A warmed winter chicken coop is needed by farm owners to maintain a good level of chicken health and egg production throughout the year.
The construction of a warm chicken coop has a number of rules that relate to the choice of material for construction, the method of pouring the foundation and the design features and arrangement of such a chicken coop.
Requirements for the winter coop
When choosing a site for construction, remember that the chicken coop should be located:
- On a hill
- Away from the road,
- In a quiet and peaceful place,
- At a distance not closer than three meters to residential buildings.
Elevation is necessary in order to avoid moisture when snow melts in spring and during rains in summer and autumn. The chicken coop should be located away from the noise of houses and the roadway, since the hens need rest for laying and hatching eggs.
Also the chicken coop should be equipped with:
- Ventilation system
- Winter heating system,
Tambour is necessary to reduce the amount of cold let in by the farmer in winter. It is important to keep in mind the need to seal the basement, the floor and the walls in order to avoid moisture ingress and the development of mold and dampness.
When calculating the size of the coop should be remembered that for 1 square. m of the room should account for no more than four hens of egg breed and three - meat-eating.
Depending on the number of hens, chicken coops have different sizes. The most popular are chicken coops, designed for 20 and 50 birds.
A chicken coop for 20 heads should have an area of the main room of at least 5 square meters. m and the area of the vestibule / enclosure of at least 10 square meters. m. When the area of the chicken coop 5 square. m one of the walls should have a length of at least 3 meters, then the chicken nests will be located along this wall in 4 tiers, 5 nests in each tier. Five nests will occupy about 2.4 meters, and 30 cm must be kept between the edges of the tiers and the walls of the chicken coop for easy cleaning and disinfection of the nests. The width of the chicken coop should be at least one and a half meters.
A chicken coop for 50 heads should have an area of the main room of at least 15 square meters and at least 20 square meters. m area of the vestibule. Nests should be located along a wall at least 6 meters long or along two corner walls. The height of the chicken coop must be at least 2 meters for the convenience of the farmer.
Selection of materials
The following materials can be used as wall materials:
- Foam blocks,
- Slag stones or coquina.
Foam blocks are one of the best materials, as they are convenient for installation and retain heat well, but they are more expensive than other materials.
The most economical and simple will be the construction of the walls of the chicken coop of wood. Wooden chicken coop fits well in the countryside and is environmentally friendly, but requires strict adherence to fire safety.
The construction of walls made of brick or slag stone will be cheaper than from foam blocks with sufficient strength and durability of such walls, but brick coops will need to be further warmed.
The roof for the chicken coop can be made of the following materials:
- Metal tiles.
So as for the coop roof material is not basic, you should choose the most economical, warm and impermeable. For warming the roof, use rolled insulation or expanded clay.
Depending on the size of the chicken coop and the stability of the soil at the construction site, as well as the financial capacity of the farmer, you can choose three basic foundation options:
The strip foundation is poured with concrete around the perimeter of the chicken coop into excavated recesses with reinforcement installed. This type of foundation is quite expensive and is more often used for capital residential buildings.
It makes sense to use it for a chicken coop only if the soil is unstable at the place of construction.
The pile foundation consists of metal pins, piles, which are screwed into the ground at a distance of one meter from one another. Two people can screw them into the ground without the use of special equipment, so such a foundation will cost the farmer cheaper than a tape one with ease of construction and sufficient strength.
Pillar foundations are the cheapest and simplest option for most chicken houses. It is a column made of brick, stone or reinforced concrete dug into the ground, on which the bearing logs are laid on top.
For the construction of the columnar basement, there is the following procedure:
- Mark the place
- Set four pegs in the corners of a future construction,
- Remove the top layer of fertile soil (20-30 cm) and transfer it to the garden,
- To outline the location of the pillars of the foundation,
- Dig pits under the pillars of the foundation about 0.6 m deep,
- Put pillars of selected material in the pits, cementing stones and bricks with cement,
- Wait a few days for the mortar to set,
- Apply a protective coating (bitumen) on the poles,
- Cover the space between the pillars and the ground with gravel or gravel,
- Install the lower support beams from a timber section 150 to 150 mm or 150 to 75 mm on the poles, fastening them at the corners, as shown in fig. one.
The foundation pillars should be placed every 1.0-1.5 meters along the perimeter of the future structure, for a small chicken coop for six birds, six pillars will be required.
To lay a smooth foundation, it is necessary immediately after installing the pillars (before the fastening solution hardens) to stretch the rope between the pillars and measure its parallelism to the ground with a building level. If necessary, immediately adjust the position of the pillars.
Walling and roofing
After laying the foundation, you must decide on the material for the construction of the walls of the chicken coop. When choosing a tree, first of all, it is necessary to install on four sides bearing beams from a square bar with a section of 150 mm. They are attached to the basement logs with the help of 100 mm cross-sectioned bars and located at an angle of 45 degrees to the foundation and walls, as shown in fig. 2
After that, the frame beams are connected from above by horizontal bars and strengthened similarly to the bottom.
