Fish and other aquatic creatures

Caring for aquarium and fish for beginners


Aquarium is a stylish addition to the interior that allows you to create a unique, lively atmosphere in the room. This effect creates only well-groomed and filled with bright inhabitants of the capacity. How to achieve this will help instruction how to care for the fish in the aquarium. Opinions of psychologists agree that the observation of the life of fish allows you to relax from everyday worries and relax. Smooth movements of the inhabitants of the water world look graceful and fascinating. Therefore, the aquarium performs not only an aesthetic, but also a healing function.

Content of aquarium fish

Argued that the maintenance of fish does not require time and money. Experienced aquarists will talk in detail about the complexity of this activity, which requires care and unhurriedness. You control a small underwater world that cannot exist without competent support. For beginners, help how to care for the fish in the aquarium (point by point).

Excessive care for such pets is not required. To understand the process will help the instruction. How to care for fish in an aquarium, even children can remember.

The first serious oversight that is allowed at this stage is the purchase of a small aquarium, considering that a 20–30 liter tank will satisfy the needs of the beginner amateur fish. In reality, the opposite is true. Maintaining artificial biocenosis in balance is much easier in a large aquarium, at least 50-70 liters. In it several species of inhabitants can coexist and develop normally.

The next question, which will consider a brief instruction on how to care for the fish in the aquarium, is what is inside the tank. They create a cozy atmosphere for small inhabitants, starting from the ground. Small pebbles do the job best. When selecting, take into account its caliber and color, focusing on the species of fish that are planned to contain. Inhabitants of bright shades look better on a background of gray stones.

Plants are rooted in the ground, they take nutrients from it. Flora serves as a refuge for individual fish that love to hide from active neighbors. Artificial greens have an attractive appearance and do not require care, but give preference to natural plants.

How to choose a fish?

How to choose the inhabitants? How to care for fish in an aquarium? The manual will give answers to these questions. Decide in advance on the species composition of the ichthyofauna to simplify the process of leaving and to prevent conflicts. Focus on the size of the fish: large and small individuals will not be able to live together.

For many decades, viviparous fish have been very popular with aquarists. They do not lay eggs, but immediately give birth to viable fry, which can independently move and eat. Characterized by these types of ease of care, they do not need to create special conditions for reproduction. However, the fish have a large range of colors and shapes.

If you do not know what types to choose and how to care for the fish in the aquarium, the instruction will help to resolve these issues. The most common are the following representatives of the ichthyofauna: patzili, guppy, mollies and swordtails. The conditions of maintenance and care required for them are the same, which allows you to settle them in the same aquarium. Among the fish that lay eggs, speckled catfish are the most popular.

Cockerels and goldfish are classic aquarists. Beginners are more difficult to handle because they need to pay more attention. A round aquarium is not the best choice for them. These inhabitants will be more comfortable in a rectangular container. Instructions on how to care for fish in an aquarium recommends that when creating a second tank, take some of the water from the first one. This method will help to reduce the time for settling.

Instructions on how to care for fish in an aquarium, the points suggests:

  • Regular reading of the water thermometer. If there are deviations from the recommended parameters for this type of fish, the heating is turned on.
  • Viviparous ichthyofauna are suitable for temperatures from 18 to 28 ºC. But each individual species has its own preferences. Reproduction will occur only in this narrow temperature range.
  • Control of purity and hardness of water. Every 7 days, one third of the medium is removed, replacing it with a new one.
  • Check the filter element and compressor, without which the normal existence of the inhabitants is impossible.
  • The aquarium should be lit from 10 to 12 hours a day.
  • Feed the inhabitants need 1-2 times a day. In the presence of fry, the number of meals is increased to 4. A portion of food is placed in the feeder, which is usually eaten in 5-10 minutes. Residues must be removed (to prevent rotting).

The given instructions on how to care for fish in an aquarium will help beginners to orient themselves in the basic requirements for their maintenance and feeding. More detailed information should be studied for each specific type that you have.

