For the successful cultivation of meat birds on their own, it is useful to know their features:
- big weight and dimensions
- chunky physique
- short and thick limbs
- loose plumage
- proud posture,
- low egg production rates not exceeding 130 eggs per year
- slowness due to phlegmatic temperament
- maturity and egg-laying come later than that of ordinary chickens at 6-9 months,
- the weight of two-month-old chicks reaches 1.5 kg, the most active growth occurs in the first month of life,
- adult chickens are prone to obesity,
- juveniles slowly feathers,
- do not require large areas, adapted to the cellular content.
Important: due to the low mobility and excitability of meat birds consume less feed and energy in terms of head than the egg.
Which meat breed to prefer an inexperienced poultry farmer
List of the most meaty breeds of chickens:
Let us consider in more detail their features.
Come from Asia. Large, conflict-free, highly profitable birds. Growing does not require much hassle. Chickens and adults are viable, unpretentious in food, with good immunity. For breeding enough small area.
- strong, feathered legs,
- massive body,
- shortened neck,
- small head and tail,
- comb red, shiny, three-petal,
- in chickens, feathers are light or dark; in roosters, they are richly colored.
- Weight - 4–5 kg.
- Egg production - up to 160 eggs per year, weighing 60 g.
- Meat with excellent taste.
Vietnamese chickens are distinguished by their solid size and beauty. Industrial breeding of the Cochin quit has been discontinued, they are used to improve other breeds of chickens, as well as in domestic breeding. Cochinquins are omnivorous, hardy, and feel great in cramped conditions.
- strong body with a wide chest,
- miniature head with a leaf-like comb,
- thickly feathered legs give the Cochinquina similarity with the Brahma breed,
- Cochinha colors are yellow and white.
- Live weight - 4–5 kg.
- At the peak of egg production, 120 eggs are laid each year weighing 55 g.
- The meat is delicious.
Bred by multistage crossing, the Plymouths combined the best qualities of Langshan, Brahma, Cochinquan, Javanese and some other hens. Breed is divided into 8 color types. In the industrial poultry industry, the white variety is in demand; striped farms are found in private farms. Chickens are viable, grow well, in 2 months their weight exceeds 1 kg.
- large body,
- relatively small other parts of the body,
- on the head is a neat comb with teeth of the same size,
- legs are medium in size, not plumed.
- Weight 3-4 kg.
- Meat good taste.
- Egg production - 120–180 eggs per year (depending on the variety). Mass of eggs - up to 60 g.
Initially, fighting chickens, thanks to long-term breeding and numerous improvements, transformed into meat. Cornish is used as the original breed (together with plymutrok) for the production of broilers. Fast-growing chickens willingly eat everything they find in the feeder.
- well developed, slightly elongated body,
- volumetric head
- short strong beak,
- strongly protruding eyebrows,
- shortened tail
- thick legs
- feathers are colored differently, but more often in white, red, fawn color. On the farmsteads mostly white Cornish are found.
- Weight - 3-4 kg.
- Meat tender, great taste.
- 90–130 eggs weighing 60 g are carried annually.
- When slaughter chickens up to 60 days of age, the ratio of meat to bone is 4: 1.
Chinese breed has English and Germanic subspecies. All langshans are hardy and viable.
- heavy body and wide back,
- thin saggy earlobes,
- Long neck,
- strong beak,
- neat head with a small comb,
- short, magnificently feathered tail.
German langshans are barefoot. The English have feathered legs.
- Live weight - 3.5–4.5 kg.
- Egg production - 150 eggs weighing 60 g. Beginning of egg laying - at 9–10 months.
- The meat is delicious.
French breed. Birds are beautiful, quickly gaining weight and putting up with any conditions of detention. Weigh less than Brahma, but the meat is a fireball leader in taste and flavor comparable to pheasant meat.
- big sideburns,
- beautiful feathers on their feet
- color more often salmon, less often white.
- The mass of chickens is 2.5–3.5 kg, for roosters — 3.5–4 kg.
- Egg production - 150–160 eggs per year weighing 55 g.
Choosing the best breed of chickens
The generally recognized leader of the meat direction - chicken pomfret. They are also referred to meat and egg orientation. Representatives of the breed demonstrate excellent productivity, are beautiful, numerous and financially accessible, which is pleasantly different from some expensive species.
The character is calm and livable, and the females are excellent hens.
The weight of a well-fed cock reaches 7 kg, the maximum weight of a chicken is 4 kg. But such large specimens are getting smaller.
Among amateur poultry farmers, the selection of Brahm goes with a slant into decorative qualities, and productivity fades into the background. Therefore, it is possible that the leader in meat productivity will gradually degenerate into a breed of meat and decorative style.
Productivity is best measured by weight gain:
- for 2 months males - 1 kg ± 100 g, females - 800–850 g,
- by 3 months males - up to 1.7 kg, females - up to 1.5 kg,
- by the end of the 4th month of fattening: males - up to 2.5, females - up to 2 kg.
