Recently, domestic farmers began to show an increased interest in the poultry industry. The most popular Indian runner - a duck that eats simple food and does not try to fly away. In addition, it is famous for its juicy, tender and incredibly delicious meat. After reading today's article, you will learn about the main features of the breeding and maintenance of these birds.
Brief historical background
Scientists could not reach a consensus regarding the origin of this bird. According to one of the most common versions, its ancestors are penguin ducks. The history of the Indian runner began with the breeding of this species.
Initially, these birds spread throughout the territory of the East Asian states. In the XIX century, they were brought to England. In Russia, the Indian duck runner, the photo of which is presented in the article, appeared only in 1926. Initially they were considered exotic birds and were bred exclusively in zoos.
It should be noted that these birds differ greatly from their relatives. They have a cylindrical elongated body, narrow chest, long thin neck and straight legs. Externally, the Indian runner (duck) is more like a penguin. The average mass of an adult individual is about one and a half or two kilograms.
The short wings of the bird fit snugly to the body, covered with white, black or brown plumage. Among them there are also individuals of a blue, light willow, silver-wild, pea and yellowish-white color.
As mentioned earlier, Indian runners are ducks, distinguished by a variety of colors. For example, trout-colored individuals are easily recognized by the presence of a white open ring adorning the green neck. This bird has a beautiful red breast, dark back, gray wings and a willow beak.
The drake of the so-called wild color can be recognized by the emerald head and red-brown chest, which is connected to the neck with a white ring. Such individuals have dark gray wings and a black and green tail.
The males of silver-wild color are easily recognizable by the red-brown breast. They have snow-white wings, a grayish belly and a black head with a greenish tint. As for the females, their body is covered with yellowish plumage.
Conditions of detention
It should be noted that the duck breed Indian runner can not live without water. If there is no possibility of free walking in the poultry yard, it is necessary to organize a swimming pool.
Regular water treatments allow feathered birds to keep their feathers clean. Otherwise, they begin to lose productivity dramatically. Indian runners are not afraid of light frosts. They can even walk through shallow snow.
These birds are good in that they can be kept on the free pasture. There, without any problems, they find enough food for themselves. Indian runner (duck) with pleasure eats fresh greens, insects and snails.
It is recommended to feed the birds, which are contained in the house, with nettle, dandelion leaves, green salad, spinach and dill. It should be borne in mind that representatives of this breed differ in their excellent appetite. They are especially partial to duckweed. It can be collected in open ponds.
These voracious birds can not be limited to the stern. Their diet should be varied. In addition to the greenery, the root vegetables, vegetables and animal feed should be present in their menu. On private farms, these birds often give waste from the master's table. In addition, the Indian runner (duck) should receive cereal feed. It is desirable that the diet was attended by wheat, corn, oats, barley and peas.
In winter, it’s enough to feed the birds three times a day. But during the egg-laying period they are transferred to four meals a day. It is important to ensure that birds do not overeat. But at the same time they can not be kept on a strict diet.
Immediately, we note that these birds quickly reach reproductive age. Six-month individuals are already fully capable of reproduction. The main feature of this process is that there should be five females per drake. This ratio is considered optimal for breeding offspring. By the way, there is another nuance. To create a breeding herd, it is desirable to choose ducklings born in the spring. Unlike other birds, runners are able to mate even at sub-zero temperatures.
It should be noted that these ducks grow quite quickly. Weekly babies weigh about half a kilo. And by the age of one month, the chicks are almost the same as adults. Indian runner ducklings are quite a funny sight. They are incredibly mobile and because of this they got the funny nickname “running bottles”.
Indian runner (duck): reviews
According to farmers breeding these birds, the latter are characterized by high egg production. With a sufficient amount of feed, their productivity does not fall even after the onset of cold weather. To the birds regularly carried, females should not be allowed to fatten. Experienced poultry farmers recommend adding special vitamin supplements to the diet of these individuals, which can significantly increase productivity. Interestingly, cholesterol is completely absent in the protein of their eggs. Plus, these birds are considered an excellent source of very tasty dietary meat, which is rich in all sorts of useful vitamins and trace elements.
Also, farmers breeding Indian runners, noted that the representatives of this breed are quite thermophilic. In addition, they rarely get sick. The conditions of keeping these individuals differ little from those in which the Peking ducks live. Among the mandatory requirements that must be met by those who plan to grow the representatives of this breed, include the availability of free access to the reservoir and the presence of a well-insulated house.