Tips for beginners to care for aquarium and fish

Breeding and caring for fish and an aquarium at home is of great interest to both amateurs and professionals. The army of aquarium fans is constantly replenishing its ranks: beginners are attracted by the aesthetic satisfaction of contemplating the picture of the water world. Creating your own underwater garden in miniature seems to be an easy and fun process, because the specifics and fish care for beginners is often a secret behind seven seals. In order not to suffer a fiasco, it is worth exploring some tips. Then the creation and maintenance of beauty, care for aquarium fish will become a favorite hobby that brings pleasure with minimal financial and time costs.

Size and design

Size matters! It is worth paying attention to the model of average parameters from 50 to 100 liters. Small aquarium requires, surprisingly, more care: it is more difficult to maintain the optimum chemical composition of water, and it is more difficult for fish to grow, multiply, grow. For the same reasons, it is better not to choose rounded shapes. Before “starting” the tank is washed with salt, soda, laundry soap, washed thoroughly.

The location of the aquarium, of course, depends on the taste, the possibilities and the home interior, however, in this matter you should follow some rules. Firstly, it is desirable to avoid direct sunlight, so the corner of the room is ideal. Secondly, all kinds of equipment is powered by electricity, which means that the outlet must be located at a distance equal to the length of the cable. Thirdly, the stand under the aquarium should be sufficiently stable to prevent fluctuations in water that will disturb its population. To this end, you can not place it at the door and you need to think about the location of the aquarium in advance before it is arranged and filled.

Decor and algae are not only aesthetic value, because they provide the necessary places for shelter and breeding inhabitants. On the stands of pet stores there are all sorts of products that correspond to any taste preferences, in a wide price range. Grottoes, ladders, columns, ships, shards, houses, a bridge and much more will wake up interior designers in you. The main thing to sterilize them before placing in the aquarium. Subsequently, wash the décor in an individual dish every month when replacing water.

With great caution you need to treat the bizarre form koryagami assembled on the street - they need to be boiled for a long time and cleaned of high-quality dirt from dirt in order to prevent fish diseases. The tree is short-lived in water, so even with careful processing it will eventually turn into a source of not very useful bacteria.

The plant world is also diverse. Beginners should buy colorful artificial models - they need the same care as the decor. Living algae is a bit more complicated: they need to be planted periodically, and bacteria bought from unscrupulous vendors can be carried. Nevertheless, they are more useful because release oxygen and absorb waste products. Attention is important to stop on unpretentious plants and plant high specimens on the back wall (Indian fern, Bacopa). Low-growing cryptocoryne, Anubias placed in the foreground. To heighten the effect of using floating plants. The main rule of maintenance - algae should not occupy more than a third of the underwater world.

See how to plant aquarium plants.

Maintaining an ecosystem

The equipment necessary for operation includes the already known heater, as well as a device for measuring temperature, a filter and an aerator. Filters are selected in accordance with the volumes of the home pool. The filters require care, so once every three weeks they are washed outside with water and they pull out the sponge of the internal filter and clean it of dirt. There are coal (it is replaced every month), or primary cleaning (white material is replaced every two weeks).

Lighting is usually mounted in a protective top cover. If it was not sold along with the aquarium, be sure to pick up the cover so that the water does not evaporate and the particularly frisky fish do not jump out. The lamp should be chosen in proportion to the size of the tank, at the rate of 0.5W per liter. Usually the lights are turned off at night, although there are some types of fish that need additional lighting at this time of day.

Soil plays an important role in the formation of an aquarium ecosystem - all biochemical processes occur. You can buy ready-made options in the pet store, you can use sand, pebbles, glass beads. In the second case, careful disinfection and boiling is required, in the first case, abundant washing is sufficient. Get a siphon to handle the soil in your "pond".

See how to clean the aquarium yourself.

The water must be separated: the required amount is poured into a clean tank, left for a couple of days, and only then it is filled with an aquarium. For water, parameters such as hardness, acidity, temperature are important, which are determined for each species separately and are constantly maintained either by heating devices or special products that can be purchased along with fish. Caring for aquarium fish requires constant water changes. Do it either manually or with a special pump.

Fish for beginners better to choose from unpretentious species. Perfectly suitable small schooling species (scalarii, guppies, barbs, danios), catfish. The choice depends on compatibility (it is impossible to settle even one predatory specimen together with peace-loving, for example, gourami). The inhabitants of the aquarium should also combine the same preferences in acidity and water hardness.

