The spotted eublefar, the photo of which you can see in our article, prefers to lead a twilight or nocturnal lifestyle. In the daytime he finds refuge in the stones.
Its diet consists of arthropods, their larvae, various insects, newborn mice, smaller lizards. It often happens that geckos eat their own young. The spotted eublefar is social, settles in groups. They consist of several females and one male. Males protect their territory and drive their relatives out of it.
Interestingly, the spotted eublephar contained in captivity, may outwardly differ from its fellow living in natural conditions. Experts say that this is a consequence of the selection of the gecko.
The main difference between eublephar from other lizards - spotted color. The sizes of these animals are small. The length of their body does not exceed 20 cm. Rarely, but larger individuals are also found (up to 30 cm).
Eublefar spotted has a thick massive tail, in which it naturally stores moisture and nutrients. The lizard is able to easily drop it, then it grows back, but narrower and shorter.
The head of this gecko is large, having a triangular shape. The body is covered with small scales, among which there are bumps. Paws are thin, having five fingers. Eyes bulging, elongated, in shape a bit like a cat.
Under natural conditions, the body of this lizard is colored yellowish-gray with dark spots. On the tail there is a drawing. Usually it is transverse rings.
When kept in captivity, the color is different. This is due to breeding work. Today, more than one hundred varieties of color are registered.
Eublefar spotted: content, nutrition
This gecko is quite unpretentious. Therefore, its content is not difficult. In feeding, these harmless and even cute-looking lizards can manifest a real predator instinct, since in nature they prey on insects. They can be given crickets, cockroaches, grasshoppers, mice, so that the eublephar will satisfy his hunter instinct.
The gecko is fed once a day. After three months you can go on once in two days. For several days, the gecko may refuse to eat, but this should not disturb the owner, as he has a supply of nutrients in the tail. In the feed, you must sometimes add calcium powder.
The spotted eublefaru requires a small terrarium, a dwelling of 50 × 40 × 30 cm is suitable for one or two animals. Sand should not be used for soil, as the lizard can swallow it with food. It is preferable to use small pebbles, pebbles.
Eublefar spotted needs to be heated. For him, the optimum temperature during the day is 31 ° C, at night - 27 ° C. The most important thing is not to let the temperature drop sharply. In this case, your pet may lose its appetite. It is desirable to constantly maintain the humidity of 40-45%. To do this, from time to time should be sprayed terrarium.
Since eublephars are twilight animals, they do not need illumination. You can install a mirror lamp with a power of no more than 25-40 watts, which will simulate solar heating, but only at one point of the terrarium. Solar radiation animals need for the synthesis of vitamin D3. You can buy a special lamp for reptiles that emit ultraviolet light.
However, there is an opinion of experts that by providing the lizard with underheating and adding the necessary vitamins and minerals to its feed, you can do without UV. Today, there are many vitamin complexes with vitamin D3, designed for eublefar.
The use of ultraviolet light is shown for medicinal purposes. For example, with the development of rickets in reptiles, when vitamin D3 is poorly absorbed, and to stimulate reproduction. In the case of rachitis eublephar, it is enough to irradiate 10 minutes a day, and to stimulate reproduction, it is necessary to regulate the daylight, changing it in a big way. The longer the day, the more active the lizards mate, so in this case, the length of daylight hours can be adjusted to 12 hours.
Today, the spotted eublephar is so domesticated that it does not have an urgent need for wintering, for the same reason it does not fall into hibernation. Wintering is needed to stimulate reproduction (activity in the male). Therefore, if you do not breed these lizards, then do not strive to ensure that they certainly hibernate.
It must be remembered that only a healthy, well-fed animal tolerates wintering without problems. At home, it is enough to reduce the temperature very smoothly, reducing heating time. The length of daylight hours should be reduced to 8 hours. These changes in the life of the gecko must last at least two months. At the peak of wintering, the average temperature should be +18. +22 ° C.
Accordingly, the gecko's feeding should be gradually reduced. The rest period is about two months. Then a gradual exit from this state is carried out in the reverse order. Do not forget about vitamins and minerals.
Under natural conditions, in the middle of winter, mating season begins in eublephar, which decreases by the end of May. At home, you can maintain the same mode, but it is not necessary.
At sexual maturity, spotted eublephar reaches 12 months. They begin to multiply immediately after hibernation. And eggs are laid 3 weeks after mating. As a rule, in one clutch there are 1-2 eggs. Up to 10 clutches per year.
The incubation period depends on the air temperature in the terrarium. Cubs appear in 40-65 days, provided that the temperature is regulated. From it also depends on the sex of the cubs. At temperatures below 26 ° C, females hatch, and at temperatures above 31.5 ° C, males are born. In nature, the young appear no earlier than 100 days. They weigh 2-3 grams, the length of newborn eublefar - 80-85 mm. They have a brownish color with light stripes. By the age of eight months, they become colored in the same way as adults.
Spotted eublefar most often lives in Asian countries and prefers rocky areas. However, people who are lovers of reptiles, prefer gecko.
Lizard can only lead nocturnalism. Natural instincts induce to hide in other people's burrows.
Life expectancy in nature ranges from five to ten years, and the males always live longer than the females. At home, the life expectancy increases to thirty years.
Advantages and disadvantages of keeping an eublephar at home
- Gecko has a friendly character.
- Care implies lightness and unpretentiousness.
- There is an opportunity to buy and use a small terrarium.
- There is the possibility of easy breeding in captivity.
- A certain level of humidity should be maintained in the terrarium.
- Eublefar will always be awake at night, therefore not everyone will be able to see his pet active.
Appearance may be different in natural and domestic conditions. In many ways, this is due to the influence of breeding.
Any gecko should have a spotty coloring.
Dimensions indicate that the eublephar is a small lizard: body length is 20 centimeters, but in some cases representatives can grow up to thirty centimeters.
The tail is most often massive and thick. Moreover, in nature, the tail is required to retain moisture. The lizard can drop its tail due to injury, being sure that it will grow back. However, the subsequent tail will be shorter and narrower. The lizard has a large and triangular head. It may be noted elongated and bulging eyes resembling a cat. The body is covered with numerous small-sized scales. Pupillary scales stand out among them. The lizard has thin paws with five fingers.