Further, it is necessary to sheathe the outer part of the chicken house with boards, taking into account the predetermined places for windows, ventilation and doors.
The windows in the chicken coop are best oriented to the south, and the door to the east.
When covering, gaps and irregularities should be avoided for the greatest possible tightness of the chicken coop.
After covering boards should be treated with linseed oil and sealing solution. In construction markets, you can purchase special modern coatings for building wood, protecting it from dampness, ignition, as well as mold and termites.
When the outer skin is ready, before installing the inner skin, a space of 15 cm (thickness of the carrying bar) should be filled with insulation. Made from:
- Mineral wool,
- Foam plastic,
- Foam rubber
- Pressed straw.
Nowadays there is almost no use of straw and foam rubber, foam is considered the best material, but the cost of such insulation will be comparable to the cost of foam blocks, so when building wooden walls it is best to mineral wool.
For mineral wool insulation, its sheets are laid in two layers into the wall between the supporting beams and fixed with special brackets or mounting braids (see Fig. 3).
After insulation, cotton wool can be covered with a screening roll or foil for better heat preservation in the room. After laying such a coating the walls of the coop are sheathed with boards from the inside. The thickness of the internal planks should be at least 12 mm, since nests and roosts will be attached to them.
Laying the ceiling and floor
For the construction of the roof it is necessary to lay the ceiling beams on the upper beams at a distance of no more than 1 meter from each other. For lags, a timber section of 150 by 100 mm is taken, which is laid on the edge.
After laying the lag, they are covered with transverse boards and covered with rolled insulation. It should be noted that the roof for the chicken coop should be erected gable for better protection from precipitation.
When erecting a roof, an important point is the choice of the type of tying of rafters, depending on the slope chosen. For a gable roof you need:
- Install additional vertical beams in the middle of the short side of the coop,
- Attach rafter holders to them at an angle of 50 and 35 degrees, respectively, on each of the long sides of the roof for a ramp,
- Lay the rafters on the holders on each side of the chicken coop,
- Cover the roof with slate or decking.
Laying of genital lags occurs similarly to the ceiling, only for the floor, instead of a bar 150 by 100 mm, it is permissible to use a square bar with a section of 150 mm.
Before warming the floor with mineral wool between the lags, you should lay a sealed roll covering that can be purchased on the construction markets. It is necessary to prevent the formation of mold fungi due to dampness.
Next, lay the floorboards, attaching them to logs with screws or nails from 20 to 35 mm long. After laying the boards, all cracks in the floor and around the walls of the chicken coop should be coated with a special hermetic solution that is safe for chickens.
If you install Izospan B insulating film in rolls between the floor insulation and floorboards, this will help to further protect the room of the chicken coop from moisture.
Is it possible to feed chickens with bread and how often? Find out the answer to this question by reading our article.
Are your broilers gaining weight slowly? Then our material is useful to you!
Arrangement of the chicken coop
After construction is completed, it is necessary to equip the internal space of the chicken coop. In the hen house should be installed:
- Nest for chickens,
- Drinking bowl
- Capacity with sifted ash
- Heater for the winter,
- Ventilation system.
Perches should be made from a round timber with a cross section of not more than 25 mm. Since chickens wrap his paws to maintain balance in a dream. The bottom of the chicken coop is covered with a layer of straw or sawdust no more than 5 cm thick for ease of cleaning and to prevent the appearance of mold and rot in the lower layers of the flooring.
Sifted ash is necessary for bathing chickens, they thus get rid of some parasites. One third of the fine, sifted river sand can be added to the ashes.
Nests should be installed in the far part of the chicken coop to ensure that laying hens are at rest to increase their egg production; perches are set perpendicular to the nests.
To ensure ventilation can be installed:
- Ventilation pipes,
- Ventilation ducts,
- Exhaust hood.
In the hood, you can insert small fans powered by solar panels located on the roof of the chicken coop (such fans with batteries for rural buildings can be purchased ready-made).
In winter, chickens need to replace the missing daylight with electric light; for this, lamps at the rate of 100 W are installed on a 3.5-4 square meter. m square chicken coop.
For heating, do not use stoves because of the danger of fire; heaters are best suited for heating:
Gas heaters are used mainly in large farms, as it is unprofitable to supply gas to a small chicken coop for 20 heads.
When using electric heaters, it is necessary to constantly monitor the temperature inside the room of the chicken coop, in addition, they consume a lot of electricity.
Infrared heaters with thermostat are the best solution for a chicken coop. Since they do not heat the air, but the internal objects of the chicken coop, which will help to avoid heat loss from drafts, and the thermostat will keep the temperature at a safe level for the birds.
So, to build a warm chicken coop, you need to decide on the number of chickens, and then design the room. At each stage of construction, it is necessary to remember about heat-insulating materials and sealing, such materials must be selected in accordance with the materials of construction and temperature characteristics of the region.
