Quick answer: 1-4 years on average.
The most common sparrow at the moment is the so-called house sparrow. Today it is one of the most famous birds that lives near the dwelling place of man. The house sparrow is even more famous than the bluebird. To date, there are 16 subspecies of house sparrow.
This is a small bird whose body length does not exceed 15-16 cm. Weight is only 25-35 g. The color of the plumage is brownish-brown. It is noteworthy that males are different from females - they have a dark spot on the chin and throat, while the females above the eye can see a gray-yellow stripe.
Sparrow is found both in the city and beyond. It is well adapted to life next to a person, because here you can always find food for food. The food ration for the most part consists of seeds of agricultural crops, as well as of berries.
Sparrows are extremely prolific - they lay eggs two or three times a year. They settle down both in pairs and whole colonies. Of course, not far from the dwelling of man. Couples are often formed for life. As for the duration of the latter, it is small. You can often find information about how the sparrow lived for 11 years and this is the real truth. But, as you might have guessed, this happens very rarely. Most sparrows do not even live to 4 years, some of them die even during the first winter, therefore the average life expectancy of sparrows is 1-2 years. Of course, at home the life of a bird can increase significantly.
Sources of information about the life of birds
When reporting information on the age limit of birds, biologists use the results of observations in zoos and data from ornithological stations. Specialists ornithologists, ringing migratory birds and fixing from year to year regular migrations of tagged individuals, keep records, making it possible to determine the average lifespan of the birds. And although as many observers, so many opinions, the average figures rarely diverge.
The value of freedom in the form of life in the wild is emphasized solely by man, who preserves the diversity of species of the planet created by nature. Capturing in the form of a cage or an open-air cage of the zoo is a guarantee of a quiet and full life with periodic supervision by a veterinarian. Human guardianship cancels the laws of natural selection, and birds beat records, living for 10-20 bird centuries, released by him in the wild.
The most famous facts about the life expectancy of birds
A relatively short life distinguishes the birds of the order of hens, or galliformes, grouse, pheasants, grouse, turkeys, and others. On average, their "age" is about 14 years. Among the champions are domestic hens, occasionally crossing the 20-year threshold. Quails - an alternative to chickens for the supply of eggs to the table people - live for 5-6 years. Members of the duck family - geese, ducks, swans, geese - also have many chances to live up to 2 decades. Even in the wild, ornithologists observed cases of catching 18-20-year-old mallards. Statistics marked 70-year life expectancy in the zoo of the mute swan. But in general, ducks and chicken differ little in age limit.
The existence of the birds of the American continent of the blue mosquito and hummingbirds is short - 4 and 8 years respectively. The short age of the wild pigeon is 3-5 years, while in the pigeon houses and aviaries of zoos the birds live for 15 and even 30 years. Eight years live rooks, 9 - common swallow and polar owl, whose appearance is known by Boucle, the postman of Harry Potter. In captivity, such owls live to be 28 years old. Owns in the same conditions can live for 60 years. Up to 24 years old, the canaries are singers in their cages. House sparrows live extremely little - 3-5 years, and most of them die at 1 year of life. However, the maximum period was fixed under favorable circumstances - 23 years. .
The larger the bird, the higher its longevity potential. Up to 25 years old, the emperor penguins live, the largest of the flightless seabirds. The rest of the penguin family is allotted from 7 to 20 years. A few years more in captivity live emu and cassowary - up to 40 years old, pink hummingbirds and cranes can "mark" this anniversary at large. Among African ostriches there are 75-year-old specimens against the usual 40-year-old background. Flightless ratites of kiwi, endemics of New Zealand, rejoice in wingless existence for 50-60 years. Parrots Jaco, cockatoo and red macaw are often rolled over half a century - this is also indicated by the observations of ornithologists.
Origin, species, where they live
Sparrow-like birds of the weaver family lived in Africa, then they penetrated Europe through the Mediterranean. Another version of the origin of the sparrow - in the north of Europe, its ancestors were seen.
Types of sparrows set:
Moreover, the Indian and the white-headed, contrary to the opinion of the sitting sparrows, are migratory.
The companion of human life from antiquity, the sparrow is unique in that several of its species can live on the same territory. This, for example, urban and field. Urban live under roof covers, in the attics, and rural near, in parks and squares.
During the day, they can gather in common flocks, and only a specialist will distinguish a city sparrow from a rural one. The city is larger, and in the field, the males and females look almost the same. In urban males brighter.
How to multiply
Sparrows conditionally monogamous. Some create a family only for the season, while others of the same species can live in a pair all their lives.
Sparrows nests, remembering their relationship with weaverbirds, can build very neat and sloppy. And they can generally settle in someone else's nest. For example, expel swallows and even climb into abandoned mink gophers.
