russia and the Rostov Region, in the Crimea, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Iran, Afghanistan and China. Its habitat may vary depending on the distribution of salt marshes and solonets.
Photo author: Danilov Yu.N.
Medvedka as bait for fish
Medvedka has long been known as a great bait for catching large fish. Insects must be alive. To do this, they are kept in containers with ground and with access to air, preferably one at a time, feeding them if necessary. Experienced anglers disagree on how to put a bear on a hook - starting from the head, through the chest and abdomen, or stringing 2-3 bear heads, piercing them through the chest. To make the bait more attractive and produce the proper flavor, the belly is incised. It is believed that the catfish, the chub, the barbel, the asp are good at the medvedka.
Natural enemies of the bear
Medvedki very successfully adapted to life. There are not so many natural enemies in nature. Not all birds are able to find insects under the ground. And, nevertheless, they are destroyed by the rooks, starlings, hoopoe. Medvedok eat moles and shrews, animals that also lead an underground lifestyle. Some insects are also enemies: ants and ground beetles, forid flies, eating bear eggs and afflicting adults, nematodes, ectoparasite mites. The anaphema wasp larra drives a medvedka out of the ground, paralyzes it and lays eggs in it, as a result of which the developing wasp larvae devour the insect alive. Bacterioses that develop in wet, rainy weather can destroy a bear.
Author photo: Lukáš Konečný
Chemical preparations from Medvedka
Bear bait can be prepared from steamed grains of corn, rye, wheat, oats, barley or bran, adding to them a little sunflower oil. The finished bait is etched, that is, poison is added to it. Once upon a time, such potent and currently forbidden poisons as zinc phosphide and dust (DDT) were added to it. Nowadays, various modern preparations made specifically for the destruction of the bearfish are used: for example, Medvetoks. Modern chemicals from the bear are harmless to the soil, plants, earthworms: they kill only pests. Etched grains can be purchased in stores already in finished form. Such purchased or homemade bear bait is brought into the soil in early spring, usually a week before sowing crops. In small household or suburban areas, the bait is buried 2-3 cm in the ground, and in large areas it is scattered using seed drills.
Pickled corn or oat seeds are sometimes sown, using this crop as bait to kill insects before planting the main seedlings.
You can fight with Medvedka in the garden by soaking the roots and tubers of plants in modern insecticides for a while. Pests die by eating the parts of the plant soaked in with the preparation.
During the period of plant growth, the soil is watered with special organophosphorus compounds that are absorbed by plant roots and are effective against insects with a gnawing mouth apparatus.
The destruction of a bear by mechanical means
To catch a bear in the garden plot, you can:
- set up insect traps in the form of holes filled with semi-mature manure. Pits 0.5 m deep dig in the fall. Attracted by warm manure, bears gather in it for the winter. With the onset of cold weather manure reach and scatter, as a result of which insects die from cold. This method will not work in the southern regions where there is no frost.
- dig up the nests of the bear and destroy them.
- in places where the Medvedok gathers, a jar, jug or bottle should be dug into the ground. As bait, pour beer there or coat the inside of the vessel with honey. Climbing into such a container, bear can not get out. Thus, you just need to get the pests and destroy them.
- на участках, где обнаружены ходы медведки, разложить куски рубероида, фанеры, старого линолеума. Почву под ними необходимо смачивать. After some time, under such a trap they begin to gather the bears. It must be quickly picked up and caught scattering insects.
- install light traps for a bear To do this, arrange the garden lights on the site, and below them arrange the containers filled with water and kerosene. Bears fly to the light, hit the lantern and fall liquid.
- in the mink, done by insects, pour water and sunflower oil. Water pushes garden pests to the surface, while oil prevents them from breathing. Sometimes a kerosene solution or laundry detergent is used for the same purpose, but these liquids are better not to use, because they harm the planted plants.
Entrance to the mink medvedki. Taken from the site: parkerbiolabs.com
Fighting Medvedka folk remedies
There are quite a few folk remedies to scare away bears:
- using kerosene:
- pull a clothesline soaked in kerosene on the ground around the site,
- put sand mixed with kerosene into the groove dug around the perimeter of the plot,
- to bury the cloth soaked in kerosene in places of insects.