What to build
Inexpensive to build a chicken coop can be of cinder block, foam concrete. If there is a place nearby where there is clay, it is possible to drive out walls using adobe technology (an earthen mortar or to dry bricks).
If you need a budget warm chicken coop - you can make it the type of dugout. The walls can be brought out half a meter above the level, in the south one can make well-insulated windows with double-triple glazing. It is good to insulate that piece that stands above the ground, and the roof. For heat, all walls except the southern one can be covered with earth. If the top is still covered with snow, it will be quite warm.
Those who are seriously going to breed poultry should think about building a chicken coop from foam concrete: it is light, warm.
Another probably the most popular and economical option - do-it-yourself chicken coop. Since the rooms are usually small, the timber for the frame needs a small section and it needs a little bit. You can sheathe the frame with board, plywood, OSB and other similar material. Between racks lay insulation and sew on the other side. To prevent the mice from settling in the insulation, people came up with an idea to beat the insulation on both sides with a metal grid with a small cell. This increases the cost of construction, but it is more expensive to fight with mice. It turns out a warm chicken coop and the thickness of the insulation depends on the region. You can navigate to the recommendations for the construction of frame houses.
A coop from a log or from a thick bar can do without warming in the middle lane. Only the seams of the caulking iron need to be stitched with slats. Not so much from drafts, as from chickens: so as not to tug the tow or moss.
The foundation under the coop
There are options. Most often they are built on pillars - they make a column base. It happens - make shallow pile or tape shallow. But this is the case if the material chosen for the walls is heavy, or which requires a rigid base: brick (ceramic, silicate, adobe), foam- and slag-blocks, shell rock, etc. For light wooden constructions - skeletons, timber, logs - just lay down the columns or put ready-made foundation blocks (you can make them yourself).
This - the columns under the frame shed for chickens
In the case of a columnar and pile foundation, supports are placed at the corners and after 2-3 meters in the interval between them. The load on the base will be small, because they are very rarely zealous.
Warming and heating - these two questions are very tightly connected: in a warm coop, even in severe cold, you can do without heating. There are many examples. No matter how economical the heating is, it eventually flies into a good penny. Therefore, it is much more profitable to build a well-insulated barn right away than to pay for its heating annually.
As a heater you can use any modern materials. You can stuff them from the inside or outside. The main selection criterion is often the cost. The most optimal is foam. It is inexpensive, has excellent thermal insulating ability: a 5 cm thick plate replaces a 60 cm brick wall. Mounted on the glue or long nails with plastic washers, you can put pieces of some plastic.
Warming the chicken coop with mineral wool
You can also use mineral wool and polystyrene foam. But mineral wool requires the presence of membranes on both sides. Outside they put wind and hydro-protective with one-sided vapor permeability (couples must be removed from the insulation). Inside the paronotpermeable.
Styrofoam is definitely good. The characteristics are even better than those of the foam, even mice do not like it. But he is dear. But, you can not even sheathe it: the plates are smooth, smooth, there are also colored.
You can also use natural insulation: clog between the two planes of sawdust, smear with clay, mixed with sawdust, etc. In terms of heat saving, such heat insulation is inferior to modern materials, but it costs almost nothing. So such methods are also used. For the southern regions with mild winters, “national” warming is more than enough, but even in the central part, and even more so in the North, they are probably not enough.
This was about the walls. It is necessary to warm the ceiling in the hen house: warm air accumulates under the ceiling. If he is not warm, it will always be cold. If you punch the bottom with cardboard (it keeps heat well) or with any slab material (plywood, OSB, DVP, GVL, etc.), and from above to the attic to cover sawdust or to lay hay, it will become much warmer. And if you warm all the rules - generally excellent.
Warming of the floor is done according to the same scheme as for the house: a rough floor, lags on it, insulation between them, a finishing floor on top. Make it as warm as possible: you will not regret.
Not everyone makes the floor wood. There is also a clay-clay - they interfere with the clay with straw and allow it to dry, or concrete. The coldest one is concrete, but if you pour enough sawdust, it will be normal. And if, all of a sudden, you still make a concrete floor with insulation (although it would be possible to bury the bottles), it will be generally excellent.
Variant of floor heating in the hen house
When still planning a winter chicken coop with your own hands, consider the presence of a tambour. Эта небольшая пристройка позволяет намного уменьшить потери тепла, а значит — сократить расходы на отопление.
Переоценить значение правильно устроенного отопления для зимнего курятника сложно. All owners of poultry houses know this: at positive temperatures, the hens feel great and rush well in the winter.
If electricity is supplied to the chicken coop, it can be heated with fan heaters or infrared lamps. Fan heaters cheaper to buy programmable. Not in the sense that they are cheaper, but in the fact that electricity is wound less during the winter. There are two types of automation: temperature and time. Naturally, to heat the chicken coop is better to take one that reacts to the temperature. As it cools down, say to 0 ° C, it will turn on, as it will rise to + 3 ° C, it will turn off. In general, choose the settings yourself. The method is effective and quite popular.