The maximum weight of a mini chicken is 2.7 kg, a rooster is 3 kg. For the year, one chicken gives up to 170 eggs weighing 60 g, enclosed in a dense brown shell. Sexual maturity reaches 6 months.
The advantages of mini-meat birds include:
- rapid growth and weight gain
- high digestibility of feed,
- adaptation to the conditions of detention
- peaceful, non-conflict nature,
- large eggs.
But the main advantage is the benefit of the content. In poultry farms, one mini chicken consumes 4–6 kg of feed less than a large chicken meat, and one dozen eggs save 600–800 g of feed. During the day, one bird eats 120–130 g of feed. And also the little ones need less living space.
Mini-hens have few minuses:
- legs so short that the belly touches the ground. In wet and cold weather it is fraught with diseases, so walking is better to limit,
- Chickens have paw diseases. This can be avoided by giving the birds high-quality and diverse food balanced in vitamins and trace elements. This is especially important for chicks,
- multicolored individuals are kept apart from each other to avoid crossing.
Important: Do not cross mini-chickens with other breeds. This leads to a weakening of the immune system and a change in the phenotype and genotype.
The advantages of mini-chickens determined their popularity:
- adaptability to cell content
- early egg-laying,
- males and females do not conflict with each other,
- low feed consumption - up to 120 g per day per head,
- Chickens are strong, mobile, tenacious.
B33 is a smaller version of the white Leggorn, a choice for those who like to make a basket of eggs in the morning. Intensively grow, they easily digest food, they can live both in chicken coops and in cages. Peaceful character makes it easy to get along with several roosters.
Chicken Canadian breed Chauntecleer is also considered a mini-hen. For Russian farmers, they are interesting with a developed mechanism of thermoregulation, which helps to easily tolerate frosts.
Mini chickens - this is a high productivity, self-reproduction of the herd, the source material for the breeding of early ripening. Another property that has not practical, but aesthetic value - decorative. Small in size, calm and handsome hens will adorn the yard.
Makarov Ivan Vasilyevich
Hereditary poultry farmer, owner of a poultry farm, graduated from St. Petersburg State Agrarian University with honors, the author of articles in specialized publications
All types of domestic chickens are descended from one ancestor. This is a Bankivian chicken, which still lives in the jungles of Southeast Asia. It is believed that the ancestors of domestic hens also lived on the African continent, since in ancient Egypt this bird was known and kept at the palaces of the pharaohs. In ancient Greece and Judea, chickens and roosters were well known, and eggs were a common food item.
Then in France and England, the first chickens of meat were bred. Breeding birds for meat, on an industrial scale, began to be engaged in the second half of the 19th century in the United States. It was there that the prototypes of modern poultry farms were organized with tens of thousands of heads and conveyor cutting and processing of the product. Now there are more than a hundred species of poultry meat, which are great for breeding in poultry houses and private farms.
Only some meat chickens are not suitable for breeding in the middle lane due to unsuitable climatic conditions. Most representatives of meat species are widely distributed in many countries around the world. As a rule, they have a fast weight gain, are not too demanding to the conditions of detention and have a stable immunity from various diseases.
This breed is considered one of the most popular among poultry farmers. Brama or Brahmin refers to the meat and egg direction. American breeders took the Indochinese and Malay chickens as a basis. As a result, large individuals, undemanding to the content and easily fed, were obtained. There are two varieties - light bramah and dark bramah. Chickens of light varieties reach a weight of 3 kg, and males can grow up to 4.5 kg. Representatives of the dark category, on average, weigh 0.5 kg more.
Chicken meat pomfret is considered the most delicious and tender among all other types of chickens. If the feed is chosen incorrectly and chemical additives are used in the ration, the meat may become rough and its taste deteriorates markedly, therefore the brahmin diet must be carefully controlled.
Despite the high quality of meat, poultry brahma did not receive industrial distribution and are grown in private poultry farms.
Chickens meat breed mini, economically very profitable. They have the following advantages:
- gain weight quickly
- suitable for cell content
- consume a little feed
- get along well with other breeds.
Mini birds have a small and strong body, short legs and a small comb, which is difficult to freeze in the winter. Chickens should be kept in a warm place, where first the temperature should be at least + 35 ° C. Then every week it is reduced by two degrees. With all the rules of maintenance and care, the survival rate of the breed is almost one hundred percent.
Adding someone else's genes for mini chickens is undesirable because it reduces immunity and impairs the hereditary qualities of the offspring.
According to one version, this breed was bred in Vietnam, and according to other data, the Kochinqui hens were an ornament to the bird yard of the Chinese emperors.. At one time this breed was considered the leader of the meat direction, but later its genetic material was used to breed other hybrids of the meat direction. Currently, kohinhin grown in private poultry farms. Chickens of this breed have some external features:
- tall to 50 centimeters
- thick and fluffy plumage
- short legs, dressed in "pants" of feathers.