- with the help of various odors emitted by plants, substances, products that the bear does not like. On the bed and under the ground, you can put the leaves or cloves of garlic, mint, rotten fish, onion peel, wormwood, drip iodine. All this can be put separately or together.
- water the land with diluted bird droppings, including chicken.
- to plant intolerable plants: garlic, perennial carnations, chrysanthemums, marigolds.
- put crushed eggshells and ashes into the hole with the plant.
- wrap the roots of seedlings with a cloth or place the root and the underground part of the stem in a protective case made of a piece of hose, plastic, etc.
- sticking around the perimeter of the garden stakes of freshly cut aspen, alder, willow, or tightly close the plot with sheets of slate, tin or other dug into the ground.
Precautions in the fight with Medvedka in the garden
Applying the means of struggle with Medvedka in the garden, you should remember about caution.
Together with the garden bear or instead of it, children, animals and plants should not suffer. Care must be taken to ensure that chemicals and poisonous baits do not fall into the hands of children and are not tried by pets.
Poisoned bears should be immediately cleaned so that they are not pecked by birds and animals do not eat. Kapusyanka is an unpleasant-looking creature, not everyone can take it in hand. It is better to take an insect by the back, although a bear cannot bite and injure a human strongly — it has not so strong muscles and jaws. The maximum that she can do is to scratch the skin with sharp claws.
The nests of the Medvedka resemble an earthen room, located under the very surface of the earth, their tops have characteristic elevations so that the masonry warms up better by the sun's heat. With the onset of spring, insects begin the mating season and continue until the beginning of July. The female lays in its nest several hundred yellow or brownish eggs, rounded, with a diameter of about 3.5 mm.
Nest with eggs of an ordinary medvedka.
After 3 to 4 weeks, the larvae appear on the light, which look like adults, but differ in light brown color and have rudiments of wings. In the larval stage, the bears live from 2 to 4 years, depending on the region and food supply, undergoing during this time 4 molts. Insects spend the winter at a depth of more than 2 m, as well as in manure or compost. Bears are extremely voracious and omnivorous, the ration of larvae and adults are root vegetables, various insects, their eggs and larvae, as well as earthworms.
The development of a bear
The number of bears in any garden directly depends on the presence of other animals that can significantly reduce the population of uninvited guests.
Medvedka in the garden: the main signs
At first, the presence of a bear on a plot can even be overlooked, then the activity of pests gives a number of characteristic signs:
- swollen land above the nests
- tracks - furrows in the beds, well visible after rain and watering,
- open entrances - holes in the hole,
- unreasonable withering of seedlings and shoots,
- the death of young seedlings,
- damaged root vegetables.
During the day, the larva's larva can destroy up to 15 young plants, and then the disaster becomes rampant.
Methods of struggle
Today, gardeners and gardeners have at their disposal a whole arsenal of old folk methods of preventing and combating earth crawfish, as well as a lot of chemicals and devices to get rid of uninvited guests:
- dung traps
- beer bait
- soap and kerosene "baths",
- "onion shower",
- installation of wind turbines,
- sound scarers
- insecticidal drugs.
Fighting insects that survived mammoths and dinosaurs is not so easy. Adherents of ecological farming are encouraged to use time-tested folk methods, and only as a last resort to switch to chemical preparations.
The purpose of this method is to create local sites favorable for the accumulation, reproduction and wintering of insects, their subsequent collection and destruction. The method is relevant both at the beginning of the summer season, and on the eve of the first frost.
The trap for the bear is a pit, with a depth and width of no more than 50 cm. The bottom is lined with polyethylene, and manure is mixed with straw on top. Insects will not remain indifferent to such a place of residence: in the spring, the pits will occupy the females and lay eggs there, in the fall, the bears will gather in the trap pits for wintering.
One month later, the manure is checked for the presence of adults, their eggs and larvae. In the spring, polyethylene with the contents is removed and burned; with the onset of frost, manure with nests is simply scattered around the area: before wintering, the bears become lethargic, cannot take shelter and die at minus temperatures.
A more humane method of getting rid of a bear is tasty bait, the old effective way of reducing the number of snails and slugs at the same time.