More often chickens warm Infrared emitters. But they do not heat the air, but objects that fall within the range of the rays. They are hung over the perches and a few pieces above the floor. If the bird is cold, they gather under them. It can be cold in a chicken coop, as long as its inhabitants are warm. This is exactly what happens with infrared heating. One caveat: IR lamps burn out from frequent on / off, therefore it is desirable to cut them very rarely. In humans, they burn for months, the benefit of "pull" of electricity a little.
Another important thing to know about the features of the operation of infrared heating lamps (there is for lighting, do not confuse). The surface of the lamps is heated, the design of the lamp itself is not adapted for such loads. Plastic cartridges hold the lamp poorly, and finding ceramic is a problem. To ensure fire safety, it is better to make a wire cage for the lamp. So the chickens will not be burned and if the lamp falls out, it will not break and the litter will not flare up.
Oil radiators inefficient: large consumption, little heat. Self-made devices with an open spiral are effective, but very fire-dangerous, and you have to leave them on. This is too much risk.
IR lamp heater in a mesh case
Boiler and stove
There is another option of heating - boiler and batteries. But these are dreams for most. They also heat it with a stove, a wood-burning cauldron, or lay down a small brick stove. And try to hold the pipe through the chicken coop - so that it gives the maximum heat. If the stove is iron, it can be lined with bricks, like an iron pipe. Heated, brick keeps heat for a long time. With normal weatherization, a single duct lasts for a couple of days.
Heating the chicken coop due to the decomposition of sawdust
There is a way to maintain a positive temperature without heating - due to the heat generated during the decomposition of sawdust. But it works only under the condition of normal (at least) warming. Sawdust is poured on the floor. The first layer fall asleep before the first cold. The layer is about 10-15 cm. It lies a month and a half.
Such a bedding is much better than hay: chickens do not get sick, since sawdust regulate humidity well. They also like to rummage in the litter, and they are constantly busy with it, so the hens do not grow fat even with abundant feed and limited walking.
Chickens with sawdust are great even in cold weather.
After 30-50 days, add a fresh portion of sawdust (you will understand by smell and appearance). And this time, too, about 10 cm. Then - more. By the end of winter, the layer already accumulates about 50 cm. Moreover, even in decent cold, the temperature inside the chicken coop is not lower than 0 ° C, which is enough for layers. If you dig into this litter, there will be about + 20 ° C. What chickens in the cold and do: dig holes and sit in them. This sawdust will preyut: there is a reaction of decomposition with the release of a large amount of heat.
In the spring, the entire mixture is transported to the compost pile, after some time there will be an excellent fertilizer. But one more thing: in the fall, you have to fill a high board in front of the door: so that the litter does not spill out. Walking is inconvenient, but the draft from under the door is eliminated.
Ventilation in the winter hen house
Ventilation is necessary to maintain a normal microclimate in the hen house. This is usually a plastic pipe, which is under the ceiling, passes through the roof and sticks out above it at a height of about a meter. With this drop can be enough natural thrust. The influx usually takes place through the cracks, but if you are completely bothered, you can mount a piece of plastic pipe into the wall just above the floor. From the side of the room, the pipe is closed with a metal grid, and dampers are made that regulate the intensity of air movement.
Another option without a chimney on the roof: just insert a small exhaust fan into the wall. But such a system works by force and in the presence of electricity. The pipe is non-volatile))
Fan in the hen house
The optimal humidity in the hen house is about 60-70%. Deviations to either side are undesirable. It is not very difficult to increase the humidity - to supply more water, but problems can arise with a decrease. The infrared lamp dries condensation very well: it dries drops on the walls and ceiling in a couple of hours. So at least for the regulation of humidity one is needed.
There should be windows in any chicken coop. And even though the heat leaves through them, one cannot do without them: sunlight is necessary for the bird to maintain its normal state. And to make it warm, the frames are made with two or three glasses. And they must be sewn with a net from the inside, although it doesn’t hurt the outside, but not for the safety of the bird, but for its safety.
In order for the chickens to continue to sweep in the winter, they need to extend the daylight hours: at least it should be 11-12 hours. Because they put on include lighting. It is better to immediately put the controller, which will turn on and off the light automatically. Spend more money, but you will walk less at the hen house.
At first, some chickens will stay overnight on the floor (those that have not climbed to the roost and in the nests), but if the floor is warm, with sawdust, do not worry. Gradually, they will get used to and will sit on the ground at the time of shutdown.
There is an option - to make it rise early, and leave the evening natural. Then the light will be lit in the morning, and in the evening with the onset of twilight they will be put to sleep by the sun.
How to build a chicken coop: video
In this video, a chicken coop is built with its own hands by a city dweller who escaped into the village. In the video are collected photos of the process, so that all stages are visible.
Another video with a clear sequence of assembly of a chicken coop from a bar
Is it necessary to build a warm chicken coop?
From the end of autumn to the first month of spring unfavorable conditions for chickens come, which creates difficulties for bird owners.