In feeding, they follow a strict regimen: once a day, just as much as they can eat in 5-10 minutes. Fish do not feel the measures in food, so they are prone to overeating, which means - to the pollution of the aquatic environment. Caring for aquarium fish involves monitoring their condition. If they become lethargic, change their color, then they are probably sick.

These basic tips for beginners in the maintenance of an aquarium will help you to equip it with love, so that it would be a decoration of your apartment, a picture from which it is impossible to look away!

10 commandments novice aquarist

What to do to breed fish? Where to begin? How to make the first launch of the aquarium at home? What are the most unpretentious fish? Do I need seashells in the aquarium? What kind of ground to choose? These and many other questions arise for beginning aquarists when they decide to buy a home aquarium and breed fish. Of course, experienced aquarists already know a lot of secrets and nuances in this difficult hobby of fish. And what should newcomers do in this case? And in today's article we will dwell in detail not only on what constitutes an aquarium for beginners, but also on what to do in order to create a real work of art at home.

ABC care for aquarium fish

All aquarists - both beginner and experienced, it is important to know how to care for aquarium fish correctly. In fact, their care begins with the purchase of an aquarium, because of its shape, size, material depends on how comfortable the life of pets will be. Aquascape, feeding, compatibility with other aquatic organisms are also important conditions for the harmonious life of the fish. To ensure proper care of the fish at home, you need to familiarize yourself with some rules.

Aquarium arrangement

To choose the right aquarium for fish, consider the following recommendations:

  1. In a spacious tank, fish care will be easier. The products of their vital activity in a close aquarium quickly decompose, poisoning the water. In a spacious tank more water that will be mixed. Cleaning can be done less frequently.
  2. The size of the tank depends on the type of fish and their size. Before buying an aquarium, you should know which pets will be settled there. Large and gregarious fish require a large amount of swimming space. At 5-centimeter fish need 10 liters of water.
  3. Attention should be paid to aquascape. This shelter in the form of caves, moles, clay pots, pipes, rocks, snags and plants. Fish with bulging eyes do not need a lot of scenery due to the threat of injury.

  • The shape of the tank should be rectangular. This aquarium is easier to clean at home.
  • Ground, plants, snags, rocks and stones must be selected correctly. They can provide the similarity of a natural biotope, but the main condition is its use. Stone sculptures, soil should not be toxic, or change the parameters of the aquatic environment (acidity, hardness). In addition, everything that will be placed in the tank must be treated with boiling water, special solutions. It is desirable to boil the soil, or chop in a furnace at a temperature of 200-300 ° C. Plants should be thoroughly rinsed under running water. The compact arrangement of the decorations in the aquarium will facilitate the care of them.
  • Lay the soil in several layers, plant it in it. Place the snags, rocks. Install a water heating system, filter, compressor, water thermometer, lighting. Be careful when working with the equipment. The light should not heat the water too much so that the plants are not damaged and the fish do not become worse. To visually recreate the underwater world, a decorative film can be glued to the back wall of the aquarium.
  • See how to lay the soil in the aquarium.

    Fish selection

    Instructions for choosing aquarium fish:

    1. Choose pets according to your experience in the aquarium business. Of course, for beginners it is better to choose small and unpretentious in keeping fish, for which care is simple. Learn in advance about the lifestyle of the species, its taste habits.
    2. Find out at what parameters the water can contain a fish, what feed it should be fed and how many times a day.
    3. Choose your aquarium neighbors correctly. It is impossible to settle predatory and herbivorous fish together, especially large and small species. Disproportionality causes eating of some fish by others.

    Watch the video with the rules of compatibility of aquarium fish.

  • There are schooling fish species, these are small hydrobionts that feel comfortable in the company of their relatives. A large school of non-aggressive fish does not show aggression towards neighbors.
  • Some fish are suitable only for aquarists with experience. It is important that pet care does not bore you, because they take time.
  • When buying fish, pay attention to their appearance and behavior. They should not be faded, disheveled scales, fins should be in place. The selected fish should actively swim, not be constantly at the bottom. Choose young fish if you want to breed them in the future. Check with the seller about the feeding regime.
  • Proper feeding

    Constant, varied feeding also makes up the right care for aquatic pets. It is advisable to give food 2 times a day, at the same time. Some species may eventually take food from the hands, but the hands must be clean, without blood and odors. Fish can see or hear a knock on the glass, swim out of shelters in anticipation of feeding. Pets can become so accustomed to the regime that they begin to prepare for the meal at the same time. Fish can not be overfed, it is fraught with health problems. Small portions that they eat in 3-5 minutes will be enough.