Before you purchase a stock of ducks, you need to decide on priorities. For meat production buy livestock with meat productivity. Experts recommend considering broiler breeds. A distinctive feature of broilers is the rapid growth of young animals. At 60 days the weight of the individual reaches the body weight of an adult bird. Use young growth at the age of 50-60 days.
To obtain eggs, individuals with egg or meat-producing productivity are acquired. Layers do not differ in high body weight. The weight of an adult drake is not more than 2 kg. Females weigh less. Bring the eggs to the duck will begin in 6-7 months, depending on the breed. In birds of egg productivity, puberty comes faster. Than individuals of meat-breeding breeds. Which ducks are best for breeding at home?
adult drake weight 3.5 kg,
The weight of an adult duck can be more than 6 kg.
Wild domesticated birds do not gain much weight even with good care. The body weight of an adult mallard or pintail will remain approximately the same as before the taming of birds by humans. How much does a wild duck weigh? Mallard drake can gain no more than 2.8 kg by the fall.
Ducks are not so big. On average, their weight reaches 2 kg. Fattening birds may be obese. Wild birds are not kept for receiving meat from them. It is a decoration of the yard, but an artificial reservoir must be built on the plot. Without water ducks will not live long.
When selling young stock at the age of 2 months, there is no need to equip a pond for them. They develop well with cell content and bedding. For adult birds, it is recommended to build an artificial lake in the compound. Replace it can a large container of water. In summer, the bird cools in it. In winter, ducks clean insect plumage in water. The containers are installed on a pedestal of concrete so that the litter in a room or in an open-air cage is always dry.
Considering these meat or egg-meat breeds, you should pay attention to the mulardov. When updating livestock contact the manufacturer. Females are barren. Parental herd of mulardov not make up. Juveniles are sold in 50 days. To update the livestock from the manufacturer buy eggs or ducklings.
Domestic duck mulard
Care and maintenance of the bird
Ducks and meat and egg breed unpretentious to the content. When breeding birds choose one of two methods of keeping: on the litter or in the cage. Podvortsy often use a combined technique. In summer, the bird is placed in an open-air cage on a glade with lush vegetation. In winter, the livestock is brought into the room, have individuals on the litter in the common pen or are placed in cages.
For ducks build a house. It has rows of cells or enclose open-air cages. In the poultry house must install equipment: feeders, drinkers, lighting, ventilation are carried out. House for ducks warmed. In the northern regions in the room provide heating. In the poultry house must be observed crowded birds, clean and fresh air. When growing livestock, consider the following points:
- on 1 m 2 place no more than 3 individuals, large crowding often becomes the cause of infectious diseases and exacerbation,
- cell size is 70 * 70, height is not less than 35 cm, no more than 3 heads are placed in it,
- for young animals, the maintenance rules are different: there can be no more than 10 heads per 1 m 2,
- when keeping livestock on litter, the floor is covered with hay or straw, the litter is at least 10 cm deep, the first layer is slaked lime, 0.5 kg per 1 m 2,
- in the cells, the floor is made of fine mesh, a pallet is installed under the grid, litter, feathers and dirt are collected into it,
- set feeders of a certain size, for 1 individual should be 8 cm,
- similar rules are established for drinking bowls, 3 cm is given for 1 head,
- in the house for ducks the optimum temperature is maintained - 7-14 C, humidity 70%,
- young animals provide a temperature of 22 C, humidity 65%.
After the implementation of the young in the house maintain technical quarantine. At this time, spend a total disinfection and cleaning. Before placing ducks in cages or on the litter, the house is aired, troughs and troughs are treated with an antiseptic. The duration of the technical quarantine is at least 20 days.
What to feed broilers?
Broiler thoroughbred ducks are fed on the farm with combined feed, keep them in cages. For young stock using the starting version. From the age of one month a mixture is used for teenagers. The last 3 weeks the young are fed with a finishing mixture. Bird necessarily give plenty of drinking water.