If in spring and summer the chicken is active: it moves, digs in the ground, bathes in water, then in winter time, due to many factors, its activity decreases.
Summer chicken coop does not need additional insulation and lighting
When the temperature drops, and the light day is shortened, the ability to lay eggs in birds decreases, or even completely stops. Therefore, it is important to make a chicken coop, which in the winter period will provide:
- temperature level not less than 12 degrees and low humidity,
- artificial lighting - to increase the daylight hours,
- the presence of low perches and laying eggs,
- the internal area of the room is 1 m 2 for 1–7 individuals (depending on the breed).
Providing these requirements will allow poultry to comfortably spend the winter without losing weight and laying eggs daily.
Properly constructed chicken coop can significantly increase the egg production of birds
Options for warm chicken coops for the winter
Standard chicken coop - utility room, next to which there is a place for walking birds.
The site has a fence made of a chain-link mesh with small cells, protecting chickens from predators. If the farm is not more than a dozen birds, then this is ideal. Perhaps the arrangement of the chicken coop and with a high level of comfort, with outdoor and indoor walking area, but then it will take a large area. This option is not suitable for small plots.
The winter chicken coop is built on a foundation, along which a thick wooden floor creeps, and the place of walking is covered with a roof.
Considering the number of individuals, these types of chicken coops are used:
- From 10 to 15 individuals - a mini-chicken coop up to 10 m 2 with a walking area of 4 m 2. This area will provide free movement and adult birds, and young, in the case of breeding chicks. Also be sure to be equipped with a window and ventilation grille. Mini chicken coop is equipped with a covered wagon and an egg collection box.
- From 20 to 30 individuals - a full-fledged room up to 20 m 2, 1.8 m high and 6 m 2 walking area. These dimensions allow you to build a perch in several tiers and install up to 7 nests. If the area of the plot is enough, then it is better to build a chicken coop with a vestibule: it will provide the necessary temperature in the main room in winter. Winter coop is desirable to build with a vestibule to protect chickens from drafts
- More than 50 individuals - a room about 40 2, up to 2 meters high and a walking ground of 12 m 2. Such a chicken coop requires additional thermal insulation, ventilation and installation of heating equipment. It is better to place the perches in front of the windows, and the nests (up to 10 pieces) - in the depth of the room. Large chicken coops erected on high stilts, and the place of walking is done under the room
If the area of the plot allows, the chicken coop is equipped in a fully enclosed area, inside of which there will be a walking area, which will prevent overcooling of the bird and ensure its free movement even at low air temperatures in winter.
Winter house can be completely closed, providing chickens a warm place for walking.
When a chicken coop is required with minimal costs, there is a construction option according to the dugout type. The height of the walls in it does not exceed 0.5 m, and for warming they are covered with earth. Also the roof is insulated. The southern wall is equipped with windows with multi-layer glass. And the fallen snow additionally provides thermal insulation.
Another of the low-cost options is a poultry house, made by frame technology: from a bar of small section, sheathed with plywood sheet, OSB, planed boards. Between them fit the insulating material, its thickness depends on the climate. For protection against rodents the heater is sheathed by a grid from metal. This increases costs, but later to bring rodents - even more expensive. During construction, it is better to follow the rules for the construction of frame houses.
In winter, the hen house is obliged to regulate the level of humidity, which is ensured by the installation of ventilation.
The best option for a warm house is a tree. In frame construction, the timber is sheathed in dense rows of OSB sheets, hiding the gaps. When construction is carried out with the help of a brick or a cinder block, good thermal insulation is necessary, since the brick has a high level of thermal conductivity. What material will be used for the chicken coop depends on preferences and financial possibilities.
Insufficiently insulated roof will become a source of heat loss and increased humidity in the room, and the cost of heating the chicken coop will increase. For insulation, it is recommended to sheathe it from the inside with foam or felt. Above the platform for winter walking is the capital roof - the continuation of the roof of the chicken coop itself.
For the winter period, a chicken coop with a gable roof is preferable so that snow does not accumulate on it.
Often, when building the walls of the house, wood is used because of its environmental friendliness and low thermal conductivity. Even if the frame is erected metal, then it is better to use the lining.
To facilitate constant cleaning inside the chicken coop, its floor is made by pouring concrete. The service life of such a floor is long, but it requires good thermal insulation so that the birds do not freeze. The wooden floor in winter is additionally treated with special moisture-resistant compounds, and on top it is carpeted with a thick layer of straw and hay litter.
The floor in the chicken coop can be made concrete, but it is imperative to cover it with a thick layer of straw.
To give the whole structure of the chicken coop rigidity and strength, in order to avoid distortions of walls and the appearance of gaps, as well as to raise the walls themselves above the ground, they perform a light strip foundation. It also allows you to keep warm in the winter.