    Feeding Instructions:

      The diet is varied. Herbivorous fish require constant receipt of vegetable feed with fiber, omnivorous and predatory fish - in meat food, rich in proteins. It is advisable to combine all types of feed: live, frozen, dry, artificial. Live food is best frozen, so as not to infect the water infection. This applies to bloodworms, tubers, daphnia, corets and other feed. Некоторые рыбки любят так называемые «коктейли», которые можно приготовить на кухне. Замороженные морепродукты, овощи проходят через мясорубку, формируются в виде кружочков, и кладутся в морозильную камеру.

  • Переедание сокращает жизнь рыбкам, или провоцирует вздутие живота. Раз в неделю следует устраивать питомцам разгрузочный день, и не кормить их вообще. You can serve food at 12 noon and 6 pm, or at another time during the day. At night, it is better not to feed. Pay attention to the behavior - if they do not eat, then portions can be reduced, or feed once a day.
  • Fish Care Basics

    Care for water pets should be constant and quality. Cleanliness is a guarantee of health and carefree life, both for the owner and for the pet. Instructions for the care of the aquarium with fish:

    1. Regularly make water changes to fresh and clean. It is easy to get such water - dial the required amount from under the tap into the glass container, leave for 2-4 days, bring to the required parameters (check with indicators). Then pour into the tank. In an aquarium of 200 liters, you need to replace 20% of the water; in a 100-liter one, you can replace 30% of the water. The procedure should be repeated once a week.
    2. Constantly siphon the bottom of the tank with a funnel, removing the remnants of uneaten food. Compressor with aeration, filter, do not turn off heating without special need.

  • Every day, watch the pets - their appearance, behavior. If you notice a change - prepare a quarantine tank. Perhaps the fish is sick, and she needs special care.
  • You should have a scraper for aquarium glass, which perfectly cleans hard surfaces from algal fouling. Stone rocks and snags can be cleaned with a brush. If the surfaces are not cleaned in a timely manner, the biological balance will be disturbed, which will affect the health of the fish.
  • Aquarium and care for it - tips for beginners

    Those who have just decided to start an aquarium are faced with a huge choice of shapes, sizes, and also with a wide variety of devices to maintain the biobalance in the aquarium. Choose the size and shape you need, based on their own preferences and capabilities. One has only to take into account that in very small aquariums it is much harder to maintain the necessary conditions, water deteriorates faster in them, temperature fluctuations are possible. It is better to choose medium or large aquariums. Minimally necessary equipment for the start of the arrangement of the aquarium: soil, water filter, thermometer, compressor for enriching water with oxygen, a net for fish, a lamp for lighting the aquarium and a siphon. Plants placed in an aquarium can be artificial (usually they are acquired if the fish you plan to start can eat the living algae) and alive. Water for the aquarium should be further cleaned before being placed in the vessel. When the aquarium is already populated, it is necessary to maintain an established ecosystem in it, changing only part of the water from time to time.

    Care for aquarium fish for beginners

    What newcomers who decide to start an aquarium need to know depends on what kinds of fish they plan to keep. Each species has specific requirements for water, its temperature, ration, and the population of other aquarium territory with other fish. It is necessary to choose those species that live in nature in similar conditions. For beginners, it is better to acquire non-aggressive in nature and resistant to disease, as well as fluctuations in the composition of the water fish species. The most common and easy to care for are cichlids, guppies, swordtails, veils, various types of catfish. What should be wary of novice fish breeders, so is the overpopulation of the aquarium. After all, I want to buy as many beautiful and different fish as possible, but in cramped conditions they start to hurt and even die. Also pay attention to feeding. In this matter, it is better to underfeed than to feed. Fish can easily live without food for two days, but the abundance of undernourished food leads to a rapid turbidity of the water and the proliferation of bacteria.

    How to choose an aquarium

    Buying an aquarium is the very first step towards creating a living corner.