The color may be different, because it depends on the conditions of the lizard:
- Natural factors cause a yellowish-gray body color with dark spots. On the tail you can see the transverse rings.
- Domestic individuals have a completely different color. In addition, the selection allowed to increase the number of variations to 100.
The main features of the content
What should be the care of the gecko at home?
Individuals are distinguished by unpretentious nature, so that any potential efforts are eliminated. The most important is feeding. Lizards have a sweet and harmless character, but at the meal, the predator instinct manifests itself. Under natural conditions, the gecko hunts for various insects.
So, how to feed a homemade lizard?
- The best choice - crickets, cockroaches, grasshoppers, newborn mice. If the terrarium has enough free space, the eublefar can enjoy the hunting process.
- From the diet it is desirable to exclude insects of very large sizes.
- Power is desirable to carry out every 1 - 2 days. However, up to 3 months to feed the lizard home should be daily.
- A gecko may refuse to eat for several days. However, this circumstance should not lead to panic. The tail of the lizard contains a large amount of nutrients.
- Sometimes it is necessary to add calcium powder to the meal.
Knowing what and how to feed your pet, you can contribute to maintaining its health and guaranteed long life at home.
version of the house for gecko
Which terrarium is perfect for a domestic lizard?
- It is advisable to use a small terrarium. At the same time, you need to provide enough space for an active lifestyle.
- The optimal size for 1 - 2 individuals - 50 to 40 by 30 cm.
- Sand should not be used for soil, as it may be accidentally swallowed with food. The best option - pebbles and stones of small size.
- Terrarium is preferably heated. During the day the temperature should be 29 - 31 degrees, at night - a couple - three degrees less.
- Sharp temperature fluctuations are unacceptable, as otherwise the lizard will feel bad.
- Optimum humidity of air should not exceed forty five percent. For this you need to carry out spraying.
Basic selection rules
How can I choose an eublephar? What factors are desirable to take into account, trying to ensure the good health of the lizard?
- The tail should be thicker. Moreover, if the thickness should be as large as possible. This primarily refers to adolescents and adults. Kids have thin tails, which should only "gain momentum". Thick, long tail indicates a good state of health eublefara. It is in this part of the body that there are nutrients that must be stored for stressful and difficult situations. Functions of the tail can be compared with the hump of a camel, which contains fat reserves for heat, drought, famine. In order to understand how well the care of the eublephar is carried out, it is necessary to monitor the tail, because a decrease in its thickness indicates a constant stress, malnutrition, and illness. It should be remembered: when moving to a new house near the lizard, the appetite may deteriorate and the tail will lose weight, but subsequently the animal will get used to the conditions and everything will normalize.
- One terrarium can not be suitable for several males. This must be remembered if you plan to breed a pet. Ideal - it is a careful examination of sexual characteristics.
- Gender eublephar can be determined only from five to six months. For this reason, the first gecko can be bought earlier, but then you need to buy an adult and know that there will not be 2 males in the terrarium. If a single content is assumed, gender is no longer important, as males and females have a beautiful appearance and cute character.
- It should be noted that a large terrarium is required if you need to contain several females. Only with this approach can we not only guarantee comfortable conditions for the lizards, but also the possibility of their peaceful life together.
- Breeding an eublephar requires the purchase of an additional terrarium. It is important to remember: the male should not be on a permanent basis with the female, because otherwise the females will have to constantly mate, and breed, to undermine their state of health.
- When choosing an eublephar, it is necessary to make sure that there are no small scratches and abrasions. Similar skin lesions are indicative of clashes between individuals, which are included in one group. Scratches and abrasions can heal quickly if treated with healing ointment. In any case, you need to pay more attention to the lizard and try to understand the features of its nature.
- It is advisable to carefully examine the eyes and eyelids, after which you can go to the fingers of the paws. You should make sure that there is no old skin left after molting. This skin is harmful to the pet, because it must be removed with water.
- The lizard complex deserves attention. The abdomen should be plump, but not swollen, as otherwise pregnancy or illness may be suspected. Rickets, which the gecko often suffers, manifest by thinness, thin neck, lack of a thick tail, apathy and lethargy, twisted paws, wobbling when walking. The presence of hanging sides indicates obesity. With such deviations in health, it will be necessary to take into account more nuances in order for the content to be favorable for the pet.
- In young and adolescents, as they mature, the color often changes, so you need to be prepared for the fact that the initial color can drastically change.
A gecko must be healthy, beautiful and friendly.
The most important questions
What should be the content of geckos?
- The terrarium should have a size of 40x60x40 centimeters. Large and tall house is not desirable to choose.
- Temperature control needs to be controlled. It is important to remember: at night, it is desirable to turn off some lamps, not allowing the temperature to drop to 20 degrees. Moreover, sudden drops can lead to pet diseases.
- Gecko needs ultraviolet. For this reason, you need to use ultraviolet lamps with a marking of 10%, ensuring that they will burn 12 hours a day.
- How to feed insectivorous lizards if they live at home? The diet should consist of a variety of insects of small size. However, only flour worms will not work, since, if they are often fed, there is a risk of liver obesity.
- How often should a gecko be fed? The optimal scheme - from five to ten insects for feeding. When sleeping, the lizard needs to remove crickets and grasshoppers, which can damage the skin of the lizard.
- It is important not only to feed lizards regularly and correctly, but also to give them vitamins and mineral supplements. In order to fully feed the young one, you need to use special mineral powders.
- How to decorate a terrarium? Required several shelters, pond. The most important thing is to exclude sharp objects that can be injured.
- The terrarium should be with the ground, with the exception of fine sand and chips.
Remembering what should be care and observing important rules, you can be sure: the gecko will appreciate good health, a long life, friendliness and become a true friend.