They settle in wells, in openings between houses, and field sparrows are so cunning that they can build a nest next to an eagle. Sometimes they even stick their homes to a large eagle's nest in a secluded place and live peacefully under the protection of a formidable neighbor.
Having laid from 5 to 10 eggs, the female incubates them, the male carries her insects and worms. As soon as the chicks appear, both parents are already looking for food.
At the age of 10 days, the sparrows leave the nest, and then the female can start laying eggs again. 2-3 come to light over the summer, sometimes 4 offspring.
What to eat
The adult sparrow initially preferred vegetable food: grain, seeds, fruits and berries. Males wore small insects and worms only to females, and then both to feed the chicks.
Due to the fact that sparrows side by side with a man live for many centuries, they become omnivorous. They eat what people feed them in the cold. Basically, bread. Live on food dumps, eat any edible waste. You can read more about what a sparrow eats in another article.
The more urbanized cities are, the more the diet of the city sparrow changes, because there are less and less trees, plants and insects there.
The field sparrow has retained food addictions, it is a thunderstorm of gardens and fields. And if there are no crops nearby, then field sparrows get food in the meadows and along the edges of the forest.
In the spring, they can cause great damage to the trees, pecking buds. There is no fat reserves in the sparrow's little body at all, so it must be constantly fed.
Very dangerous lack of food for the sparrow in winter. Hypothermia and hunger entail a quick death. In the summer, a sparrow cannot be hungry for a long time either - he is constantly wasting energy and dying if he does not eat more than a day.
Sparrow's enemies, its lifespan
The most vile enemies of the sparrow in the city are cats. All birds of prey hunt him. People also kill sparrows, especially in rural areas, defending sowing, and strike at their numbers in cities, using chemicals. Many sparrows are poisoned by snow-melting mixtures in winter.
The average life of the sparrow is difficult to establish. In urban and rural areas, too many enemies and negative factors shorten the life of these birds. On average, a sparrow lives with a man only for about 9 months. But in the wild, sparrows can live 10 or even 20 years.
Benefit or harm
The answer to the question of whether a sparrow is useful or harmful, is not definite. Sparrows, first of all, destroy insect pests and save trees. And because in the cities they are often protected. But the sparrows raids on crops and gardens can completely destroy the crop.
Neighborhood with sparrows forces people to fight them if there are too many birds. On the other hand, in cities they need to be cherished and fed. After all, in addition to the sparrows there are almost no insectivorous birds eating beetles and caterpillars.
Watch a video about a beautiful sparrow.
Birds are dying or not breeding, not only because of lack of food, Unreliability of shelter for the nest or other reasons already listed. Their death can be caused by accidents, from one individual or another, often not dependent. Hail, storms, hurricanes, in which birds fall over the seas and oceans, are the most serious danger. Once, after a strong hail in Central Asia, in two days, 2,257 corpses of pink starlings were collected. In second place it is necessary, probably, to put fires and floods causing the destruction of nests. The nest can be flooded, blurred, accidentally dropped from the bushes by grazing animals, destroyed by a hurricane, etc. Adult birds sometimes break on various obstacles. In the United States, when catching birds of prey, specimens were found with ingrown bitches or spikes sticking out of their bodies. Many times I have seen predators pursuing prey, as they say, headlong. One can only wonder how they managed to maneuver between the branches. Naturally, such tacking does not always end safely.
The death of sedentary species can cause severe frosts. However, in places of wintering migratory birds suffer even from frost. In particular, it is difficult for inhabitants of reservoirs to form ice in the coastal strip of seas and lakes. In such cases, the birds are forced to stay in deep-water areas, where, as a rule, they starve. The difficult situation repeatedly developed on the Azov-Black Sea winter quarters, when to save the birds organized feeding from the air. The rare causes of death must be attributed to the tsunami, volcanic eruptions, etc. It must be said that in comparison with other animals, birds suffer from such disasters much less. Hunger, disease, predators, accidents - you never know what happens to the birds. A lot of trouble lurks them during their lives. But what is its duration?
Age of birds
The average life expectancy of birds is small, and in small species it is much lower than that of large, especially predators. This conclusion can be reached without a special study of the duration of their life. In fact, if the number of chicks that came out of the nest is only half the number of eggs, and well-known big tits, for example, there are two eggs of seven and five eggs a year, then a couple of adults after the breeding season may have six young. This means that by the beginning of the next season, with the survival of children and parents, there will be eight birds. Well, if the number of tits is on the same level, then two birds should remain. Therefore, the mortality rate is 75 percent. As a rule, young people die most of all in the first time after their departure from the nest. In adult specimens, the average annual mortality is characterized by the following figures (from D. Lack):