Normal horse harness - a system of harness, strap and saddle. All items must be selected for each pet individually, based on its physique and size. Since ancient times, harness for the horse did not spare the money. Usually it was made to order, with a fit for the animal. Horse breeders can now buy harnesses in a specialty store or in the markets.
The harness consists of a yoke, a bridle, an arc, an underbelly, reins and stitches, and sometimes other elements are added. You can save money by buying a ready-made harness, but it happens that not all items fit your pet. Experts advise buying all the details separately.
Mandatory element harness - clamp. It transmits traction force to a weapon or wagon. The clamp must be worn around the neck so that it does not hamper breathing and does not interfere with movement. This element should not be too wide or long, otherwise damage to the horse's body will appear, and the pulling force will decrease. In order to hold the collar firmly and correctly, you must use a sturdy shley.
The shleya is made of leather, and provides reliable braking of the mount. You need to know the exact size of the harness that fits a particular horse, otherwise there will be scuffs. The reliability and durability of the entire harness depends on the girth, so it is made only of leather - the material does not give the horse unpleasant sensations and tightly covers the body from the bottom and sides.
The most difficult part of a horse harness is considered a bridle. It consists of fished, reins and halter on the head of the pet. The most practical is a marching bridle, which makes it possible to lead a horse with duplicated reins. You can even water it without straining it. The reins are an obligatory part of the harness. Make them both in textile form and in leather.
The nurse is used to support and secure the entire harness through the strap. She also passes a force on the horse's back. It happens lying and humpback nurse. The purpose of the cinch is to hold the saddle on the back of the mount.
The shleya holds the collar in place when the horse descends from the mountain, as well as standing up and braking. It is adjusted so that the palm is placed between the rim strap and the ischial tubercles. Shleya is made of several belts.
The crape passes through the saddle and is fastened at both ends by shafts. This element supports the mass of the arc, clamp and shafts on the back, and also transfers some of the force to the saddle. An underbelly and a petrel are essentially two ring-connected belts that wear a petal loop on the shaft.
The underbelly is another element for fixing the position of the harness. It passes under the cinch and is fixed at both ends on the shafts. The degree of raising the shafts should not be too high and low.
The arc fastens the clamp with the shafts with the help of tugs. It serves as a shock absorber for shocks and jerks. The part must be strong and elastic. The shafts are made of durable wood and must be the same length.
Types of harness
The harness must be of good quality and fit your pet. It is also necessary to know the types of harness, since their structure depends on it. In addition, regardless of the type of equipment, it should be easy and easy to repair.
Proceeding from the destination, agricultural, field and transport teams are distinguished. The latter were used to transport people and goods, so they are multi-horse. For agricultural work apply single and parokonnye harness. Outing teams are ceremonial ones, and the number of horses in them could differ.
Below we describe the different types of harness.
One-harness can be both arc and arc-free. It is intended for one animal. The first type implies the presence of an arc, supony, yoke, tugs, nurses with a cradle, a shaft, bridles with reins and shley. In the arcless version, the harness takes on the brunt of the wagon. There are also belt gorts, shafts, yoke with horse-drawn loops and bridles with reins. Its second name is a post-grapheous chubby, and it often uses short shafts attached to the saddle, and not to the yoke.
Postfromo-breathing harness is recommended for both paroknoy harness, and for single-cone. Its task is to regulate the movement of the wagon and its rotation. The main component of the equipment is the drawbar. Very often, when working with two-wheeled agricultural machines, horses are damaged due to the pressure of the drawbar on the yoke. Therefore it is necessary to wear a saddle on the horses and pull up the sidebands with a cradle. The performance of animals will increase significantly.
The combined type of team is considered typically European. In this case, many horses are harnessed (average 6-8). The harness in itself combines the drawbar with pins and shafts. It is very important to select animals for strength and growth. For example, indigenous people need strong and high, because they restrain the crew. In a pair or a troika with them are riding horses, which are harnessed by trails. They determine the turns of the wagon. Ahead of the rooted set put out horses. They, too, need to be harvested by baffles, as they set the direction of motion.
Harness for horse Zug - German invention. Designed for gears with double offset. Currently, the zugovaya harness is almost never used. In it, the horses go in single file or in pairs, one after another. In the harness Zug for couples horses used the drawbar. Two or one pair of rootstocks are harnessed to it. All other horses are portable.
What is harness for horses?