Content in the terrarium
For one gecko or a pair, 50 liters is enough. Of course, a larger volume will only be better, especially if you plan to breed them. The cover glass on the terrarium can not be put, since the eublephar is not possible to climb on smooth surfaces, they have undeveloped suckers on the legs like other types of geckos. However, if you have cats and dogs at home, it is better to cover the terrarium, as they are a serious danger to geckos. Well, do not forget that crickets and other insects can also escape from it, and you hardly need them in the house.
Several sexually mature females will get along well together (if they are about the same size), but the males are pugnacious and will fight. A male and several females will also get along, but it is better not to keep them together until they reach sexually mature sizes (approximately 45 grams for both male and female).
If you purchased a young couple, and plan to keep them together, then it is better to grow separately. Why? Males grow faster and larger than females, this is especially true if you grow them together. The larger male is more active and aggressive, he eats faster, often takes food from the female, or simply terrorizes her. In addition, he used to become sexually mature and begins to mating with a female, which is often not ready. Often females weighing 25-30 grams lay eggs, but they are still too small. This shortens their lifespan, is stressful and reduces potential.
If you grow several females together, remember that sometimes one of them grows faster and can take food from companions. If the sizes are very different, it is better to plant them in different terrariums.
An example of terrarium arrangement
Juveniles are best kept on plain paper, at least until they are 10-12 cm long. Эублефары очень активные во время кормления, и зачастую могут глотать грунт во время ловли насекомых. А у молоди это приводит к проблемам с пищеварением и даже смерти, так как кишечный просвет у них значительно уже чем у взрослых особей. Впрочем, вы может кормить их в отдельной емкости, как на видео ниже.
Что касается песка для взрослых, то тут мнение разделились, одни вполне комфортно содержат гекконов на песке, другие говорят что он опасен. Видимо, дело в размере песчинок, важно использовать очень мелкий песок, 0.5 мм или меньше. Но, если вы все же опасаетесь за здоровье, то вполне подойдет галька, мох, специальные коврики для рептилий и бумага.
Все рептилий нуждаются в среде, которая позволит им выбирать места с более высокой или низкой температурой. В один момент ваши эублефары захотят погреться, в другой поостыть. Лучший вариант для них это нижний обогрев с помощью термоковрика. Располагать его нужно в одном углу террариума, для создания температурного градиента. The temperature in a warm corner is about 28-32 C, and if at night it does not fall below 22 C, then the heating can be turned off. It is imperative to control the temperature with the help of two thermometers located in different angles. Cooling, as well as severe overheating are fraught with diseases.
Heated stones or other heat sources are often sold at pet stores, but you should not buy them. They do not have the regulation, you can not control the temperature, and for the animal, they can cause burns.
Leopard eublephars are usually not active during the day and do not need heating lamps or UV lamps. They prefer to hide in a dark shelter during the day and a bright light for them is a source of stress. Some owners, using bright lights, brought their geckos to the state in which they refused food and died. Use dim, diffused light and lower heating. Do not use bright lamps, and use UV lamps for treatment only.
Leopard geckos are active at dusk and in nature they hide under stones and driftwood during the day. So hiding in the terrarium are required. This can be a variety of items: cardboard boxes, pots, brand shelters, coconut halves, whatever.
The main thing is that it was spacious enough. In the terrarium it is better to arrange several shelters, one in a warm corner, the other in a cool one. So the gecko will be able to choose the temperature he needs. In addition, we need a so-called wet chamber for molting.
origin of name
The Latin word “eublefar” is literally translated as “having good eyelids”, it is a combination of the Greek words Eu in the meaning of “good” and blephar - “eyelid”. The Latin word macula is translated as “spot” or “vice”, an animal has received this name because of the natural spotting of the skin. Leopard reptile called for the fact that the spots on his body are similar to the pattern of a wild cat (leopard) and a special "cat" expressive look. The species was described in 1854 by the British zoologist Edward Blyth.
Author photo: Matt Reinbold, CC BY-SA 2.0
What does a spotted leopard eublefar look like? Description and photo
Spotted leopard eublephars are medium-sized lizards. The maximum length of their body from the tip of the muzzle to the base of the tail is 15.8 cm, together with the tail it is 30 cm. Females are slightly smaller than males, but this is not always the case. The maximum weight of the male reaches 80 g, the females - 70 g. The average size of the females is 18-20 cm, the males - 20-28 cm. The average weight of the females is 50-70 g, the males - 60-80 g.
Head animal large, pointed, connects with the body of a short thick neck. At the end of the muzzle is a pair of nostrils. On the chin are large plates. On the sides of the head are visible holes of the auditory canals, covered with eardrums.
Eyes lizards are large, oval and prominent, which is typical of nocturnal animals. Pupils in the form of a slit with a straight edge, arranged vertically. Unlike many geckos, the spotted leopard eublephar has mobile eyelids and a thin, flashing membrane. In the back of the upper eyelid there are eyelash-like outgrowths.
Author photo: Christian von Faber-Castell, CC BY 4.0
Mouth surround, its corners are curved slightly upwards. For this, the eublephar is often called the "smiling gecko." This “good mouth” is filled with 100 small teeth, which are intended for holding and short chewing of prey. The teeth are on both jaws and are attached to the inside of the bone. This connection is fragile (pleurodont), so the teeth are alternately replaced with new ones every 3-4 months, with young growing teeth next to the old ones.
Author photo: Eduardo Santos, CC BY 2.0
Body The spotted leopard eublephar is covered with soft to the touch, but very durable skin. In nature, it protects the lizard from injuries that can cause grains of sand, sharp stones and dry clay. On top of the skin is covered with small scales, among which are large cone-shaped scales. These "warts" perform thermoregulating function. They contribute to the accumulation of heat and prevent its loss.
The body is thick and slightly flattened. Compared to the viviparous and fast-moving lizard, the eublephar seems clumsy. He moves slowly, waving from side to side.
Author photo: Kerstin Franke, CC BY-SA 3.0
Tail reptiles are thick in the middle, spiky, decorated with 2-3 lilac rings. It serves as a storage of fatty tissue. Since spotted leopard eublephars live in arid areas, they use this supply during the dry period as a source of water and during a famine as nutrients. Lizards may discard all or part of their tail. Especially often this happens with young individuals. From fear, pain, or to protect them from persecution, they have to contract specific muscles, which contribute to autotomy.