Plastic bottles, tin or glass jars for 2/3 filled with diluted in half with water, beer or fermented jam and drip into the soil to the edges. Attracted by the aroma of delicacies, insects penetrate into the container and back in no hurry. In the morning, the owners get rid of the bait contents without any problems.
Soap, kerosene, vegetable oil
If you managed to find the entrance to the underground labyrinth, you can fill it with a specially prepared solution. To do this, take 10 liters of water and add to the container the following components to choose from:
10 g of soap + 50 g of detergent,
- 100 ml of kerosene,
- 3 tbsp. l vegetable oil.
The solution is poured into the inlets gradually, so that the liquid can penetrate all the branches of the underground passages. Any of the prepared mixtures will be disastrous for the bear and her offspring.
Aromatherapy and Onion Peel
Surprisingly, but the fact: the medvedka does not tolerate some odors, and when sensing it, it tries to get away to a safe distance. The following methods of aromatherapy are recommended among the pest-expellers:
- planting between the plants and along the perimeter of the marigold and calendula beds,
- fish giblets spread out in between rows and lightly sprinkled with earth (an extreme but effective method)
- scattered spruce twigs,
- Alder shoots stuck in the beds at a distance of 1.5 m from each other
- soil dressing with a mixture of a bucket of river sand and 1 cup of kerosene,
- watering plants strong infusion of onion peel.
According to experienced gardeners, all these smells of Medvedka scare away no worse than professional tools.
Windmills and scarers
Self-made windmills - the old, proven method of dealing with underground pests. Poles up to 3 m high are equipped with propellers made of thin-sheet stainless steel and are located at several points in the garden. Medvedki do not tolerate specific sounds and vibrations from wind turbines and rush to get out. on neighboring sites. Therefore, before installing the fixtures, it makes sense to inform the neighbors, and also to ask their opinion about the possible discomfort from wind sounds.
Ultrasonic repeller - a worthy alternative to wind turbines, as well as a silent and effective way to expel a bear from your site.
It is important to understand that it is advisable to use traps, lures and windmills if the number of bears in the area is not critical. When all popular methods of control have been exhausted, and Medvedka continues to eat the crop, the only way to get rid of pests is the destruction by means of insecticides.
Chemical and biological preparations from Medvedka
The urgency of the problem of fighting with Medvedka eloquently characterizes the variety of specialized products produced by domestic and foreign manufacturers. Powder and granulated insecticides are completely ready for use and allow you to get rid of a bear one time and forever.
Among the line of chemical agents the most popular are the following stably demanded drugs:
- Anti-prospecting: effective bait in the form of microgranules, destroying pests at any stage of development,
- Medvetoks: a drug that is safe for soil and earthworms, destroys Medvedka, and at the same time garden ants,
- Medvetsid: granular means, disastrously acting on Medvedka already 3 hours after eating the bait,
- Rembek: a proven long-acting drug, also effective in combating garden ants and the cockchafer,
- Bowerin: bio-powdered drug, the causative agent of the disease caused by muskardin fungus, which penetrates into the body of insects, causing their death.
In addition to the finished products, the good old carbide helps in the fight against Medvedka. It is enough to drop 5 g of calcium carbide into the hole of the hole so that the acetylene formed by the reaction with water fills the entire underground labyrinth of passages dug by pests.
It is easier to prevent any attack than to get rid of it for a long time, so simple preventive measures will protect the garden from the bear and its voracious offspring.
As practice shows, deep soil digging in the spring and autumn destroys the nests and bears of the bear, preventing pests from having a chance to breed and settle for the winter.
One of the ways to prevent the Medvedka from being on the plot is to stop using cow and horse manure, replacing them with chicken manure.
Seedlings with a compact root system can be protected from the pest with a cut plastic bottle that creates a kind of “armor” around the roots.
Planting chrysanthemums, marigolds and marigolds in between the rows - reliable protection from the bear. Insects do not like the smell of parsley, cilantro, onion and garlic.
Before planting, seedling roots are treated with Aktara and Prestige, reliably protecting plants from pests and contributing to the growth of the vegetative mass.
Bringing in biological agents - birds and insectivorous animals - is a sure way to prevent pests from infecting a site and is an excellent chance to never know how a bear looks and how dangerous it is.