For the construction of the main wall the following materials are used:
- Shellfish - porous limestone of natural origin with a low level of thermal conductivity. Most suitable for the construction of a chicken coop for 25-30 individuals. The standard block size is 18x18x38 cm. It is laid using the technology of masonry foam block or cinder block. The walls of the limestone are built quickly and retain heat well
- Foam concrete is a common material that is harmless to health. Restrictions on the size of the building has not. D400 foam concrete, the block size of which is equal to 20x30x60 centimeters, is optimal for building walls. The thickness of the masonry is determined by the climate of the area. You can build a chicken coop out of foam concrete very quickly, observing the technology of laying
- Brick - building material with low thermal conductivity, durable. It is optimal to build large chicken coops with bricks. Brick can be both corpulent and hollow. Brick walls of the chicken coop can be sheathed from the inside
Given the life of the coop, the material from which the walls will be constructed is determined. For a beginner, the best choice would be wood and plywood. Over time, it is possible to dismantle the structure or, on the contrary, add an additional area. And if you are breeding a large number of birds and build a chicken coop for a long time, then it is better to choose a brick or foam concrete. Also be sure to need insulation - foam sheets, rolls of mineral wool or other modern material.
For the purpose of thermal insulation of the construction, natural insulation materials are also used: the walls are insulated with straw and hay, and the floor and ceiling are covered with large-size expanded clay. There is only one negative side to the use of such heaters in comparison with modern materials - these heaters have a high thermal conductivity, which requires the use of them in a large volume. And this is difficult in the construction of the house.
Detailed characteristics of modern building materials for thermal insulation:
- Polyfoam - a material with good insulating properties. It has a cellular structure. Thermal conductivity is only 0.047 W / mK, which is lower than that of foam concrete, brick and wool. Sold in the form of sheets of different sizes. Easy to attach. The main drawback - susceptible to damage by rodents. To solve this problem, the foam is sheathed with sheets of plywood or OSB. The foam has good thermal insulation characteristics and is often used as a wall insulation.
- Mineral wool - has heat and sound insulation properties. It has a fibrous structure. Thermal conductivity is slightly larger than that of the foam, but it is not susceptible to damage by rodents. It is recommended to use in conjunction with waterproof and windproof film. Rock wool is resistant to damage by rodents, but absorbs moisture from the environment
- Extruded polystyrene foam - a material having a closed cellular structure, manufactured by the polystyrene foaming method. It has a long service life and excellent insulation characteristics. In its properties surpasses almost all existing insulation materials. Styrofoam has a long service life, but with long-term use inside the room is harmful to health through the respiratory system
- Styzol - is a foamed polyethylene. It has high thermal insulation and sound insulation properties, is not exposed to moisture, durable. Available on the basis of metallized film, foil or non-woven fabric. The optimum thickness at application is about 1 mm. Styzol is used in construction as sheet insulation
When choosing insulation, it is important to consider what area it will cover. If the structure is small, use styzol or any material of polyethylene foam. For structures containing 50 or more birds, it is desirable to combine materials: if the wall is insulated with expanded polystyrene, the floors are insulated with expanded clay. And when minimum costs are required during construction, foam plastic and mineral wool are used.
Creating a project for the construction of a chicken coop, it is required to determine where the heater will be installed: if it is planned as an interior decoration, then in the calculations it is necessary to increase the overall dimensions of the structure by the thickness of the laid material.
The width of the foundation to be laid should slightly exceed the thickness of the future wall. At the same time the wall is installed exactly in the center of the foundation. The foundation of concrete additionally provides insulation and will protect against:
- exposure to moisture on the structural elements of wood, increasing the service life of the building,
- access to the coop predators and rodents, which is easy to dig a hole under the ground.
There are other ways to protect against penetration of unwanted predators:
- perform the foundation up to 30 cm,
- put the structure on concrete pillars, raising the floor to a height of 25 cm from the ground,
- выполнить обшивку стен листами из металла, закапывая один край листа на глубину до 35 см.
При строительстве обязательно нужно выполнить несколько окон с южной стороны курятника для естественного освещения. But they should not be a source of draft.
Since in winter time chickens try to settle down as closely as possible to each other, their placement is organized according to the rule: 1 m 2 - by 4–7 individuals. If meat breed is grown: 1 m 2 - for 3 individuals. For laying hens: 2.5 m 2 - for 10 individuals. The height of the room is no more than 1.8 m.
For the winter inside the chicken coop, it is recommended to make a vestibule between the entrance door and the main room for birds, providing additional protection against low temperature and drafts.
The size of the chicken coop depends on the number of birds.
For the independent construction of a warm chicken coop you will need the following:
- poultry house design with precise drawings and sizes,
- building materials for formwork installation and foundation casting,
- locksmith and construction tools,
- building materials for the construction of premises for birds.
Self-production of the chicken coop: step by step instructions
At the very beginning of construction, the layout for the foundation (base) of the chicken coop is carried out using wooden pegs and a rope stretched between them. The foundation of the paddock fencing is performed in concert with the foundation of the chicken coop.
- Dig a trench under the foundation. The design of the chicken coop does not have a large mass, so the foundation is made of a ribbon or columnar to a depth of no more than 45 cm. However, the use of a columnar foundation will lead to greater costs for the insulation of floors.