Autotomy is the dropping by an animal of some limb or organ.
In young lizards, the tail grows quickly, in older ones the regeneration process is delayed for a long time. The new tail will not be as long as it was before, but it will be thicker. It differs in color, scales on it are smaller, and tubercles are absent.
If in nature tailing occurs before hibernation, the animal is left without “strategic” reserves, it can get sick and even die. Usually, the eublephars return to the place where they have lost such a nutrient part of their body, and eat it.
The tail of this eublephar was dropped and then regrowed. Photo author: Unibrow1994, Public Domain
Legs reptiles of medium length, cylindrical, with five extended rounded fingers at the end, deprived of “suction” pads. Subcutaneous plates have tubercles. All fingers of each paw are rounded, equipped with thin sharp claws, which help the animal to climb vertical soft surfaces, such as branches and leaves.
Along the edges of the fingers there are no denticles (sandy skis), characteristic of lizards living in deserts. The axillaries of the fore legs of the spotted leopard eublefar are transformed into deep skin pockets, their purpose has not yet been determined.
Author photo: Vassil, Public Domain
Young reptiles painted in yellowish or solid colors with dark stripes on the body and a dark brown "cap" on the head. On the cap in the eye area and near the crown there is a light pattern that looks like a bird's footprint. By 8 months of life, eublephars become adults, and then their coloring changes.
In mature animals, a pattern of brown spots is placed on a light gray or light yellow background, more saturated on the body. On the underside of the tail and head, the spots are less bright, and on the abdomen there are none at all. The combination of numerous dark brown spots and light thin gaps between them creates a mesh pattern on the head. A light band, more or less free from spots, extends along the spine. The abdomen of the leopard eublefar is pale pink, the sides are white.
Author photo: Jerome66, CC BY-SA 3.0
But how do they work? senses lizards:
- The leopard eublephar has a well-developed ear. It allows you to detect prey during the hunt.
- See night animals only black and white colors. But the vision helps them to memorize the place of egg laying and constantly return to it to leave a new offspring.
- Eublephar taste buds are well developed: animals distinguish the sweet well, but are slightly sensitive to the bitter.
- The sense of smell is less developed than other senses, but at a short distance eublephar can find objects by smell. Lizards can breathe freely, even if there is food in the mouth, since reptiles have internal nostrils located near the pharynx. In addition, lizards have a vomeronasal organ, or Jacobson's organ, which is located on the upper palate. This is the peripheral part of the additional olfactory system of some vertebrates. Thanks to him, reptiles smell the food in the mouth, and also recognize the smells that surround them. To determine what is around, the lizard often sticks out the tongue, the signal from which enters the olfactory cavity (into the Jacobson organ).
- There are assumptions that eublephars are oriented along the Earth’s magnetic field in the same way that birds can do.
- When in danger, the eublephar makes a hissing sound.
Author photo: Iterat, CC BY-SA 3.0
Spots of spotted eublephar
Healthy animals molt regularly. They shed the upper layer of old skin, which comes off in chunks or in its entirety, starting from the head. Kids molt once in 2 weeks, adults - every 1-2 months. A few days before molting, the skin of the spotted leopard eublephar becomes whitish and translucent.
Reptiles almost always eat their skin. There are two explanations for this: the first is that they do it so as not to leave traces of their stay, the second is that they fill the nutrient deficiencies after molting.
If all the conditions of detention are met, then molting and reproduction of spotted leopard eublephars will proceed normally. With an unsuccessful shedding on the body of the animal, pieces of inseparable skin remain, which means that the terrarium is not moist enough. To help your pet, you need to soften the problem areas with warm water, and then the eublephar will try to remove the remnants of the skin itself. In case of difficulty, gently help him with a cotton swab. If molting problems occur regularly and the humidity in the terrarium is normal, then this may be a symptom of the disease.
Author photo: prilfish, CC BY 2.0
How to determine the sex of the spotted leopard eublephar?
Turn the lizard upside down and look at its preanal pores and hemipenis (external paired copulatory organ). The preanal pores are dark points located close to each other in the form of an arc or a Latin letter V. They are located on the ventral side of the body above two small tubercles (which are hemipenis).
- Males preanal pores are more pronounced than in females. This difference becomes noticeable when the individual reaches puberty. At the same time, only males have hemipenis.
- In females preanal pores are tiny, almost imperceptible. Hemipenis in female individuals is absent.
Left male, right female. Taken from the site www.thebeardeddragon.org
Left male, right female. Author photo: Kerstin Franke, CC BY-SA 3.0
List of morphs of the spotted leopard eublephar
This species of lizards has been living in terrariums of people all over the world for more than 40 years. As a result of selection work and as a result of random mutations, about 100 different colors (morphs) of leopard eublefar were derived. There are lizards of gray, orange, yellow, black, white, pink flowers. Their body can decorate the pattern of stripes and spots, as well as monophonic forms. Reptile eye color changes as well: black, marble, orange, ruby. There are also white spotted albino eublephars, which cost quite a lot of money.
Photo by J.W. Connelly, Public Domain
Below is a list of leopard eublephar morphs:
- Banana Blazing Blizzard
- Banana blizzard
- Bell albino
- Bell blazing blizzard
- Bell hybino
- Bell mack snow
- Black hole
- Black night
- Black pearl
- Black velvet
- Blazing blizzard
- Bold stripe
- Halloween Mask
- High yellow
- Hyper melanistic
- Las vegas albino
- Line bred snow
- Mack snow
- Mack snow albino
- Mack Snow Blizzard
- Mack snow enigma
- Mack Snow Fasciolatus
- Mack snow ghost
- Mack Snow Patternless
- Mack Snow Patternless Albino
- Mack Snow RAPTOR
- Marble eye
- Midnight blizzard
- Murphy Patternless
- Patternless stripe
- Raining red stripe
- Rainwater albino
- Rainwater Blazing Blizzard
- Rainwater hybino
- Rainwater Mack Snow
- Raptor creamsicle
- RAPTOR Enigma
- Red stripe
- Snake eyes
- Snowglow raptor
- Super giant
- Super hypo
- Super Hypo Tangerine
- Super Hypo Tangerine Carrot Tail
- Super nova
- Super RAPTOR
- Super snow
- Super snow albino
- Super Snow Albino Enigma
- Super Snow Blizzard
- Super Snow Enigma
- Super Snow Enigma Eclipse
- Super Snow Patternless
- Super stealth
- Tangerine tornado
- Texas albino
- Tremper albino
- Tremper Blazing Blizzard
- Tremper hybino
- Tremper Mack Snow
- Tug snow
- White and yellow
- White side
- Wild type
Below are pictures of some morphs of the spotted leopard eublephar:
Black night spotted eublephar. Taken from the site www.reptilesmagazine.com
Tremper albino Spotted Eublephar. Taken from the planetexotic.ru site.