Kochinquin representatives are unpretentious and very hardy. They do not need regular walking and can be kept in a hen house.
The kohinhins enclosure should not have a high fence, since birds of this breed cannot fly at all.
Jersey breed of chickens in Russia is not too common yet, but there is a great interest of private entrepreneurs in this bird. The breed is also called the Jersey giant, for a very large size of individuals. Males can reach a weight of 6.5 kg, while chickens are only 0.5-1 kg behind. The bulk of body weight is gained in the first year. Further, the growth rates are markedly reduced, therefore, the bird intended for slaughter is not kept for more than 6 months, since it is unprofitable from an economic point of view.
Keep Jersey breed is easy. It is very useful in the warm season to let the birds walk, so that they can eat insects and worms. Birds practically do not fly, therefore they can be let out to the open territory. In winter, the optimum temperature for keeping the rock is + 10-12 0 C. The house should be well ventilated, and a litter of sawdust or straw should be laid on the floor.
The large weight of individuals suggests the formation of a strong skeleton, therefore calcium-containing components should be added to the feed. Usually poultry farmers use crushed chalk.
This breed is one of the youngest. She bred American breeders. Amerakuana is considered to be meat and egg breed, since, in addition to high-quality dietary meat, it is distinguished by high egg production. In particular individuals, it can reach 200-250 eggs per year. Individuals are not too large. Chickens reach a weight of 2.5 kg, and males - 3.5 kg. The minus of this breed is curiosity and aggressiveness of males. They attack members of other breeds and even people.
When raising young stock, it is important that all chicks have access to feed. If the number of chicks is several dozen, they should be divided into age groups. Feeding individuals is not difficult, even for an inexperienced poultry farmer. You can use wet mixes of wheat, sunflower meal, wheat and corn. It is good to add to the feed finely chopped fish or flour.
The ameraquana lacks the incubation instinct for eggs, therefore an incubator will have to be used for breeding chickens.
Cornish is perfect for breeding in private households. These are large birds, distinguished by high-quality and tasty meat. The most common birds of white color, but there are red-brown, dark and fawn shades. Cornish has the following distinctive features:
- exceptionally fast growth
- large amount of white dietary meat,
- roosters can be used to produce hybrids.
When breeding chickens, hatching difficulties may occur, so eggs are often placed under the hen of other breeds. Young chickens need to add vitamins, trace elements and fish oil to their feed.
Birds of this breed should not be overfed, as they are prone to obesity.
This breed was obtained by French poultry farmers in the middle of the 19th century. The purpose of breeding was the removal of meat individuals with a particularly delicate tender meat. Externally, the birds look very beautiful due to the magnificent Sultan on his head and elegant plumage. Individuals with a contrasting black and white color are most appreciated. The meat of these birds really meets the highest requirements. This breed does not tolerate cold very well, therefore it is more suitable for growing in warm regions. Chickens are very sociable and quickly get used to the person. Cockerels are more fearful and shun their masters. The average weight of individuals according to the breed standard does not exceed 3.5 kg.
Crosses and broilers
Broilers are called special breed chickens that are slaughtered between the ages of 1.5 and 3 months.. Broiler breeding and cutting are carried out on large poultry farms with special conditions of keeping and automated feeding of feed. Broiler chickens are distinguished by a thin skeleton and plenty of meat. The crosses in the poultry industry are called hybrid forms of chickens, which are obtained by crossing different species.
In crosses collected the best qualities of meat breeds:
- rapid maturation,
- big weight
- low feed intake
- immunity to diseases.
Broiler chickens have a strong body, short legs and small wings. The birds are phlegmatic, diligent and calm. A two-month-old chicken may weigh more than 2 kg. The most popular among poultry farmers are broilers ROSS-308 and ROSS-708.
These are highly productive crosses, and the ROSS-308 is also suitable for the reproduction of offspring. ROSS-708 has the fastest mass gain. For a period of little more than a month, the chickens of this cross-country gain weight up to 3 kg. Chicken meat is low calorie and has a light yellowish tint. Pale skin is not an indication of poor quality. She just does not have time to get the right color in such a short time.
In this video, meat breeds of chickens are shown, so that a novice farmer knows what he takes.
The best breeds of chicken egg directions: leggorn and Russian white
This is the most common breed of egg hens. Birds have a high egg production rate, they carry large eggs with pure white shells. Leggorn spend less feed on egg production than other breeds, they are mobile and are able to find a lot of feed on the paddocks. Chickens of this egg breed are very early on: they begin laying at 5-6 months of age and continue to lay eggs in good feeding conditions, as a rule, for 10 months.
Chickens of this breed do not differ by a pronounced instinct of incubation. It manifests itself only in individual individuals, which has a positive effect on the egg production of the herd.