Standard horse cart consists of the following parts:
- Clamp Its purpose is to transfer traction capabilities to a cart or sled. The element should be worn around the neck so that it does not aggravate the movement and breathing of the horse. Too long or wide clamp can lead to damage on the body of the animal and helps to reduce traction. For reliable fixation of the element using a sturdy leather shlei, which provides braking.
- Bridle. This piece of horse harness is the most difficult element of the harness. It consists of udil, reins and halter. The best option is the use of marching bridles, which makes it possible to carry the animal in parallel reins. The reins can be made of leather or durable textile material.
- Girth and saddle. The presented parts of the harness are designed to hold the entire set and transfer the traction effect on the horse's back.
- Shleya It fixes the position of the collar when it is being upset, slowing down or moving the horse on an ascent. The harness element is fitted tightly so that the palm extends between the seat and the rim buckles. Shleya made of several belts.
- The crape maintains the weight of the arc, shafts and yoke and transfers part of the thrust to the saddle.
- Underbelly. This element of the harness additionally fixes the position of the whole structure, passes under the cinch and is fastened with edges on the shafts.
The arc fixes a collar with shafts by means of tugs and serves as an oscillation damper during sharp shocks or jerks.
The first types of harness for horses are known for a long time (according to historical finds, parts of the harness, found by archaeologists, date back to two thousand years BC). Horse breeders attached great importance not only to practicality and quality of the harness, but also to its beautiful design. The richer and more significant the owner of animals was, the more beautiful and bright the equipment looked.
What the harness consists of plays an important role in the efficiency of use and the influence of harness elements on the condition of the horse. In the Middle Ages, the equipment with precious stones and harness materials lost its relevance, since horses were used mostly as cargo and working vehicles.
Since the middle of the XVI century, quality and beautiful harnesses became fashionable again. This was due to the appearance of carriages and horse-drawn carriages, which required appropriate clearance.
Although horses in many areas have now replaced mechanisms and motor vehicles, their use has not completely lost its relevance. Horses help people in private households, entertainment. Animals are widely used in sports and various competitions. There are even contests for the skillful handling of a harness. Properly worn harness allows not only to increase the efficiency, but also to preserve the strength and health of our hoofed assistants.
This kind of harness for a horse or pony is quite simple in its design, but rather uncomfortable, since it is sometimes very difficult to hold a cart when driving forward. In this case, the thrust is carried out by postromok and clamp. According to experts, this type of decoration for a pony or horse must be additionally equipped with brakes to avoid damage to the horse.
The combined type of accessory is designed for use with a large number of horses - from 6-8 heads. Combined harnesses for horses and ponies are selected individually for the growth and strength of the animal. The strongest horses are always placed in front of the column. The rider must be able to handle the horses well, since it is the first two horses that determine the direction of movement.
This type of sled is irrelevant today since it was used until the 1900s. The adornment itself consists of a drawbar and post edge. It should be noted that such harness designed for four horses, so today they are almost impossible to meet.
Zug for ponies and horses is a German invention that can be used for six animals at once. As in the case of the cart harness, this decoration is almost not in use today. When using a train, the ponies are moved either in single file or in pairs. You can learn more about harness from the video.
It is important that the harness was of high quality and best fit the horse in its size. In addition, it should be easy and easy to repair.
The harness is different. According to its purpose, it is divided into:
Agricultural, in turn, is divided into single-cone and parokonnuyu.
The transport is designed to carry large weights, so it usually involves harnessing several horses (two, four, six, and so on).
Exit harness refers to the front, so the number of animals in it may vary.
All varieties of harness are also divided into one-con, parokonnye and mnogoloshadnye.
For agricultural work most often used single-harness. When pairing the horse can stand next to each other, and can - and one after another. Consider these varieties in more detail.
Horse Bridle Structure
This kind of harness is very simple, but extremely inconvenient. This is due to the fact that during the forward movement it is difficult to keep the cart. This type provides for the transfer of traction from the yoke directly through the liner, without the shaft.
Because of their absence during braking, the cart often drives a horse, so it must have its own brake.
Tavern type of harness
Provides harness immediately four horses standing next to each other. Currently rare, most often in staged shows. Such harness refers to the post-firing-breathing. With the help of the central dyshl, the central pair of animals is harnessed, and with the lines attached to the wagons - lateral (right and left).
The harness is a purely German invention. In this harness - six horses (with double carry).
Now this option is practically not used (except in various historical shows and when shooting movies).
The essence of the train in a train is that the horses in it go one after the other in a single file, either in pairs or singly.
This option refers to the post-air-breathing, when one or two pairs of indigenous animals are harnessed, and the rest become portable.