Spotted Eublephar Tangerine. Taken from the planetexotic.ru site.
Spot Eublefar Normal. Taken from the planetexotic.ru site.
Spotted Eublephar High Yellow. Taken from the planetexotic.ru site.
What eats spotted eublephar in nature?
Eublefar is a carnivore. He notices and eats only live, mobile prey:
She hunts small mammals, often pups, eats lizards, including young spotted leopard eublephars, chicks, and small blind snakes.
Having noticed the object of the hunt, the eublephar rises on its paws, sneaks up and with a sharp lunge grabs the animal by mouth. Immediately before the throw, he slowly leads his tail from side to side.
He drinks water like a cat, lacquering her tongue, or licking dewdrops from different surfaces.
Author photo: MOs810, CC BY-SA 3.0
Where do spotted leopard eublephars live?
The habitat of the spotted eublephar is exclusively Asia. It is found in the north-west of India (Rajasthan, Ajmer, Punjab, Jammu), in the east of Iran, in Pakistan, in the east of Afghanistan (CARRIÓN et al. 2003). It settles in dry hot conditions: in the stony foothills, in the steppes on clay-crushed soil and in places overgrown with perennial shrubs (Latin. Zygophyllum). It is found in the mountains up to 2500 m above sea level.
Leopard Eublefar is active at night and at dusk. During the day, he rests in shelters: among stones, in caves, in natural holes or made by other animals. In the early morning hours he takes sun baths. Ultraviolet rays are useful for the digestive functions of his body.
Lives "harems" of several females and one male. The male protects the occupied territory from the encroachment of other applicants for the role of the father of the family. During the fights, eublepharis can bite off pieces of meat from the sides, tear off tails from each other and eat them. Rarely, but it may end in the death of one of the rivals.
The optimum temperature of the environment, the most favorable for the life of the lizard, is in the range of 26-42 ° C. At home, spotted eublefar prefers a soil temperature of 20-24 ° C. In the habitats of the species, the seasonal temperature may fall below 10 ° C, at this time the number of arthropods significantly decreases, and then the lizard falls into a state close to anabiosis. During this period, the animal consumes substances stored in the tail. Spotted leopard eublephar sleep for about 2 months, from December to February.
Author photo: rbrausse, CC BY-SA 3.0
Species of Spotted Leopard Eublephar
Conventionally, there are 5 subspecies of spotted leopard eublephar, of which only one is recognized by all scientific communities. Animals of different groups differ in size and number of scales on certain parts of the body.
- Afghan spotted leopard eublefar (lat.Eublepharismaculariusafghanicus)(Börner,1976) previously considered as a separate species. This is currently the only recognized subspecies. He lives in East, Southern Afghanistan and Northern Pakistan.
It is slightly smaller than the other subspecies in size, its maximum length from the muzzle to the tip of the tail is 158-170 mm, the weight of the reptile ranges from 35-55 g. The color of the dorsal part of the body of adults is bright: straw yellow or pale yellow, often with a touch of pink. On this background are scattered blue-black spots, sometimes merging into lines and forming a network. In some individuals, a white stripe runs from the head to the base of the tail. On the head mesh dotted pattern. Young Afghans are animals with a brown or black back and 2-3 yellow cross stripes on it. A white stripe passes through their neck in front of the ear, dropping on the upper lip.
Author photo: Baronak, Matt. A & M Geckos. Taken from the site: www.leopardgeckowiki.com
- Eublepharismaculariusfasciolatus(Günther, 1864) lives in Southeast Pakistan.
Author photo: Cadolini, Alberto. A & M Geckos. Taken from the site: www.leopardgeckowiki.com
- Eublepharismaculariusmontanus(Börner, 1976) It is found in southern and central Pakistan.
Author photo: Idestig, Lotta. Gekko Galaksen. Taken from the site: www.leopardgeckowiki.com
- Eublepharis macularius macularius(Blyth,1854) - nominative subspecies. He lives mainly in Pakistan, and is found in North-West India.
- Eublepharismaculariussmithi(Börner, 1981) - endemic to northern India.
Enemies of spotted eublephar in nature
Lizards have a lot of enemies. Many birds hunt them: storks, herons, sarich, eagles, loonies, hawks, kestrels, secretaries, owls, kites, owls, magpies, crows. No less terrible enemies are various snakes, many of which feed only on lizards. Mammals also eat them: hori, badgers, foxes, civets, mongooses, hedgehogs, etc. Varans eat smaller lizards, including eublephars.
Reptiles escape from an attack by fleeing or motionlessly standing still, hiding. The latter tactic is especially effective against snakes that hunt only mobile prey.
Eublephars can defend themselves by taking the pose of intimidation or attacking. They bite the enemy and seize his skin with a death grip.
In addition to fading, passive methods of protection also include:
- autotomy (tail rejection). After falling away, the tail of the eublephar may twitch for another 30 minutes, diverting the attention of the predator and allowing the lizard to slip away,
- waiting for the most active for predators of the day period in shelters,
- adaptive and patronizing coloring.
Author photo: Yochimu, CC BY-SA 3.0
Spotted eublefar at home. Content, breeding and care
In the terrarium contain one eublefara or a family of males and 2-5 females. The number of females per male can be increased to 20, but it is better to keep them in separate groups of 5-6 individuals. It is impossible to settle several males together in a small area. They will divide the place and fight. It is impossible to start only a pair of males and females, since males are too active, the female will not withstand such pressure and will not live long.