Other articles about garden pests:
The larva of the bear is extremely gluttonous. From their nest goes a lot, they grow quickly. Consequently, very soon the entire site will be filled with adult pests. And they will actively spread out in the neighboring gardens.
One Medvedka can completely destroy up to 15 plants per night. Meditative larvae gluttonous larvae cause no less harm than adults. Summer residents themselves may wonder how powerful and large these insects are. But you can fight them, and very effectively. You just need to know exactly what to do.
Adult insects reach 6 cm in length. That is quite impressive size. Life expectancy is 5 years. Just imagine how many larvae they have time to bring out in such a period! If you do not consider this insect solely as a pest, then you can find it interesting and even attractive. Outwardly Medvedka resembles cancer. When a danger arises, the head is hidden in its shell. The forelegs are powerful paws, with which the medvedka can dig holes even in hard ground. Females lay eggs from which the larvae hatch. Bears, due to the presence of wings, can fly from place to place.
Signs of appearance on the garden plot
Pest is nocturnal. That is why it is not so easy to find individuals in your garden. The photo of the larva of the bear will allow you to understand who you are dealing with if you find an insect in your garden plot. The sooner you start the fight, the better. By what signs can one understand that this pest has chosen your garden? There are several:
- The seedling begins to fall completely, and if you pull the trunk, it is easily pulled out.
- When digging up root crops, you will find serious damage.
- In the soil you find out the passages, holes and sockets.
Favorite garden crops
Medvedka loves potatoes. Do not mind settling in areas where grow cereal crops. These plants help to increase the fertility of insects. Since cereals are rarely planted in the suburban areas, potato fields suffer the most from this pest. If you grow a crop year after year in one place, then the photo of the larva larvae is no longer required. Surely you yourself are well aware of what these insects are.
They can sometimes be found on their garden plot in abundance. In this case, they must be destroyed as soon as possible. The photo and description of the larva of the Medvedka allows you to figure out who really settled on your site and how to deal with this alien.
This is one of the few insects that make themselves nest. This is a small camera. Most often, masonry can be found under a layer of soil or in manure. Externally, the eggs can be confused with ant, but they are much more. After about three weeks, the larvae will come out. Usually the nests are located shallowly, about 10 cm below the surface of the earth.
Description of larva bear
Photo of the young of this insect makes it clear that they are a reduced copy of adults. The only difference is size. Of course, the larvae do not yet have powerful front paws and a formidable shell. Therefore, the summer resident may look at the new beetles with interest and not understand what kind of creatures he has met. The larva goes through several stages of molting. At first, it resembles a gray or yellowish spider, but gradually the similarity with the parents becomes apparent.
From one nest a huge number of insects hatch. Immediately after the appearance of eggs from the larvae begin to feed. Of course, this affects your landings.
If at first the remnants of the protective shell act as food, then soon the usual for adult bears food will serve as a source of food: roots, roots, lower parts of planting stems. You need to understand that tomorrow the need for food from the voracious creatures will only increase. Moreover, the number of mature individuals will steadily grow, which means that the population for the next year will increase exponentially. Therefore, every gardener should know how the larva of the bear looks like, and, having stumbled upon a group of bugs, destroy everyone at once, before they start walking around the site.
Difference from other pests
Often gardeners imagine them completely differently. Therefore, today we decided to tell you how the larvae of the bear and the May beetle are different. There is nothing in common between them. Contrary to popular belief, the white caterpillars have nothing to do with medvedas. This insect is different in that it goes through an incomplete cycle of transformation. That is, misses pupation. Insects hatch already looking like adults.
The differences are immediately visible. To see this, take a look at the photos in our article. The differences between the larva larvae and the cockchafer are obvious. The first (photo above) in the early stages of development are similar to spiders. Gradually, the similarity with adults only grows. The May beetle and its white, fat larva-caterpillar (photo below), on the contrary, are nothing like each other.
The insect moves underground, only comes to the surface at night, which is why it is so difficult to find him at the crime scene. And there, remaining imperceptible, it gnaws on roots and tubers. Of course, the above-ground part of the plant languishes and perishes, and the summer resident cannot understand the reason. Often he sprinkles planting various drugs from fungal and viral diseases. Of course, there will be no effect from this.