As seen in the photo, the body of these hens of egg breed is light, elongated:
There are many varieties of plumage color: white, partridge, black, fawn. The crest is leaf-shaped, erect in roosters, and hanging in hens. Beak and legs are yellow. Ear lobes are white, oval. Earrings are red. The back is wide, legs are not plumed.
Chickens ripen early and can be used for mating from 7-9 months of age, ready for fattening and slaughter from 2-3 months of age. Средняя живая масса петухов 2,5-2,8 кг, куриц — 1,8—2,2 кг.
The hens of the leggorn breed are notable for their high egg productivity, not only when kept on hills, but also in cages. The average weight of one egg of chickens of this breed averages 55–58 g. The average egg productivity is 220–250 eggs per year. Record indicators were also recorded - 351 eggs per year.
Chickens Russian white.
This is another egg-breed of chickens that deserves a special description. Russian whites were bred in Russia by crossing Leggorn birds with local breeds. Chickens of this breed have a strong build and are similar in appearance to chickens of meat-breeding breeds. They have a long, wide body, the head is somewhat larger than that of the Leggorn. White feathers, beak and legs are yellow. The egg production of chickens is 180–200 eggs per year, the egg weight is 60 g, the weight of roosters reaches 3.0 kg, and the chickens 2 kg.
Then you can get acquainted with the photo and description of meat breeds of chickens.
Breeds of chicken meat: Plymouth, Cornish, Kokhinhin and Brahma
The breeds of chickens in the meat direction of productivity include heavyweight birds Plymouth, Cornish, Kochinquin, Brahma, and others.
The breed was created in the USA by crossing black Spanish, white Cochinquins, Dorking and Jaw black. The body of the bird of this breed is massive, has an oval shape. The head is large, with an erect, leaf-shaped comb. The legs and beak are yellow, the plumage is striated, on each one black and white, strictly delimited stripes alternate.
When describing this breed of meat chickens, white Plymouths deserve special attention. The live weight of an adult chicken is 2.7–3.4 kg, the rooster is 3.6–4.3 kg. Chickens are hardy, well acclimatized. From 160 to 200 eggs are produced per year from them, the average egg mass is 60 g. The bird reaches sexual maturity at 7 months of age. The instinct of incubation is developed poorly. The incubation quality is satisfactory, the hatchability of chickens ranges from 75-80%.
White Plymouth Stalkers are the main breed for broiler maternal form. Specialized meat lines are characterized by rapid growth, excellent meat quality and meat forms of the body structure. Breeding with this breed is aimed at increasing the intensity of growth at an early age, egg production.
The breed was bred in England by crossing local breeds of fighting Malayan and Azilian hens.
Pay attention to the photo - the chickens of this meat breed are divided into red, white and dark by the color of their plumage:
The live weight of birds is 3.3–3.6 kg, roosters — 4.2–4.5 kg, egg production 110–130 pcs., Egg mass 58–60 g. The young begin laying at 6 months of age. The young growth well develops. Chickens of this breed are bred in almost all poultry farms, where they are engaged in the production of broilers.
Breed bred in China in the IX. These birds have a rounded body, a small leaf-like crest, a small tail, short legs with toes covered with feathers.
Look at the photo - this breed of chickens has fluffy plumage, fawn, white, black, kuropatochnogo color:
Chickens are good hens. Egg production 100–120 eggs, egg weight 50–60 g, eggs with brown shells. The mass of roosters - 4-5 kg, chickens - 3.5-4 kg.
This is one of the best meat breeds of chickens, it was imported from North America and obtained by crossing gray kohinhins with gray Malay chickens. Chickens Pomfret are light and dark. They have a strong, stocky body, a small, prickly comb, and their legs are thick and covered with feathers. Egg production 80-100 eggs, weight - 50-60 g
The following section of the article presents photos and descriptions of meat and egg chickens.
Chickens meat-egg direction: Rhode Island, New Hampshire and others
The breeds of chicken meat and egg direction are significantly different in productive qualities from the breeds of egg direction. Due to the universality of the breeds of these chickens, they are most often bred in homestead farms. They are calmer, and for them there is no need to build high fences. Oviposition begins on the 5-6th month after hatching. The instinct of hatching is well developed. Among them are the rocks: Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Sussex, Moscow Black and Poltava clay.
Chickens Rhode Island.
This meat-and-egg breed of chickens is bred in the USA by mating of red Malay and pale-yellow Cochinha with brown leggorn, cornish and viandota. The breed was introduced to Russia in 1925. The hens of this breed have a thick, brilliant plumage of red-brown color, a black tail with a green tint, small wings, strong legs, a yellow beak and a leaf-like crest.
Egg production is 180-200 eggs per year, eggs with good incubation qualities, the color of the shell is brown, egg-laying starts from 7 months. The mass of roosters 3.5-3.8 kg, chickens 2.7-3.0 kg.
Chickens New Hampshire.