Для содержания пятнистого леопардового эублефара нужны:
- террариум с необходимым количеством домиков-укрытий,
- грунт на дно террариума,
- background temperature at 27-30 ° C,
- air humidity 40–50%,
- insects contained in the feed,
- vitamin and mineral supplements,
- water tank (drinking bowl)
- wet compartment (closed chamber with wet moss or coconut) for molting.
Tula city zoo researchers experimentally proved that for health and longevity of eublefars the following conditions are necessary and sufficient:
- In a horizontal terrarium size of 60x30x20 and a volume of 36 liters contain a family of 6 individuals (1 male and 5 females).
- Instead of soil use newsprint or paper towels. Paper change is made daily - it is hygienic and allows you to monitor the health of the eublephar.
- A plastic box with a round upper entrance of 45x12x5 cm is suitable as a refuge. A layer (2-3 cm) of coarse-grained vermiculite, which is not a favorable environment for the life of insects, is placed inside.
- Daily spraying provides a moisture level of 40-50%.
- Heating with heating coils is carried out locally: under the bottom on one side of the terrarium. During the daytime, in a warm corner, the temperature rises to 35 ° C, in a cold one - to 24 ° C. In the summer of the spiral off, then the temperature drops to 20-23 ° C. Reptiles need wintering to mature their germ cells. In artificial conditions produce a decrease in temperature to 15 ° C for 2-4 weeks. Air conditioning is produced all year round.
- Young lizards are irradiated with ultraviolet from a distance of 50 cm 2-3 times a week, adults 1 time. The duration of one session is 5 minutes. In the summer, artificial irradiation is replaced by walks in the fresh air lasting from 30 minutes.
- The water in the drinking trough is replaced with a clean one every 1-2 days.
Females lay eggs inside the shelter in vermiculite. This soil is better than sand. It does not damage the egg shells. But you can not leave eggs there. With subsequent laying, the female can dig out and eat them. Eggs are kept in an incubator, adjusting the temperature to obtain animals of the desired sex. 2-3 days before hatching masonry well sprayed with water. Then the leathery shell softens, which makes it easier for the young to go outside.
Young eublephar during the first week can not eat, they begin to eat a couple of days after the first molt. When the baby eats its own discarded skin, the digestive organs will begin to work. This can be judged by the excrement left by him. Then the work of his gastrointestinal tract begins.
Photo author: J. Polák, CC0
How and what to feed a domestic leopard eublephar?
Adult eublephar is fed 3 times a week. First of all, they are given 3 types of crickets, 3 types of cockroaches, zophobos - beetle larvae Zophobas morio, locust, rare larvae bronzovok Pachnoda marginata and once a month live 3-5 day old nude mice. In the summer they use natural food - locusts and grasshoppers. Eating spotted eublephar may include moth larvae, mealworms.
To compensate for the lack of calcium, vitamins and trace elements, use supplements ReptiCal, Reptolife. They are sprinkled with food before each feeding. Reptisol vitamins are given to the animal once a month. As the main source of calcium, ground egg shells are used with the addition of a small amount of activated carbon. In the breeding season, once a week, lizards receive a solution of calcium chloride with the addition of a few drops of a solution of vitamin D3, vitamin B12 and glucose. The same mixture is used to grow young eublephar to prevent the development of rickets.
Feeding spotted eublefar is best done in the morning or evening, when it is most active. Low-fat feed can be given as much as the pet can eat, as each animal is individual. No need to worry that he will move. Eublepharis just can't eat much. The amount of food and meals depends on the age of the domestic lizard, so it should be fed as follows:
- Up to a month - 1-2 times a day, 1-2 small crickets at a time.
- Up to 3-4 months - Once a day, 2-3 medium crickets at a time.
- Up to half a year - every other day, 2-5 large crickets at a time.
- Up to a year - 2-3 times a week, 3-6 large crickets at a time.
- After year -2-3 times a week, 5-10 large crickets at a time.
Photo author: George Chernilevsky, Public Domain
What plants are planted in a leopard eublephar terrarium?
Plants eublefaru not needed. It does not feed on them, forage insects for an animal, as a rule, are given from tweezers, and not bred in a terrarium. But if you want to decorate the dwelling of the lizard, then you need to choose plants compatible with leopard eublephar.
The presence of flora improves not only the appearance of the installation, but also stabilizes the microclimate in the terrarium, for example, regulates the fluctuation of air humidity in it.
Thorny species should not be planted in the terrarium: cacti, euphorbia, as the pet's skin is quite thin and vulnerable. The following plants have proven themselves in a pet tank:
- species havortiya
- small species of agave
- in the cool corner crassulas will take root well,
- A non-populative hatiora forest cactus will grow with regular spraying.
The presence of plants imposes certain requirements on the level of illumination. It is better to plant them in separate portable pots. The soil in the pots should be covered with large pebbles so that the female does not rummage in it during the laying of eggs.
Author photo: William Warby, CC BY 2.0
Diseases of the spotted leopard eublephar and their treatment
Home Eublephars are sick, like all animals on Earth. And it is expensive to treat them, as herpetologists are very few. So that the lizard does not suffer, it is important to take measures to prevent possible diseases. And if the symptoms appear, it's time to think about how to help the animal. The following are some of the diseases that eublephras have.
This is a disease of females of reproductive age, when fertilized or parthenogenetic eggs do not go out, remain in the oviducts and are mummified. In this case, there are common inflammatory processes. The disease has the following symptoms:
- discoloration of cloaca: purple or brown subcutaneous hemorrhages (hemorrhagic spots) or pale (anemic) skin color,
- anorexia - weight loss, belching food,
- weakness of the hind limbs, swelling in their hip,
- calcium deficiency
- Calcium deposition on the walls of the oviduct as a result of kidney malfunction due to hyperparathyroidism (endocrine system disease), characterized by impaired calcium and phosphorus metabolism,
- low temperature animal
- poor moistening of the substrate for egg-laying or a small amount of it,
- wrong lighting periods,
- a sharp change in temperature and humidity,
- lack of physical activity of the female,
- aggressive competitors
- infectious diseases,
- endocrine disorders
- the pathology of the eggs themselves,
- transfer of injuries during pregnancy.