    1. The shape and size of the device is very important. A good aquarium does not interfere at home and guarantees comfort. In addition, he must ensure the normal existence of the fish.
    2. When buying it is necessary to take into account that in large tanks the water stays clean longer. Care for a large aquarium is required less frequently.
    3. Aquarium should be selected according to the size and number of fish. If you want to contemplate large fish, then you need to make a big house for them.
    4. Landscaping aquarium also requires a thoughtful approach. It is possible to decorate a house reservoir with soil, algae, stones and various figures.
    5. The shape of the aquarium should provide convenient cleaning.

    Caring for fish in an aquarium includes the following regular activities:

    • keeping the aquarium clean
    • timely partial renewal of water (in a small aquarium - once a week, in a large one - once a month),
    • the inner surface of the aquarium should be cleaned with a special scraper,
    • the ground must be in good condition.

    These are the basic principles of fish care in an aquarium. Water quality is important. In the course of their life, the fish emit harmful substances. Some of them recycle plants. But a surplus of bad components still accumulates. Therefore, the rules of care for the aquarium must be respected.

    Fresh water for fish requires advance preparation:

    • it must have the same hardness and temperature as the water in the aquarium,
    • it must first be defended and filtered to remove chlorine from the water supply. Instead of settling, you can use special conditioners (for example, AQUAYER AntiToxin Vita),
    • regular maintenance of water in the aquarium ensures the creation of a favorable environment for fish,
    • water must be saturated with oxygen.

    How else can you maintain the purity of the aquatic environment

    Care for the aquarium provide antsistrusy. These are bottom fishes - "attendants". It is equally important to place plants that purify water. They should be positioned so that they do not impede the free movement of fish. The same applies to snags, mini-rocks and decorations.

    From plants it is better to choose simple and unpretentious plants. It can be perististostniki and krugolistniki, which perfectly purify water from turbidity. It is not recommended to plant rare plants in your first aquarium. The rules for caring for an aquarium include taking care of plants. Each of them needs special conditions. Failure to comply with certain requirements, they die.

    Caring for a home aquarium should include cleaning artificial figurines. They form plaque, which must be cleaned. This is done when replacing water.

    Care of a new aquarium

    The main requirement is to form the microclimate necessary for the fish. Experts recommend launching fish into a new “home” only in a week. However, the process can be accelerated using special capsules with microflora (biokorin, biostarter).

    If you have a working aquarium, soak a sponge in the water and squeeze it into a new aquarium. You can just pour a few liters of water. In this embodiment, the water must be defended in just 2 days. Caring for a new aquarium involves, above all, the preparation of water and the formation of the internal climate.

    How to run animals in the aquarium? It is enough to pour water with the fish into a new container. The rules of care for the aquarium do not allow a sharp temperature drop. Warm up the water with the fish to room temperature, and then run them into the home aquarium.

    Daily care for aquarium fish

    Fish do not need excessive care. Caring for them is very simple. That is why many parents prefer to buy their children fish. It is enough to remember about feeding fish.

    Remains of food floating on the surface of the water should be collected with a net. This is done 20 minutes after feeding. Fishes should be fed in the morning and evening. They are prone to overeating. This leads to their death. Therefore, do not feed them too much.

    Peculiarities of fish species are important

    If you are going to purchase aquarium fish, before you buy, be sure to learn the features of those or other species. Many here depend on the type of fish. Therefore, you need to know the features of the fish you are going to buy. Most fish need warm water. The temperature in the aquarium should be for some fish ranging from 19 to 22 degrees for others from 22 to 28 degrees. When caring for an aquarium, do not forget about the optimal conditions of the fish. Most of them do not tolerate sudden changes in temperature. However, there are exceptions. Fish with different temperature requirements should not be placed in the same container. For example, gold fishes need to maintain 21 degrees.

    Proper care of the aquarium should take into account the peculiarities of behavior in the flock. Some fish require a high aquarium, for example, an angelfish. In addition, these fish lodge in pairs. Choosing fish, you should consider all these nuances. If you have aquarium fish at home, caring for them will not be a big hassle.

    How to eliminate water turbidity

    Caring for an aquarium includes monitoring the ground. If the water is cloudy, this is a sign of careless handling of the ground. The opacities usually disappear after time.