Larvae cause no less harm. As seen in the photo of a bear, the insect and the larva are very similar. And their diet is also not much different. The larva also begins to nibble on roots, tubers and seeds. But if there are several adult beetles at the site, then hundreds of larvae that have hatched here are in no hurry to go anywhere. Это целая армия, которая будет уничтожать ваш урожай с огромным рвением. И чем больше они растут, тем выше потребность в пище.
Можно ли хранить поврежденные плоды
Это довольно популярный вопрос, поэтому давайте остановимся на нем немного подробней. Any root crops that the bear or the larva gnawed through got too serious damage. If you dig them in the summer, then they can be used. Damaged areas just need to be carefully trimmed. But the storage of such a crop can no longer be laid.
By the way, if a sapling of an apple or plum tree begins to dry out, then you should not write off everything on mice. Medvedka with great pleasure will gnaw both the roots and the stem. Insatiable creation and destroy bulbous flowers.
Folk methods of struggle
The greatest help is provided by plowing in spring and autumn. Moreover, it is desirable to do this when the night temperatures are quite low. In this case, the nests and passages are destroyed. In the fall, hibernating insects will not have time to find new shelters. But there are a number of methods that can be used:
- If you like marigolds, then plant them around the site. Such a measure works not only against the bear - these beautiful flowers scare away other pests.
- If during the gardening process you find a pest mink, pour some oil and a glass of water into it. The insect itself must climb to the surface.
- In the spring next to the beds spread out pieces of slate and film. The soil will warm under them, and the bear will build nests here. Periodically lift them and check. Detected nests need to be destroyed.
- Soap solution and onion infusion repels pests, but soon they will return again.
What does a little bear look like?
The places where these insects settled can be recognized by the loose rollers on the soil surface and the holes similar to the wormhole exits, but smaller. Over the nest of plants does not remain, as the female gnaws all the roots, trying to make the site as warm as possible by the sun's rays. Medvedka protects her offspring, cleans parasite fungi from eggs and larvae. The larvae leave the eggs after 2 weeks.
Before becoming an adult, the larva molts 8-9 times. It is difficult to know, because the larva looks like a larva at the first age not at all as an adult insect and not as representatives of subsequent ages. The larvae of this period are light, resemble spiders, but, unlike the latter, they do not have 8 legs, but 6. They are blind and not mobile, they feed on the embryonic yolk, which they have in the goiter. After the first molt, the larvae feed on humus, then move on to the main diet of adult bears.
After 25-30 days, the larvae leave the nest, and each looks the same as an adult bear, but smaller and without wings. The larva of the first age reaches the size of 15 mm, the second - 20, the third - 25, and the fourth (pronymph) - 35 mm. Thus, by the way the larva of the bear and what size it looks like, you can determine its age. At the beginning of autumn, the Medvedok population consists of adult insects (imago) and larvae of predominantly 3-4th age.
Where does Medvedka winter?
Adult bears and larvae winter in the soil in vertically arranged passages. Adults go to a depth of 1 meter, and the larvae - up to 0.5 m. Overwintering larvae differ from adults with underdeveloped wings. After a few more molts, they become adults by the end of the second summer of their life. The number of molts depends on the climate of the place. In the more southerly regions, the molt is smaller, and development is faster.
The habitat is well-moistened soils, while it can swim, dive, and fly, and also runs fast and digs underground tunnels. It prefers to settle near water bodies in flood plains, but can live far from water, avoiding only the most arid places. Medvedka lives in all countries of Eastern and Western Europe, except the most northern regions, in all countries of Asia, in America and North Africa.
This is a very ancient insect, which can be seen even by the way the bear beetle looks like. It should be noted that it is incorrect to call it a beetle, in entomology they are called representatives of the order of beetles, and Medvedka is a representative of the order of orthopterano. Given this circumstance, we can talk about how the bear insect looks like. They appeared on Earth more than 3 million years ago and during this time they have perfectly adapted to very different living conditions.
Chemical, agrotechnical and biological methods of destruction
By eating the larvae, the bear can reduce the number of May beetles and butterflies. In the wild, it brings enough benefit that outweighs the damage done to plants. But, unfortunately, it often settles on cultivated lands, in gardens and greenhouses. It can appear and even winter in a dunghill or compost. If you use manure without letting it go, the land will be infected not only with insects, but also with weed seeds.