- massage of the abdomen, to facilitate the release of eggs from the oviducts,
- lubrication of cloaca with sterile gel,
- warm baths
- the introduction of drugs prescribed by a doctor
- surgical removal of eggs.
This disease is caused by the simplest organisms of the coccidia subclass, of the genus Cryptosporidium. Transmitted through food, water, items of care from lizards and insects. Diagnosed only with laboratory examination of smear. The disease is not infectious for humans and other animals, since cryptosporidia is species specific. Other animals and humans have “their own” coccidia. Symptoms of cryptosporidosis in eublephar:
- diarrhea, often with a mixture of mucus and blood, from this stool is red,
- progressive exhaustion,
- in the case of neglect of the disease - a lethargic condition.
The treatment of this disease has not yet been developed. With the help of drugs, the acute phase is transferred to the chronic. But the animal will remain sick and will carry the pathogen.
- do not buy unhealthy animals
- all new reptiles keep in quarantine for at least 3 months.
Occurs with the wrong content of the animal. This is a bone disease caused by a lack of vitamin D3, without which calcium and phosphorus are not absorbed in the body. Manifested in the curvature of the limbs, the deformation of the fingers, uncharacteristic method of movement. With rickets, the eublephar belly drops to the ground. Additionally, you may receive:
- weakness and trembling of the limbs
- violation of the bowels,
- tail weight loss
- frequent fractures
The disease is treated with the help of artificial or natural ultraviolet radiation, the administration of drugs with vitamin D3, fluorine and calcium. Prescribe the dosage of drugs can only be a doctor.
For prophylaxis, animals are given Reptilife or Profender. But only after consultation with herpetologist. Parasites multiply actively if the reptile organism is weakened. Symptoms of the disease:
- bloated belly
- liquid feces with a sharp odor,
- weight loss.
Removing the eublephar from the domination of parasites is combined with the general disinfection of the terrarium. It changes the soil, washed dishes and objects, treated with disinfectant.
This is a genetic disorder of the morph of the spotted leopard eublephar called Enigma. It is inherited and may occur in other morphs that have received this trait from one of the parents. Deviation Enigm can be compared with autism in humans. Animals “go into themselves”, spin in one place, throw their heads back, which leads to muscle spasms and collapse on their backs, they cannot catch food. At the last stage, which often occurs as a result of stress, the eublephar does not respond to objects, cannot focus on them, often frightened, and panics. His body is trembling, sometimes the reptile cannot even swallow food, spit up undigested food and rapidly lose weight. During this period, eublefar completely depends on the owners. It is necessary to feed him with tweezers or by force. But this does not always help. Food may not be absorbed in the body.
With the right content, Enigma syndrome does not progress.
Author photo: Medeis, CC BY-SA 4.0
Interesting facts about spotted leopard eublephar
- British vet Brendan Carmel absolutely forbids kissing reptiles. He points to the need to thoroughly wash hands after contact with them and to prevent their secretions and excrement from entering the wounds. All reptiles excrete salmonella from the intestines, which quickly colonize the skin of the animal. These bacteria produce the strongest poison in nature. Its amount on the skin of reptiles is especially dangerous for children, people with weakened immune systems and patients with diabetes mellitus.
- During the wintering period, eublephars do not lose weight, but become thicker.
- Defending themselves, a lizard can cling so tightly to the attacker that it can only be removed from the body by breaking its jaw.
- Eublephars recognize the smell of the host and get used to it. Allow yourself to be carried and stroked. But in the hands of strangers they will behave restlessly.
Author photo: Fritz Geller-Grimm, CC BY-SA 2.5
Eublefar: Gecko Features
The spotted Eublefar (Eublepharis macularis) or leopard gecko belongs to a rather extensive family of Gekkonidae (chain-footed). Because of its peculiarity, this peculiar name this family received is easy to move around and lead more vertical than terrestrial lifestyle. This is due to the physiological structure of the body of these reptiles and unique devices on their fingers.
The spotted eublephar is distinguished by a very calm and docile character, which is combined with a pretty and very fragile appearance. Lizard looks at the world as if smiling affably. Absolutely not aggressive, he quickly gets used to his owner and takes interesting habits.
There is no smell from him, does not cause allergies. Some pets are so attached to the person that downright asking for pens. In the morning, in a warm human palm, a gecko can doze off. And it seems that he is about to purr like a cat.
As a terrarium animal, an eublephar can easily suit families with young children. In this case, you should not even think about such oddities as bites or any other injuries caused to animals by humans.
Despite the fact that in nature they are nocturnal animals, in the terrarium the gecko quickly gets used to feed during the day and is always visible.
The appearance of the "leopard"
The length of the eublephar reaches 30 cm (this, together with the tail). He, like other geckos, has a rather large head and, unusual for lizards, a thick tail. The body is covered with small scales.
The color of the eublepharos is mainly yellow with various variations of dark brown spots and hillocks. Young individuals also have white colors on their bodies. Although there are albino forms.
The paws are thin, of medium length, with five elongated and rounded toes. Under the forelimbs are the so-called armpits - leather pockets, the function of which is not yet clear to scientists. There are thin claws on their paws, with which lizards can move on soft surfaces.
The eyes of the leopard gecko are similar to the cat - large, convex and elongated. Unlike other members of the Gekkonidae family, the spotted eublephar has moving eyelids, which gives this animal an even prettier look.
Habitat spotted eublefara spreads from Afghanistan, Pakistan and to western India. The lizard prefers to settle in the rocky areas of the foothills and sandy areas, but is most often found in semi-fixed sands. In open desert areas, the animal feels uncomfortable and avoids them.
How to feed spotted eublephar?
In nature, "leopards" mainly hunt insects, but sometimes they can profit by their own kind, only smaller ones, relatives.