The foundation for the coop can be tape and columnar
- At the bottom of the trench, gravel is poured and compacted first, followed by sand, creating a so-called pillow (the thickness of the total layer should not exceed 5–10 cm).
- Mounted formwork for pouring the foundation. The height of the formwork is equal to the height of the foundation. The upper edge of the formwork is used to level the poured concrete. It is necessary to make the foundation according to all the rules so that it does not warp and prevent cracking after drying.
- Reinforcement is laid inside the formwork and tied at the corners with steel wire.
- Concrete is poured into the formwork, leveled on the surface until the cement jelly is formed and covered with film. During the week, it must be watered daily with water to prevent cracks.
In 20–28 days, when the foundation has gained the required strength, you can proceed to the construction of the chicken coop. A waterproofing layer is laid on top of the foundation to protect the structure from moisture.
From the place above which the floor of the chicken coop will be located, the top layer of the soil is removed, then sand is poured and compacted there, and a layer of expanded clay is laid as a heater. A grid is rolled over the clay and a screed is made using cement mortar. The thickness of the floor screed must be from 2 cm. For several days, while the screed solidifies, it is necessary to water it. It is recommended to carry out a coupler with a slope of several degrees, which will ensure free flow of water when cleaning inside the chicken coop.
For a comfortable stay of chickens, the floors in the hen house are covered with boards.
Arrangement site for walking is done in different ways: either poured concrete, or sheathed board.
Sawdust, straw, hay are used as bedding. Usually, during the cold period, the litter does not change, and each time a new dry layer is poured over it. This results in natural floor heating due to warm litter mixed with dry bedding.
Another variant of the device for the site of walking is the preservation of natural soil, which will allow the bird to continue to look for insects, seeds and stones.
You need to think in advance about what kind of floor will be in the place of walking birds.
The sequence of work is as follows:
- Before erecting the frame, it is necessary to decide what construction will be the roof. Often, to reduce labor costs, the roof is made shed. Then one of the walls is erected of greater height, and the upper crown of the side walls is made in accordance with the angle of inclination of the roof. After determining the height of the chicken coop and the amount of slope of the roof, a frame is erected. Its construction begins with the laying of timber (cross section of at least 10x15 cm) on the surface of the foundation. The timber to the foundation is attached to the anchor bolts, and between each other the bars are joined using corners or plates of metal.
- In the corners, the timber is vertically installed and fastened to the lower chord with the help of the same corners or plates.
- Similarly, the upper horizontal belt is attached to the vertical bars. On the outer side of the frame there is a crate made of wooden slats or slats of a small size, on which the insulating material will be laid. The crate is fixed with horizontal stripes on the corners or nails.
Frame construction is the simplest: it is easy to build such a chicken coop alone
- With the help of the same beam, openings for windows, entrance doors and miniature doors for bird exit are formed.
- On the upper horizontal belt of timber stacked rafters for the roof. The step of laying the rafters is equal to the size of the roll or sheet of insulating material.
The rafter is nailed from the unedged boards or sheets of plywood. On the crate, a special vapor barrier film or polyethylene is laid and fastened. The film spreads overlapped, and the seams are glued with adhesive tape. Thermal insulation material (mineral wool) is laid on it, and on top of it is covered with waterproofing.
Most often, the roof of the chicken coop make shed due to the simplicity of its device
Next, through the waterproofing to the rafters, the transverse strips are nailed with the necessary pitch, which depends on the type and size of the roofing material. If soft roofing is used, plywood or sheets of OSB, on which roofing material is laid, must be laid over the slats. If slate is used, then wood paneling is not needed.
After completion of the roofing work, the frame is warmed with internal wall cladding.
Wall and floor insulation
Works are carried out in the following sequence:
- A crate installed on the outside of the frame from the inside of the building contains heat-insulating material - mineral wool or sheets of expanded polystyrene (the gaps between the sheets are filled with mounting foam). A film with vapor barrier and windproof properties is laid on top of the mineral wool. It is attached with the help of a construction stapler to the timber.
In the winter hen house walls, floor and ceiling must be insulated.
- The horizontal crate is put again, but from the inside of the frame, so that the layer of insulation is inside the wall. The crate is mounted with a step of 4-5 cm smaller than the width of the roll.
- Edged board, plywood or OSB are nailed on the batten on both sides of the room, bypassing the door and window openings.
- Ceiling lining is being performed: plywood sheets are attached to the rafters from the inside of the structure.
More as a heat-insulating material is sometimes used polyurethane foam. But for its installation specialists are involved with the equipment with which this insulation is applied to the surface of the walls. The use of polyurethane foam is expensive, but the application process is not labor-intensive and provides maximum protection from the cold.
Sheathing a winter chicken coop outside can be trimmed board or other facade material, except plastic, as it does not tolerate extreme cold
The concrete floor, even with an expanded clay pillow, does not ensure the safety of heat inside the chicken coop in winter. For this, the floors are additionally insulated.