Since in the cultivated areas the damage from the bear is more obvious, over many centuries of farming, man has developed many different ways of reducing the number of insects.
- The use of chemicals. They are very effective in fighting insects. The use of insecticides requires compliance with all instructions, which is often ignored. But the poison that kills one organism cannot be harmless to another! Mostly organophosphate insecticides and baits processed by them are used, which are buried in the soil ("Fenaxin Plus", "Medvetoks"). In the spring, before planting plants, greenhouses use baits, and in the fall, when the harvest is gathered, and the bear is still active, they use pyrethroids for fumigation, that is, fumigating a greenhouse using substances that are safe for people and animals, but killing insects.
- Agrotechnical measures used to combat pests. These methods include techniques that create adverse conditions for pests. This method is cheaper than others and lays the foundation for organic farming. Examples include loosening and digging the soil, meeting the optimum planting time, weed control, and the use of mineral fertilizers.
- The use of biological preparations for the destruction of bears. Theoretically, they have no competitors in terms of efficiency. The basic principle is the use of specially developed drugs that cause a fungal or parasitic disease in insects.
- There is one more technological method that frightens the bearheads from small areas. On your site you can install ultrasonic “scarers”. It is necessary that they always work, otherwise the insects will return to the site.
Folk and mechanical methods of struggle
Among the popular methods of pest control are very effective methods. These include the use of decoctions of various plants, planting plants that are not tolerated by pests, the use of traps. You can bury in the ground cans filled with water at 2/3, the bear that got there will not be able to get out on their own. They do not like the smell of some flowers, such as marigolds and chrysanthemums. An interesting way to scare is to install vane turntables on the site. On thin poles you can fasten them a little. When they rotate, the vibration is transmitted to the soil, and if there is a Medvedka beetle there, it leaves the site.
The most ancient way is the mechanical destruction of the bears. Insects are manually harvested and destroyed, they dig up traps, and clean manure from pests. All of them are very effective, but very laborious and unpleasant, as the bear looks awesome. These methods are suitable for small areas.
Attraction to the site of natural enemies
The use of natural enemies refers to not very popular methods, they do not bring the same moral satisfaction as mechanical ones, but they are the most logical. Such methods include attracting birds, lizards, frogs to the site. Medvedka eats small bittern, starlings, rooks, as well as lizards and shrews. Often, all of them are perceived as uninvited guests on the site, and many of them simply need to be protected, since the benefits of their presence are obvious.
What to do if there are bears on the site
The best are ways that take into account the nature of the pest. In order to get rid of the bear, it is necessary in the spring and early summer to loosen the row spacing to a depth of 15-20 cm to detect and destroy insect nests. In the same period, you can leave dung heaps to attract females, and when they build a nest there, scatter the manure and destroy the nests. In the autumn, when Medvedka seeks shelter for wintering, digging holes 0.5-0.7 m deep in the ground, filling them with manure is effective. Such pits are attractive to them, they get into the manure, and when the frost begins, the manure must be removed from the pits and scattered on the surface of the soil. Both adult insects and larvae cannot stand the cold and perish.
When laying greenhouses, it is necessary to carefully examine the soil for the detection of adult insects or nests; it is necessary to dig traps around the greenhouse. From the manure intended for greenhouses, you need to select and destroy the bear. Knowing how the bear looks like, you will definitely not lose sight of her.
Chemical control methods
Not always listed methods allow to achieve a positive result. Or you may not have free time to apply them. You can simply go to a specialty store and purchase pellets containing insecticides. Pheromones attract a bear, and after a modern chemical, even this powerful insect will die within hours. If you find dead insects, it is best to burn them. Otherwise, they may become prey and cause the death of birds.
Instead of conclusion
Medvedka and cockchafer are terrible pests of the garden. Every summer resident should know what they look like. It is very important to start the fight as early as possible so that the insects do not have time to breed the offspring and damage a large number of landings. Today there is a large selection of chemicals that allow you to quickly get rid of a bear. Therefore, all that is required of you is to carefully consider your garden and notice signs of defeat in time.