This is one of the best meat and egg breeds of chickens bred in the United States and introduced into the poultry farms of the European part of the USSR in 1946. In appearance, they are not much different from the rhode Island. In New Hampshire, the plumage is lighter than that of the Rhode Islands, and higher egg production. This bird is with a calm character, so it can be kept in cages.
Chickens of this breed of the combined direction of productivity have an egg production rate of 190–210 eggs per year with an egg mass of 62–65 g. The egg-laying of pullets begins at 6–7 months of age. The mass of adult roosters is 3.5-4 kg, and chickens 2.5-3.0 kg.
Chickens Moscow black.
As the name implies, this breed of chickens is bred in Moscow. Birds have black plumage with a golden-black mane. The head is wide with a leaf-shaped erect crest.
Egg production is 170–200 eggs per year, egg mass 60–65 g, eggshell color is light brown. The mass of roosters is 3.5-3.7 kg, of hens - 2-2.5 kg.
The Sussex breed was bred in England in Sussex County by crossing local chickens with Dorking, Cornish, White Cochin, Ornington, and Light Brahma. There are several varieties of these birds. When describing this meat-and-egg breed of chickens, it is worth highlighting the light Sussexes: the color of their plumage is silvery-white, the feathers of the mane with a black stripe and white border, the tail feathers are black, the inner surface of the wing wing feathers is also black.
Chickens are well defined meat quality, egg production is quite high. The comb is leaf-shaped. The live weight of adult roosters is 3.3–3.5 kg, chickens — 2.5–2.8 kg.
Egg production for 12 months is 180 eggs, egg weight 60–62 g. Incubation qualities are good. Chickens are well preserved. By 70 days of age, their live weight reaches 1.2 kg.
The breed is bred in many areas and used to create lines of egg direction with colored eggshell, as well as the maternal form - in the production of broilers.
Chickens Poltava clay.
These chickens were bred in the Poltava region, bred in Ukraine. The color of their plumage is from light to dark fawn, the tips of the wing feathers and tail are black.
As can be seen in the photo, the comb in this breed of meat-egg chickens is rose-shaped or leafy:
The live weight of the chicken is about 2.2 kg, for roosters - 3 kg. Egg production is 190-200 eggs. In the direction of productivity, Poltava hens are more likely to shy away from the egg type. Egg lines are created and improved, the birds of which are used to produce hybrids.
Meat and egg productivity of cross-breeds of chickens
In the conditions of large-scale, on an industrial basis, the production of eggs or chicken meat does not use pure breeds, but highly productive hybrids obtained with their use. A hybrid bird is the best cross-breed of chickens, geese, turkeys, etc., a product of purposeful, painstaking, expensive work to create specialized on one important breeding attribute (egg production, egg mass, growth rate of young animals, feed costs, fitness for industrial technology, etc.) lines, with subsequent verification of their positive compatibility.
Thus created crosses lines, which receive the appropriate name, are widely used in large-scale production of eggs or for producing broiler chickens. Thus, young broiler is a hybrid bird, obtained by using 2-3-3 specialized for different productivity lines, obtained on the basis of the relevant breeds, one or another direction of productivity. The word "broilers" comes from the English. to broil - to fry over an open fire, and is associated with instant meat product and is in no way associated with the concept of breed. It is the product of their use for the purpose of hybridization, that is, the production and practical use of such a biological phenomenon as heterosis, or hybrid power, which indicates the superiority of the offspring over the original parental forms in important breeding traits.
Specialized lines and crosses of the best egg and meat breeds of chickens are created in specialized research centers in Russia and the countries of near and far abroad.
Russian poultry farms of the egg productivity trend are currently working with a number of foreign and domestic crosses. The main ones are Lohmann-Brown, Dominant Brown D-102, Borki-117. The following is a description of these cross-hens breeds.
Chickens Cross Lohmann-Brown.
When creating a hybrid mainly used breed Rhode Island, this is a four-line hybrid. The main characteristic of the cross is given in the table “The main productive signs of Lohmann-Brown cross”.
Table "The main indicators of meat and egg productivity cross Loman-Brown chickens":
Most often in our country you can find such breeds as white Plymouth and Cornish. These are the best meat breeds of chickens. They were the ones who allowed broiler chickens to be brought out. In addition to the abovementioned, red-tailed whitetails, pomfret, konhina, fireball, langshan, gudan, dorkin, mini-chickens, home broiler are popular.
This breed of chickens is a success, as they provide not only meat products, but also are excellent laying hens. The breed was bred by English breeders by crossing white Plymouth and New Hampshire. They have a wide and short body, round and wide chest. They have a large head with a leaf-like crest and pink-red earrings. The back is wide with small wings located on the sides and tight to the large body. Plumage is orange-red. On the tail you can see several white feathers among the color plumage.