You can lay an infrared film on the floor and make a cement mortar on it. This heating system works both periodically and regularly, providing the right temperature in the chicken coop. Or you can use a less expensive option: cover the floor with wooden boards. These shields are tightly fitted boards attached to logs. In winter, plant litter is up to 15 cm thick to increase floor warming, and in summer they are removed from the hen house, cleaned and disinfected.
The arrangement of the chicken coop should be such that the birds feel comfortable both in winter and in summer
Sometimes, electric heaters are placed on the walls of the chicken coop, and installation sites are protected with heat-resistant materials. But more often under the ceiling hang infrared lamps.
There must be windows in the house structure. Despite the fact that they are a source of heat losses, it is impossible to refuse their presence, since the influx of sunlight is required to preserve the health of birds. Therefore, a triple glazing is built into the windows, and a grid is installed on the glass for the safety of the birds.
In winter, be sure to ensure the duration of daylight at least 14 hours. This is done using artificial lighting. And when you install an automatic on / off system, you get rid of the extra troubles of care, although you will spend extra money on it.
Lighting can be heating, but must be safe for birds.
At first, individual individuals will settle for the night directly on the floor. It is not dangerous if the floor is insulated and sprinkled with chips or hay. Over time, the birds will become accustomed and with the onset of darkness will begin to roost. But it can be done differently: to wake up the birds early in the morning, including the lighting for this, and with the sunset let them fall asleep.
In a warm chicken coop, a ventilation device is definitely required so that excess moisture will disappear. To do this, a piece of plastic pipe is installed in the ceiling, which rises 1 meter above the roof. So ventilation will be carried out in a natural way due to the existing pressure drop. If the air flow is weak, then, additionally at the floor level (far from the nests), another channel is performed, which is necessarily closed by a grill. And the damper installed on it will allow to regulate the ventilation rate. Also in the wall you can install an electric fan.
The ideal moisture level is 65%. A decrease or increase in this indicator adversely affects the activity and health of the bird. To increase the humidity, it is enough to install a container with water, and to reduce it, install a hood and hang the infrared lamp: it drains the surfaces well.
The chicken coop must be equipped with ventilation so that the birds do not catch cold from the increase in humidity.
Making the persecution
Perches are made of timber with a section of approximately 4x4 cm or 6x4 cm.
All corners are grinded in a rounded shape, and the surface is cleaned to a smooth state so that birds do not injure their paws. You can also use a tree branch as a perch.
If several perches are established, then the distance between adjacent planks should be about 30 cm in width, and 20 cm in height. A small ladder is attached to the lower perch for convenience.
Perches are fixed either between two walls, or in the form of a ladder installed across the room
To establish perches, you must:
- Determine the place and height of the perch - attach one or more slats near the window at a height of 0.5–0.7 m from the floor level.
- Measure the width of the chicken coop and cut off the required amount of timber.
- On opposite walls to nail the pieces of the board at 0.5 m with the cut grooves under perches.
- In the grooves set perches and secure with screws.
Nests for laying eggs are made in the form of a half-open box, assembled from a bar, planks or plywood. And sometimes ready-made plastic boxes are used as nests. If the nests rise to a certain height, they are mounted on supports.
To the nests down a ladder for easy movement of birds
Tips on arranging a chicken coop in cellars or basements
There are some features of the arrangement of the chicken coop in the basement:
- Using litter - Sawdust or hay is used. Replacement of litter from sawdust occurs once every 6–7 days, from hay - once every 3-4 days.
- Lighting - mounted electric lamp on LEDs with a capacity of more than 5 watts. With the help of a lamp, the required day length is ensured: the longer it is, the more chickens will lay eggs.
- Insulation - cotton wool is used or any rolled insulation thickness of at least 5 cm. The use of waterproofing film is mandatory.
- Ventilation - set the draw and exhaust channels. Periodic direct airing of the premises is carried out.
- Interior arrangement - nests are made of timber, sheathed with plywood. One nest is used for several chickens and is approximately 40x40 cm. The perches are mounted at a height of at least 50 centimeters. It is allowed to connect the perch and nest, putting a board between them.
Care after the winter: how to handle the walls
Sanitary processing of the house is performed annually with the onset of warm time. This prevents the spread of infectious diseases among chickens.
During disinfection is carried out:
- Cleaning - all surfaces of walls, ceiling, floor, perches and nests are cleaned of dirt with a hard brush and a broom, and then washed with a solution of soda ash in hot water.
- Surface treatment - special tools are used (2% caustic soda solution or 4% xylonaph emulsion). In the preparation of solutions should strictly adhere to the recipe and be sure to use personal protective equipment.
After treatment, let the chicken coop dry completely for 5–6 hours, carefully ventilate the room.
There is always the opportunity to work on the decoration of the chicken coop
The construction of the chicken coop is a simple task and completely solvable independently, without the involvement of third-party specialists. It is only necessary to study this instruction well, and also to read the advice of other people engaged in breeding poultry.