Favorite food spotted eublefarov at home - crickets (brownies, banana, two-spotted). The Turkmen cockroach (Shelfordella tartara) has also recommended itself as a food object, since it is very soft and easily reproduces without requiring special conditions. Eating it, eublefar even squints with pleasure.
Marble (Nauphoeta cinerea) and Madagascan larvae (Gromphadorhina portentosa) cockroaches are well eaten. You can also include a flour worm (Tenebrio molitor) in the diet of eublephar. Before serving, it is advisable to feed insects with various greens, and then sprinkle with reptilian vitamins or calcium powder (this is especially important for females during the breeding season). Some individuals will not give up the newborn mice, but often do not give them. Do not forget that a gecko is still an insectivorous reptile. Various fruits, berries and other vegetation spotty eublepharis do not eat.
Feeding the leopard gecko is very exciting. It is advisable to feed the food with his hand or tweezers: this way the reptile will receive its portion and will not swallow pebbles during the hunt, and you will be sure that there are no cockroaches that could escape and lead a wild life in your apartment. Moreover, the eublefar will be happy to take the proposed feed in this form. In addition, hand-feeding will speed up the process of taming an animal. "Hunting" for food, the gecko gets up on the extended paws and briefly taps its tail.
In the summertime, various orthopterans (Orthoptera) from grasshopper (Tettigoniidae) and locust (Acrididae) families can be caught in the meadow for lizards. This should be done away from agricultural fields and gardens, as insects can be poisoned by pesticides. If you feed grasshoppers, then before feeding large individuals, crush your head, because the grasshoppers have strong jaws that can injure your pet.
Eublephar older than a year are fed 2-3 times a week. For one feeding, an adult gecko can eat an average of 5 crickets.
Feeding regime for young people is different. Quite small geckos under the age of 1 month are fed 1-2 times a day - they need only 1 cricket per feeding. Lizards from 1 to 3 months old are fed once a day - they give 2 crickets. Between the ages of 3 and 6 months, eublephars are fed every other day - an average of 1-3 large crickets per feeding. And for animals from six months to a year it is enough to give food 2-3 times a week in the amount of 3-4 large crickets at a time.
In the terrarium there must be a drinking bowl with water. It is good to use in this case a Petri dish, which has low edges. Water needs to be updated at least every other day.
The content of the eublefarov in the terrarium
It is possible to contain eublephar as one by one, and in pairs. Under no circumstances should several males be placed in one terrarium - fights in this case are simply inevitable. Fighting for the territory eublefary can up to the death of one of the competitors. Lizards themselves are not aggressive, but exclusively territorial, they do not tolerate outsiders. If there is a desire to contain more than one gecko, it is better to purchase one male and several females. Since the males are too loving, it is recommended to settle with the gecko not one friend, but at least two. He will always terrorize the one and only “wife” with his strangers. By the way, with the creation of certain conditions, the eublephar reproduces relatively easily in captivity.
Для одной особи достаточно террариума размером 40x40x40 см, для пары — 60×40×40 см, а для группы от трех до семи ящериц – 100×40х40 см. Поскольку эублефары ведут в основном наземный образ жизни, высота террариума может быть даже немного ниже — 35 см.
Террариум рекомендуется использовать стеклянный, а не пластиковый, поскольку леопард будет царапать его когтями и со временем пластик станет матовым. Террариум должен быть хорошо вентилируемым с плотно закрывающимися дверями.
Температуру необходимо поддерживать на уровне 27-31° С., а в самом холодном углу террариума температура должна быть около 24° С.
An infrared lamp, as well as a heating cord or a stone, can act as heating devices, although a variant with a heating lamp is more preferable.
Humidity in a room with a lizard can vary from 40 to 55%. It is achieved by spraying or placing in the terrarium drinkers, having a large area of the bottom. During the molting of lizards, the humidity needs to be increased. To do this, it is enough to put a wet cloth folded 2-3 times into the terrarium. Animals sometimes fall on it to soak old skin.
Great importance in the content of the spotted eublephar is the lighting. Be sure to install an ultraviolet lamp (for example, Hagen "Repti Glo 5.0").
Since eublefar is a night view of geckos, he will need shelter during the day. As such, fit well-fixed pieces of bark, stones, bamboo tubes. Also a shelter can be a humidity chamber - for example, a ceramic pot with a lid or a food container, in the wall of which you need to drill a course for your lizard.
Eublephars shed periodically. At first they begin to fade, then whiten completely. When the head to the tip of the nose becomes white, the lizard begins to rip off the old skin itself, under which you can see fresh and bright. The whole process of molting can take 2-3 hours. Shedding is more successful with high humidity. If the humidity in the terrarium is not high enough, molting is bad (on the tail, body and fingers), and this is especially dangerous. The remaining old skin, which when dried, tightens, can lead to the death of the animal. If even the smallest particles of old skins remain, it is necessary to intervene to the terrariumist, soak up the remnants of the old skin with a swab and remove them. On average, young spotted eublefar molts every 25 days.
The house of the eublephar can be decorated with live plants - they will also contribute to the preservation of moisture.
The choice of soil should also be taken seriously - sand is not suitable for this purpose, since dust, getting together with sand, can cause complications in the respiratory and digestive systems of the lizard. Small gravel is also not suitable - eublephals constantly swallow small pebbles. It is necessary to use stones of such size that the gecko could not swallow them. At the bottom of the terrarium can also lay a plastic mat, imitating weed.
Place at least one large stone in the terrarium and, if possible, a snag. When the stone is heated during the daytime, the lizards are going to warm themselves, and rubbing about the snag during shedding. Leave the bark with bark, since the eublephars have straight, claw-less fingers without extended plates, which do not allow them to climb on slippery surfaces. For disinfection and disinsection, scald the log to boiling water and treat with potassium permanganate solution. If there is not enough heat, the geckos will climb onto the snag closer to the light bulb.
Eublephar - animals are clean, for the toilet they choose one of the corners of the terrarium and will go there all the time, which, of course, makes life easier for the terrariumist. For cleaning, it is enough to replace dirty stones in this place with new ones.