These chickens belong to the highly productive breed: 150 eggs, 3 kg of live chicken meat, 4 kg of live rooster meat. The ripening of the chicks is very fast. Already after six months, they reach their sexual maturity and begin to lay their first eggs. The breeds give excellent meat, which was the reason for their divorce on a large scale. Chickens quickly gain body weight, which allows for timely updating of livestock on farms.
In order to obtain good productivity, meat breeds of chickens must eat the right way, that is, to obtain a sufficient amount of protein food, which helps to gain the necessary mass in a short time. It is recommended to add crushed shells, sand and small pebbles to the compound feed. This will improve the digestion of birds and replenish the costs of calcium.
The disadvantages of this breed is that four-year-old chickens stop laying eggs. In addition, the maternal instinct of this breed is very poorly developed, therefore it is better to use incubators to get chickens.
They do not like drafts and dampness, so the house should warm up in cold weather. The best for this breed is a wooden poultry house, where it is 1 square meter. The meter should be no more than 20 chicks and 5 adults. The floor should be 20 cm above the ground. Perches are recommended to build at the back wall.
Mini meat breeds of chickens, or simply "minishki"
This breed is popular with small households, as it does not need a large area when growing. It does not require any special care, is unpretentious, consumes a small amount of food and gives excellent meat and a sufficient number of eggs. Like other meat breeds, it has a developed body with thick short legs. They have dense plumage, the color of which can be of any color, ranging from white and gray to red and black.
The livestock of mini chickens is recommended to be updated every two years. This is a highly productive breed: 180 eggs per year, the mini-rooster has a weight of 3 kg, and the chicken - up to 2.7 kg. Eggs are medium sized, densely shelled and brown in color.
Mini meat breeds of chickens have a number of advantages. The most significant are: the high growth rate of the bird, unpretentiousness during feeding and to the content, do not need a large area, excellent layers, are calm.
American breed Plymouth
Today there are 8 types of Plymouths, but in our country only two have become popular - striped and white. They are resilient and completely unpretentious to the conditions of detention.
Plymouth chickens have a compact and strong build. Their head is of medium size. The beak is short, painted in yellow. The comb is set low, has five teeth in chickens and four in a rooster. The breed is distinguished by bright red ear lobes with a smooth surface and an oval shape. The neck is of medium length with thick plumage. The chest is slightly raised, has a wide and convex shape. Medium-sized wings tightly pressed to the body. The back is slightly raised to the tail with strong plumage with moderately long braids. White Plymouth cocks have white plumage, and striped ones have white stripes of black with a lilac shade across white feathers.
Plymouth chickens have a calm character and little activity in movement. Easy to get along in any climate, resistant to avian diseases. Chickens gain mass quickly, which cannot be said about the plumage, which only begins to appear after six weeks. Plymutrokos quickly ripen and in six months give the first eggs.
They have tender meat, which tastes like fish. Roosters grow to 4.6 kg, and chickens - to almost 3.4 kg. 170 eggs are given annually.
Despite the fact that Kochinquin is a breed of chickens in the meat industry, it is a rarity not only for ours, but also for other countries. This breed was bred in China, and the Europeans saw it only in the 19th century.
The bird has a massive figure, most with a plumage of red color. Paws are shaggy, which gives the bird a solemn look. The rooster is decorated with an upright single comb of bright scarlet color. There is also a blue kokhinhin, but it can be met very rarely. He has a smoky-heavenly color.
Cochinquin is a breed of chickens that adapts well to different weather conditions. Up to 100 eggs can be obtained from them per year. The weight of a chicken is 4.6 kg, and a rooster weighs up to 5.6 kg. For a bird to be healthy, you need to choose the right food for it. If the bird lives only in enclosures, which does not allow it to choose food on its own, then rapeseed, corn, rice, wheat should be added to the feed.
Caring for the bird is very simple, as they are unpretentious breeds. Because of this, their aviary does not need additional insulation in cold weather. They are not an active bird, so they spend time quietly in their aviary.
The breed appeared in North America, thanks to the crossing of gray Malay chickens with gray Cochinchins. Chickens Brahma come in with light and with dark plumage. Dark have a white mane, and light - on the contrary. The constitution of the body, like all beef chickens, is strong and dense, the legs are long and thick, covered with feathers. In contrast, the rocks described above have massive and large wings. On the head is a stalked comb and yellow beak. Pomfret chickens are not known for their rapid growth, as in many beef chickens. He is slow. Chickens are good chickens, however, due to their large weight, many eggs squeeze when they hatch, so an incubator is recommended for breeding. Chickens give their first eggs at 8 months. Annually from one hen it is possible to receive 100 eggs. The live weight of the chicken reaches 3.5 kg, and the rooster - 4.5 kg.
When building a chicken coop, it should be noted that the chickens of this breed are large and heavy. Therefore, they should be built more robust perch, located no higher than 40 cm from the floor, in order to avoid injury to the bird.