On farmsteads, at home apply a combined diet. It is suitable for flooring livestock. Feeding is carried out 3 times a day. Morning and afternoon ducks give succulent feed. In the evening, young animals eat grain mixtures filled with mineral additives:
- in the first 10 days - the main part of the feed is green grass. It is given 20 g. Herb is mixed with bone meal, cottage cheese, boiled egg. Each ingredient is added to 3 g. Sour milk is added to the mash, 5 g. Grain mixture is prepared separately. It includes ground barley, 1.5 g, bran 5 g, fish meal 0.5 g, yeast 0.2 g. Chalk and cake add 1 g each,
- the next 10 days (up to 20 days) gradually introduce the potatoes. The diet consists of a grain mixture, 60 g. The mixture is prepared from barley, corn, peas, oats. Greens give 30 g. Boiled potatoes - 20 g. Continue to give yogurt, 10 g and cottage cheese 8 g. 3 g of sunflower oil cake, 15 g of bran, 0.4 g of yeast, 1 g of bone meal, 2 g of chalk are introduced into the grain mixture. Ducklings begin to give gravel, 1 g per head,
- 21-30 days - cereal mixture 85 g, 50 g greens, 40 g potatoes. Cottage cheese give 10 g, yogurt 20 g increases the portion of bran to 30 g, cake up to 8 g. In the cereal mixture add 2 g of chalk, 1 g of baker's yeast, 1.5 g of bone meal. Begin to give salt, 0.2 g,
- till 50 days the domestic duck eats grain 110 g, greens 70 g, potatoes 60g. Duck bran eat 35 grams, oil cake, 15 grams. 5 grams of chalk are added, 2 grams of bone meal, 1 grams of salt, 2 grams are put on the head,
- up to 70 days - a portion of the grain mixture is 140 g, greens 80 g, potatoes 80 g. Bran are injected 40 g, cake 20 g. Continue to give yeast and salt. The amount of chalk is increased to 6 g, bone meal to 3 g.
This diet will allow broiler ducks to gain a live weight of more than 3 kg. If the region has an unfavorable atmosphere for any disease in poultry, the veterinarian may prescribe the use of antibiotics. It is recommended to carry out the soldering with potassium permanganate once a week. Vitamin mixtures can be added to food or water.
What to feed an adult bird?
If it is decided at the compound to breed egg or egg-meat varieties of ducks, then the fattening of the young stock continues for up to 6 months. Then the bird begins puberty. She transferred to an adult feeding ration. It will depend on the number of eggs that the duck brought. From 2 months of age or from 70 days of the birth of a duckling into the world and before the first laying for livestock, prepare the following diet:
The individuals of this breed are smaller than the others like ducks. Outwardly, they really resemble penguins:
- the body of the birds is narrow, elongated, in the shape of a bottle,
- thin long neck
- legs straight.
Runners have different colors:
- Wild. Females of this color wear brown feathers and a yellow beak. The drake has a green beak. The same shade of the neck, head and tail. Reddish breast and gray wings.
- Silver. Males of this color are white wings, black head, brown breast and silver belly. Females can be distinguished by yellowish wings.
- White. Differ in light yellow beaks.
- The black. In such ducks, the color of the beak is dark green.
You can also find khaki birds, blue birds and ducks wearing a two-tone coloring.
Characteristics of birds and their behavior
The birds themselves are quite small. Adult runners usually weigh 1.5-2 kilograms. Females are slightly less drakes. In this case, the ducklings quickly fatten. Already in the first month they catch up with adult birds in weight and size.
According to the reviews of poultry farmers runners are very mobile and shy. They constantly run around the yard, and with great speed. But ducks do not like to scream, the voice can be heard if the bird is scared or asks for food.
Breed orientation and egg production
Indian ducks are an egg breed. In the year of the females by modest calculations bring 200-250 eggs each It is believed that they rush better than chickens. Record holder among laying runners can give to owners 300-350 eggs per year.
It is not advisable to breed for the sake of meat because of the small weight of the bird. However, the meat of such a duck is considered a delicacy. It is very juicy and tender.
Indian runners have been excellent laying hens. Under favorable conditions, proper care and a balanced diet, females of this breed are able to lay eggs year round.
Productivity 1 duck per year:
- Minimum -150 eggs.
- The average is 280 eggs.
- Record - 365 eggs.