    Light turbidity can be caused by unicellular organisms and bacteria. They can significantly spoil the look of a homely pond. In this case, they must get rid of. How to care for fish in an aquarium in this version? It is necessary to clean it. It is required to remove silt. Fish can not feed about 3 days. In addition, it is necessary to partially replace the water.

    Also helps the aeration of water. It will be useful for breathing fish. If the water in the aquarium quickly becomes cloudy, you can put a piece of copper wire there. Sometimes the change in water color is due to the colored feed.

    List of events

    Caring for an aquarium usually takes 10-20 minutes daily and an hour and a half extra once a week.

    Daily care treatments include:

    • equipment operation check
    • fish inspection,
    • feeding fish (this is a very broad question and a topic for a separate article).

    During the launch of the aquarium or when there are some global changes in it, for example, when populating a large number of large fish, replacing the biofilter filler or installing carbon dioxide supply equipment, it is also highly desirable to test the aquarium water daily, checking the level of ammonia, nitrite, pH and other parameters.

    • water change,
    • cleaning the soil from excrement, food residue and other waste, siphon, if necessary,
    • cleaning glass from algae,
    • washing the filter (not always, depending on its type),
    • Plant care (dressing, pruning).

    Testing water once a week for nitrogen compounds, phosphates, hardness and acidity is also very useful for monitoring the condition of the aquarium, but in a stable and prosperous bank is not mandatory.

    Fish inspection and equipment inspection

    Inspection of fish is most convenient to carry out during feeding, when even the secretive swim out of their shelters. It is necessary to check whether all the fish are in place, whether their appearance has changed (there are no stains, sores, wounds, reddenings, and the like) and behavior (how active they are, willingly take food).

    Equipment inspection is usually done in the morning after turning on the lamps. It is necessary to make sure that the thermometer has the required temperature, the light bulb is on the heater, the filter jet has the necessary power, the aerator or compressor, if any, is working with proper power, all the lights are burning exactly and brightly.

    If everything is in order, tasty feed the fish and enjoy our wonderful beautiful and stable ecosystem until the day when it comes to clean it.

    How to clean the aquarium?

    During cleaning it is necessary to turn off electrical equipment. Only an external canister filter can be left on, if its water intake hose is low enough and remains below the water level. As for the internal filter, if the cleaning is ordinary and does not take long, it can be left off in the aquarium. If the cleaning is large, general, cleaning all the decorations, weeding and transplanting plants, draining a significant part of the water, the internal filter is placed in the drained aquarium water and turned on so that the bacteria colony does not die.

    First of all proceed to cleaning the glass. To do this, you can use different devices, each of which has its advantages and disadvantages:

    1. Long-handled scraper with permanent or interchangeable metal razor blades. Very effective, but not suitable for cleaning Plexiglas aquariums, as it can scratch them. When choosing such a scraper, you need to pay attention to the strength of the handle (if it is too flexible, you will not be able to press on the glass with the necessary force and at the right angle). In addition, the metal blade should not be longer than the plastic cover and stick out of it on the sides, as in this case, when cleaning around the corners, you can damage the silicone joints of the aquarium.
    2. Magnetic scraper is extremely handy when cleaning large and deep containers. Suitable for cleaning plexiglass. When choosing, it is necessary to take into account what thickness of glass the scraper is designed for, otherwise the power of the magnet may be insufficient, and the scraper simply will not attract. Using this device, you must be very careful when cleaning the glass near the bottom, so that there is no pebble or grain of sand between the scraper and the glass. They will leave deep and noticeable scratches on the glass.
    3. Regular household cleaning sponge. Many aquarists use just such, but they are made from materials of different stiffness, and some are quite capable of leaving scratches on aquarium glass, which individually are almost invisible, but over time make the glass all the more cloudy.
    4. The usual bank plastic card has perfectly proved as a scraper. It does not spoil the glass, and its only drawback is the lack of a handle and, accordingly, some inconvenience of use.

    Some aquarists recommend that the rear window of an aquarium should not be cleaned of algae, as it is usually almost completely hidden by decorations and plants, and the algal plaque usually does not spoil the appearance of the pond, and nitrates and nitrites from the water are slowly consumed. And if you lead a few algae fish, then the raid will not remain either on the rear window or on the viewing window.

    Now, when our glass is clean, it is the turn of the ground.