Cornish - the descendants of fighting chickens
These are the English chickens that appeared here in the 60s. They have a massive body with strongly developed pectoral muscles. The plumage is yellow. It is tough with a bit of fluff. Their broad head is decorated with a roll-like or pea-shaped comb. Deep-set eyes and eyebrows give this breed a fighting look. Middle earlobes are colored red. Corniches have strong, widely spaced legs covered with yellow skin. Chickens give their first eggs in six months. The young of this breed is hardy and has a rapid growth. Already by 7 weeks of age, their live weight reaches 1.5 kg in chickens and up to 2 kg in roosters. The disadvantage of this breed is the poor hatchability of chickens, which is 80%.
About 150 eggs are given by the Cornish each year; the average weight of each reaches 55 g. The eggs are covered with dark and thick shells. The mass of live chicken is 3.5 kg, and the rooster grows to 4.5 kg.
Dorking - one of the best meat breeds
These chickens are the most popular among domestic farmers, as they quickly gain a lot of weight and are famous for their increased endurance. This English breed is considered one of the best meat breeds.
They are a bird with a stocky body resembling a quadrangle. Широкая, хорошо развитая грудь с большой грудной костью. Данная порода имеет короткую и массивную шею. Крылья большие, ноги короткие. Голова у доркинга крупная, с массивным широким лбом. Ее украшает тонкий листовидный гребешок и маленький клюв с небольшим расширением у основания и загнутым кончиком. Ушные ямочки имеют ярко-красный окрас. Оперенье у птицы имеет темно-серый или серебристый, белый и красный цвет.
В год курица данной породы дает 130 яиц, покрытых белой скорлупой. Живой вес петуха достигает 4 кг, а курицы – 3,5 кг.
For future farmers it is not recommended to start growing chickens from this breed, as they are very demanding to care and housing conditions.
This is a French breed of chicken meat. The bird has a medium size and a cylindrical body. Its distinctive feature is the presence of a fluffy tuft on the head and a comb in the form of a moth. Her tuft consists of large feathers falling back. The bird has a large head with a hemispherical swelling on the neck. The beak is short with a curved tip. Gudan endowed with wings of medium size, tight to the body. The lush tail of the bird is adorned with slightly curved feathers. The plumage is black, white or blue. Gudan has strong, wide-set legs, where the legs are partially covered with feathers.
In the year chickens give up to 150 eggs with white shells. Mass of chicken reaches 3 kg, and rooster - 3.5 kg.
Despite the fact that the meat breeds of chickens have low egg production, the incubation instinct is very well developed.
The best breeds of chicken meat
It is known that the history of some meat breeds goes into the distant past, many centuries ago. Therefore, it is extremely difficult to say when work began on breeding the first chicken in the meat sector. For a long time, the birds were kept more for decorative purposes, but with increasing demand for meat products, their breeding on an industrial scale began to grow. Breeds were constantly changing, improving and improving their qualities.
When asked what meat breed is best, it is difficult to give a definite answer. After all, each poultry farmer has his own preferences: the clubs can be valuable because of the special taste of meat, its structure and even color. However, over the long years of the poultry industry, the most popular beef breeds have been identified.
Large chickens with a powerful muscular physique, due to the use of fighting species in breeding. In the conditions of large-scale production, they are used both to produce high-quality meat products and in breeding work to improve other meat species. Currently, there are white, black, brown and bicameral colors.
The live weight of the rooster reaches 3.5-4.5 kg, and the hens - 3-3.5 kg. Egg production is about 100-150 eggs annually, weighing about 55 g each. All about the Cornish breed - on this page.
The breed has gained popularity among farmers not only because of its high meat productivity, but also because of the interesting feather decoration in the form of a beard and sideburns. At home of these chickens, in France, there are two types of market animals: light with a predominance of egg-bearing qualities and heavy meat. The most common plumage colors are salmon and white.
Roosters can reach 3.5-4 kg in weight, and chickens - 1.5-2 kg. About 160-180 snow-white eggs, weighing 50 g are produced per year. Learn more about the breed with photos and descriptions.
Ancient Chinese breed, which is actively used to breed highly productive crosses. These large chickens are also decorative, having a fairly loose and lush feather cover that covers even the metatarsus and toes. For representatives kohinhin most often characterized by yellow or white color.
In the year of laying hen no more than 120 eggs with yellow-brown or dark brown shells. Body weight is of greater interest to farmers: roosters reach 4-5 kg, and feathered ladies - 3-4 kg. Interesting facts about the breed on this page.
Mehelen Cuckoo - Malin
The real pride of the Belgian people, with excellent taste. Birds are endowed with a massive shoulder girdle, wide back and chest. A distinctive feature of the breed is a short tail and a unique "cuckoo" plumage in the form of inclusions or stripes. Colombian, silver, white, black or blue colors are allowed.
Each year, the hens lay up to 160 eggs, but they are flatly refused to hatch. Males grow to 5 kg, and feathered ladies - up to 4 kg. Details on this breed of chickens in this article.