Eggs are noticeably different from chicken. They are larger in size and larger in weight about 65-80 grams. As a rule, have a light blue or greenish color. The shell is thick, dense. However, the main difference lies in the composition of the egg, in which cholesterol is completely absent, which makes Indian runner's eggs a dietary product, useful for people with a tendency to atherosclerosis. In addition, eggs are characterized by high nutritional qualities. Valued by cooksas an excellent ingredient for the preparation of desserts, pastries and other dishes.
Due to these advantages, runners deservedly occupy the podium among the egg breeds of ducks.
From the point of view of obtaining meat products, these ducks can not compete with other poultry. They do not gain much weight: females are about 1.5–1.7 kg, males are 2–2.2 kg. The minimum live weight is compensated by the quality of the meat. The Indian runner has also managed to distinguish himself from the others. Its meat has no characteristic fishy smell, typical of a waterfowl. It is tender to the taste, low-calorie. Weight gain goes very fast - for the first two weeks of life, the duckling is gaining one and a half kilograms, slightly yielding to adult individuals.
The best start for breeding Indian runners in the household there will be a flock of 5 individuals: 1 drake + 4 females. Birds better to buy in the fall. Then the appearance of offspring can be expected with the onset of spring. When choosing ducks should pay attention to their appearance. Representatives of this breed are characterized by a cylindrical body with an elongated neck, a plump belly, a fluffy short tail. Eyes and legs are parallel. From a distance, the silhouette of an Indian runner resembles a large bottle of champagne. They are often compared with penguins and, colloquially, called "penguins".
Males of Indian runners behave very actively, therefore more than 80% of eggs are fertilized. Females have recommended, as caring hens. 90% of eggs hatch from clutch. However, before allowing the duck to sit on the eggs, it should be borne in mind that it will lose its productivity for 2 months.. In most cases, eggs are taken and placed in an incubator.
Для насиживания под одну самочку помещают не более 10-15 яиц. Птенцы появляются через 28-31 день. Утята быстро растут. В течение первого месяца догоняют взрослых особей по весу. В возрасте 4-5 месяцев молодые самочки готовы откладывать яйца. Выявлена необычная закономерность: бегунки черной окраски начинают нести яйца зимой, and whites - in summer. Drakes reach sexual maturity by 6 months.
Indian farms are bred by many farmers and households. The owners are pleased with their poultry house and give the Indian duck runner the best recommendations for the breed.
Duck Indian runner is an unusual bird, distinguishing from other breeds of domestic duck with its high body and extraordinary coloring. Her homeland, supposedly an Indian subcontinent, was found on the Indonesian islands of Bali. Although the word “Indian” is present in its name, there is no reliable evidence that it originated from India itself.
This duck has a long history, as evidenced by stone carving in the ancient temple of Javan. This indicates that a species of this duck existed in Indochina 2000 years ago. People in that area have been breeding ducks for hundreds of years. They taught them to feed in the rice fields. There they searched for grain, weed seeds, insects, larvae, snails, small reptiles, etc. The duck gained mass popularity in Europe and America at the end of the 19th century, due to high egg production. At that time, it was called the "penguin duck" because of the unusual vertical orientation of the body.
Only in the mid-20s of the last century, these birds appeared in Russia. Then representatives of this breed were kept in zoos as rare exotic birds. Today, a variety of these ducks are grown on farms to produce eggs and succulent gourmet meat.
Attention! Thanks to the selection of the Indian runner and Peking duck, the Kuban duck was born, carrying many eggs and differing in fleshyness.
Feature and description of the breed
The Indian runner is not a fastidious breed of domestic ducks, ideal for breeding.
It has the following features:
- A thin body and a long neck, which provoked a comparison with a bottle of wine.
- Thin head with tall eyes looking straight.
- The legs are located far behind the hull, which leads to a vertical manifestation of the rock carriage. Some ducks are upright when they are agitated.
- Their height ranges from 50 cm in small females to about 76 cm in higher males.
- Drakes have a small curl at the tip of their tails, and ducks have flat tails. It is very difficult to identify ducks and drakes until they become fully mature.
The nature of the birds - good-natured and obedient. Birds are active, constantly in a hurry.
The family of these birds is an excellent breed of domestic ducks, convenient in maintenance and bringing up to 250 eggs per year. Some individuals can even carry 300 eggs per year. Eggs vary in color, but often have a greenish-white color. The bird meat has a delicate and juicy structure, due to which it is deservedly considered a delicacy.