    How to clean the soil in the aquarium?

    Nothing complicated here. The soil is cleaned with the help of a siphon - a hose on which a funnel with a net is put. The latter is needed to avoid aquarium inhabitants getting into the hose. You can force the siphons of different models to suck up water in different ways: some have a special pear (in my opinion, this is the most convenient option), others need to be sharply lifted and lowered several times (usually it doesn’t work), others still need to be sucked in by mouth water at the risk of swallowing it.

    There are different points of view on how often a siphon should be held. Some fans of siphon soil weekly, believing that thereby contribute to its purity, better supply of oxygen and prevent its rotting. Others do it once a year or a year and a half, or even less often, explaining that with a siphon:

    • damaged plant roots
    • colonies of nitrifying bacteria that live in the upper layers of the soil,
    • the suspension of organic matter and nitrates rises into the water, which is food for algae,
    • Yes, and in itself sludge, removed when siphon, is a valuable fertilizer.

    In my opinion, weekly soil cleaning with a siphon is necessary in aquariums where there are no live plants or very few of them. In the same reservoirs that are densely planted with vegetation, including those with developed roots, this can be done less often - once every 3-4 months, and for scheduled Sunday cleaning, simply siphon 1–2 cm away from the ground, without touching it, removing excess dirt from the surface, especially in places feeding fish.

    How to change the water in the aquarium?

    The frequency and intensity of water changes depend on the biological load, that is, on the number, size and voracity of the aquarium inhabitants, as well as on their water quality requirements: it is clear that the concepts of cleanliness differ from the discus and, for example, spur-footed frogs.

    With the average population of the reservoir and fastidiousness of its inhabitants, substitution is usually carried out by a third, a quarter or a fifth of the volume every week. Ideally, to establish a substitution schedule, it is necessary to test the water in the aquarium and determine the nitrate content in it. It should be at the level of no more than 10-30 mg / l. Accordingly, if the concentration of nitrates in the water is higher, then water must be changed more often.

    To perform a substitution, it is necessary to prepare water with the same or very close parameters (temperature, acidity) as in the aquarium. Most aquatic animals prefer water that settled for at least 24 hours. If you can not defend the water, you can use air conditioners, for example, Tetra Aqua Safe or Dennerle Avera.

    Part of the water from the aquarium is drained using a siphon or hose, the end of which must be placed near the bottom. In order to easily navigate how much water you need to drain, it is convenient to make a mark on the glass. Свежая вода заливается с помощью шланга, ковша или другой ёмкости, при этом струя направляется не на грунт, который таким образом легко размывается, а, например, на грот или положенное на дно блюдце.

    Как чистить фильтр в аквариуме?

    У аквариумного фильтра несколько функций. Самые главные: он должен задерживать частички грязи и мути (отмершую органику, остатки корма, минеральную муть от субстрата) и быть домом для бактерий биофильтра. Накопленная грязь в процессе чистки должна быть убрана, в то время как колонию бактерий нужно оставить максимально сохранной. These conditions determine the rules for cleaning the filter.

    Usually, internal sponge filters are washed once a week, as are often sponges of internal filters, where there are compartments with porous fillers (these compartments themselves often do not need to bother!). External canister filters are cleaned less frequently, once in 6-10 weeks; in some models, the prefilter sponges, parts of which perform preliminary mechanical filtration, are washed weekly.

    In any case, the filtering materials are carefully washed and rinsed in water drained from the aquarium in order to minimally damage the colony of nitrifying bacteria. The same rotor head is washed and cleaned with the same water using a cotton swab or a toothbrush - the engine compartment of the filter. After cleaning, the filter is placed in the aquarium as soon as possible and turned on.

    How to tidy up the plants?

    Usually fertilizing plants is carried out once a week, if necessary. In addition, the leaves are covered with algae or eaten by fish and snails, the tops grown from the water are cut off, you can trim or weed out overgrown bushes and grass.

    These are the basic rules for caring for an aquarium. Of course, sometimes there are situations when additional, more complex interventions and manipulations are required, but if you master these basic principles, you will gradually be able to easily master all the other knowledge and skills.

    Video lesson about proper care of the aquarium:

    How to start keeping the fish in the aquarium

    Beautifully designed aqua house, with bright inhabitants can be an important decorative element in the design of the room.

    In addition to the fish tank, the aquarist needs to purchase pet grooming equipment at home:

    • net,
    • wall scraper,
    • container for storage of dry and wet (bloodworm) feed.

    The tank itself must be equipped with lighting, a filter with a pump for purifying water and enriching it with oxygen.

    To create a decorative composition, stones can be laid out inside the fish house, decorative elements can be placed (snags, a castle or a sunken ship model), artificial plants or living plants can be placed.

    The right choice of aquarium for beginners

    In order for the aquarium to be beautiful, convenient to maintain and the fish were comfortable there, you need to take a responsible approach to the choice of their house and follow the instructions for choosing a tank.

    There are several varieties: wall, table (rectangular or round), panoramic. The latter version is used by professionals to show the beauty of the underwater decoration of the aquarium, they are expensive.

    Beginners should stay at a simple rectangular shape, with installation on the table or a special cabinet. Such containers do not have a high price, they are easy to maintain and attractive in appearance.

    Aquariums can be quite small - from a few liters, for the maintenance of one fish. There are huge tanks for several hundred liters - whole underwater worlds.

    A beginner needs to decide on the number and type of fish, and based on this, choose the size of the tank. It is recommended to start with a volume of 80 - 120 liters, which is enough to contain a dozen inhabitants of small and medium size.

    The larger the volume of the aquarium, the easier it is to maintain a favorable environment for fish.

    The walls can be made of silicate glass or organic. The first is transparent and hard to scratch. But, silicate glass is fragile, it is easy to break. Organic, on the contrary, is resistant to shocks, but is easily scratched.

    Choosing a compressor for domestic capacity, besides its capacity, you should pay attention to the noiseless operation.

    The lamp is selected on the basis of the size of the tank - half a kilowatt per 1 liter of volume.

    Additionally, you can equip heaters (comfortable water temperature for most fish +20 +24 degrees) and feeders for dry and live food.

    The soil for the fish house is selected on the basis of the species of fish and living plants that will be planted in this soil. Apply coarse sand, pebbles, granite chips.

    The walls of the aquarium should be cleaned regularly.

    As a beginner in aquarium choose fish

    For starters, fit:

    • guppies (small, bright viviparous fishes),
    • swordtails,
    • mollies,
    • neons, cardinals, danios rerio (small bright, floating flocks),
    • catfish (unpretentious long-lived, performing the function of cleaning the aquarium).

    Striped handsome men - barbs, are distinguished by unpretentiousness, but they are pugnacious. Barbs get along only with catfish.

    For one fish of these species, you need from 8 to 15 liters of the volume of the aquarium. Relocation of the capacity of the inhabitants will lead to diseases, lack of oxygen in the water, excessive pollution.

    When buying fish you need to pay attention to its appearance. A healthy individual is brightly colored, has a regular body shape (not twisted), swims smoothly and quickly.

    One fish needs from 8 to 15 liters of aquarium volume

    Install and Run

    After purchasing the container and components (soil, decorative elements), everything is thoroughly washed with water with simple soap, rinsed thoroughly and boiled.

    The aquarium is filled with water, pre-spreading the soil, installing a filter and a compressor. Then in this form it is left for 3 - 4 days. During this time, the water is settled, and the tank is checked for leaks.

    Then plants are planted in the ground and snails are launched (if their location is planned in the aquarium). For another 2 to 3 days, aquatic inhabitants inhabit their home, improving the composition of the aquatic environment.

    Home Care Rules

    To make the fish comfortable, the owner must follow a few simple rules:

    • do not overfeed fish (feed once a day so much that it is completely eaten in 15 to 20 minutes),
    • alternate in feeding dry food, live and vegetable,
    • filter and oxygen supply work around the clock,
    • light fish need for 9 - 11 h,
    • comfortable temperature for most fish from 20 to 25 degrees,
    • it is necessary to change the water no more than a third of the total volume, not more often than once every 1 - 2 months,
    • add fresh water only defended or softened by special means.
    Stand for the aquarium must be solid and stable

    Aquarium business is an exciting process, often turning into a serious hobby. Starting with a simple small aquarium with several guppies, the passion ends in huge tanks with rare fish and strange plants.