One of the most profitable breeding breeds. The main feature of the brahma is fully fledged legs that prevent them from digging the ground. These are rather large birds with strong legs, a small tail and a red rose-like crest consisting of three parts. The color of the plumage can be both dark and light.
The breed is very calm and resilient, unpretentious in keeping and feeding, resistant to diseases. In the year of brahma can carry about 160 eggs. The weight of the rooster is about 5 kg, and chicken - 4 kg. Description of the breed and characteristics of birds can be found here.
This breed is rooted in distant China, and later began to actively develop in Europe. There, breeders managed to bring two lines of these birds:
- English - have plumage on metatarsus,
- German - have bare metatars.
Langshans have a large build, a graceful head with a leaf-like crest, a long neck and a short fluffy tail. One-year-old male reaches 4.2 kg in weight, and chicken - 3.4 kg. Egg production is very good - up to 160 large eggs of light or reddish-yellow shades.
The oldest English breed that has two varieties:
- white - have a high taste of meat,
- colored ones are larger than whites, but they are much inferior in taste to them.
Birds have a massive body with a wide chest and almost square shoulders, rich mane and a lush tail. Kvochki have on paws on 5 fingers.
It is also surprising that sexual maturation in layers begins at 3.5 months. In the year they give about 140 eggs, weighing no more than 66 g. The weight of the rooster reaches 4.5 kg, and the hens - up to 3.5 kg.
Broilers are more likely not a breed, but a hybrid, since different breeds were gradually crossed for their breeding. This species of birds is widely used in the conditions of the poultry farm, because it is economically much more profitable. Broilers are ahead of many meat breeds in terms of speed and weight gain, however they are not able to transfer their qualities to their offspring.
Iza, Loman, Ross, Cobb, StarBro and others became very popular. The average weight of adult roosters is 4-4.5 kg, and chickens 3.5-4 kg. In more detail about broilers in this article.
A unique breed of chickens that has several color types from light to black. Farmers, who choose beautiful individuals for their farmstead, prefer Plymouth trotters to striped stripes.
Birds are characterized by a bulky body, against which the rest of the body of a small size look funny. Plymouthrock has a calm disposition and special slowness.
The average egg production is about 160-190 eggs per year, weighing up to 60 g. Cavaliers weigh 3.5 to 4 kg, and ladies weigh 2.3-3 kg. Charming Plymouth in all its glory in the photo - here.
These aristocratic birds have good endurance, and their meat is valued by farmers for their nutritional value and unique taste. On the snow-white plumage of the French hummocks, bright red scallop and earrings stand out, and their highlight can be called massive legs with smooth skin of blue or steel color.
The juvenile bresse of the Gallic breed is rapidly gaining weight. Males reach 5 kg in weight, and females 3.5 kg. Egg production is not less impressive: with good conditions for laying hens, they produce 180-240 eggs per year. For more information about the breed, see this page.
The French variety of barbeze chickens is considered a delicacy thanks to red meat and an unusual taste. According to the description, the breed is characterized by a harmonious body shape and a magnificent posture. Birds are quite high: roosters grow up to 70 cm, and hens - up to 65.
Layers are distinguished by large egg products and can produce about 160-200 pieces annually. Having reached the age of one year, the gentlemen weigh from 4.5 kg, and the chickens, on average, 1 kg less.
The most meat breed of chickens
The best meat breed in terms of size and weight gain activity is the Jersey giant. These American chickens - champions among a huge number of their fellows, because they have impressive dimensions. Roosters weigh an average of about 6 kg, and chicken - 4.5 kg. They begin to rush from the age of six months and annually give about 180 eggs.
These Jersey giants weigh 6 kg.
Jersey giants differ harmonious physique, despite the heavy constitution. They have a horizontal body with a long back, leaf-like crest, wide head and fluffy tail. Learn more about this breed.
Interesting! The largest individuals of the chicken community are registered among the representatives of the breed Jersey giant.
Reviews of farmers about beef meats
Olesya. Among the variety of meat breeds I prefer to breed Cochinquins. These are very calm and serious birds, it is easy to work with them, and besides, they are growing rapidly. The only negative is that the bird is not so easy to get, but in the future you will be able to breed the offspring yourself using an incubator.
Sergei. If you choose a poultry with a good appeasable character and excellent taste of meat, then definitely this breed is a firewall. Very beautiful chickens with strong immunity and good survival. In weight gain quickly enough, egg production is also quite good: on average, 5 chickens carry 3 eggs a day. Chickens after birth strong.
Milena. Adult cockerels of Mehelen cuckoos are very heavy by weight, from the age of 4 months they start to slaughter them. Gutted carcass weight was about 2.2 kg without legs and neck. The taste of the meat is excellent. Layers start giving eggs at about 6.5-8 months. Eggs are very tasty, the yolk is quite large and dense.
The video provides a brief overview of the Jersey giant breed: