The expression "coo like doves" was invented for a reason. A pigeon is so devoted to its partner that in the event of their separation they will remain faithful for many years. Postal pigeons saved the lives of many people during the war. Man learned not only to breed these birds at home, but also to train them.
Breeding wild pigeons
The nesting period begins, as a rule, at the beginning of spring. The female builds a nest, and the male gives her the necessary materials. When the nest is ready, the female can safely lay eggs. For almost the entire period, the female incubates the eggs, but sometimes it is replaced by the male.
Young and inexperienced couples can throw their nests, the same goes for old pigeons. Since pigeons mate several times throughout the year, they need good nutrition and fat reserves. But in the wild, the search for food is a problem, so every stash is at risk.
Features breeding domestic pigeons
Domestic pigeons became popular for quite some time. Dovecote can be found in every city and district. Some breed these birds for themselves, some train them and earn money. Everyone knows the tradition - to let out a pair of pigeons at a wedding or on the last bell at school. Quite important breeding pigeons, which are eaten. To keep pigeon house is a rather painstaking job. It is necessary to monitor the cleanliness, feed the pigeons in time, and also pair correctly.
Mating domestic pigeons
Experienced breeders who breed purebred pigeons carefully approach this process. Before choosing a pair, make sure that there are no relatives between pigeons. For this, before buying pigeons, you need to recognize their ancestry.
Since pigeons mate under the supervision of a breeder, his task is to choose the right pair. The optimal age for the first mating is older than one year, by which time the pigeons should be moderately well-fed. Do not allow for the breeding of obese and old pigeons. The best period for mating is spring. Wild pigeons have the right to choose their own pair, they are quite responsible approach to this issue. But the choice of a pair for poultry is a pigeon breeder care.
Before starting the pairing you need to prepare an aviary. It must be disinfected, bedded fresh straw, hang shelves for nests. There should be more places for nests than the number of pairs in order to avoid fights and conflicts. This issue should be approached quite seriously, because each species of pigeons has its own type of nesting. It is necessary to prepare the landscape, bushes, hollows - all you need to recreate the way the pigeons of this breed breed in nature. At the beginning of winter, it is better to spread the females and males, this will help the birds to gain weight and not to survive in the presence of the opposite sex.
You need to feed a balanced diet, adding vitamins and minerals. It is also necessary to introduce into the diet of plant products. This is all done so that the birds are prepared and able to produce strong offspring. The addition of calcium in food to females is especially important, it will strengthen future eggs and protect them from cracking. All these nuances should be considered when breeding domestic pigeons. Preparation of pigeons for mating is the most crucial moment in this matter. After all, a strong and strong offspring - is the key to success golubevoda.
Choosing a pair
First you need to determine the sex of the pigeon. This is not as easy to do as it seems at first glance. As a rule, females are smaller than males, more graceful and graceful. Their beak and paws are not as powerful as the males. It seems that everything is clear, but there are cases when females grow larger or, conversely, males are smaller than usual.
If two males are in the same cage for mating, it will result in a fight. And if there are two females in the cage, they behave calmly enough, but in rare cases they can mate. An active female takes on the role of a male. Since pigeons mate of the same sex, they will not have offspring. Both females lay eggs, but they will not be fertilized. A breeder recognizes his mistake only when the time comes for the chicks to hatch. But such cases are extremely rare. The main criterion for choosing a pair is a similar temperament. This, again, will protect a couple from conflicts. If the pair was chosen correctly and the pairing was successful, the pigeons will start building a nest together. Pigeons try to keep couples throughout life.
The resulting pair carefully chooses a place for the future nest. The male diligently demolishes materials, and the female spreads materials in a convenient way for her. If the mating and laying was the final stage, the pigeons were parked successfully. Females lay two eggs at intervals of forty hours. After all the eggs have been laid, incubation begins. An interesting fact that the male is directly involved in this.
This process takes up to twenty days, after which the chicks hatch. At this time, it is important to observe the temperature and light conditions. Since pigeons mate in the warm season, there may be problems with the chipping of the chicks. Allowed a couple of days before this point sprinkle masonry with warm water. Inexperienced doves, having demolished the first egg, begin to hatch it, without waiting for the second. This may lead to the fact that one chick will hatch earlier and will develop faster, and the second will be weaker and younger. In such cases, pigeon breeders make the substitution of eggs.
Pigeon meat since ancient times of the Romans and Egyptians was considered a delicacy. Even then they created whole farms, where they raised pigeons not for beauty. In our time, there are about 70 species of pigeon meat. These specially bred birds can reach a weight of 1.5 kg per month. As a rule, mating, breeding pigeons of meat breeds is not a laborious process. A breeder with good care can get up to 10 clutches of eggs per year. A special diet, which includes all the necessary nutrients, is a guarantee for the growth of pigeon meat.
Meat pigeons breed in almost the same way as ordinary domesticated ones. To facilitate the work, pigeon breeders give birth to an equal number of females and males. This will allow the birds to choose their own partner. It is necessary to take into account the great weight that pigeons have. Mating should take place in prepared enclosures, only nesting sites are lower than usual.
The female pigeon lays up to three eggs, with an interval of more than a day. These birds hatch their birds from two weeks to a month, depending on the breed, also changing each other. For the first two weeks, the darling feeds chicks with goiter milk, and then the breeder introduces special food for them.
Breeding new breeds
A large number of breeders are engaged in breeding new breeds of pigeons. This is quite an interesting thing, because the way pigeons breed at home is a fascinating sight. Sometimes the crossing of existing breeds leads to unusual results. Carefully selected individuals that lead among the rest, to obtain even better offspring. Breeding and breeding ideal pigeons is the dream of every pigeon breeder.
Pigeon age determination
Domestic live 15–20 years, but only for 10 years can breed. After five years of life, pigeons are not capable of producing strong offspring, they have very weak chicks and are capable of contracting various diseases. But it happens that you want to breed a rare breedthen a young female is picked up by the old male.
Their age is quite simple. Basically, it is determined by wax; after five months it becomes white — this is like an indicator of maturity in these birds; it can be used to determine the age up to three to five years. Every year it increases.
Males and females and their differences
The pigeon is slightly larger than the dove and has a rougher build, and the dove is smaller, more gentle and graceful. Before breeding it can be difficult to distinguish. Even experienced pigeon breeders before mating, often make mistakes in choosing the sex of young pigeons.
To correctly determine the sex of a bird, it is necessary plant in drawers with a lattice front wall supposed male and female. With the right distribution, the male will begin to coo, his goiter will inflate and he begins to care for the dove. If two males fall into the box, the case will end in a fight. Approximately also end if two females coincide. But there are cases that the doves imitate a couple, and the error will be revealed only when there are four unfertilized eggs in the nest.
Active birds form a marriage union quickly. They will sit tightly pressed against each other, and gently pluck the plumage on the head and neck. And that would mean that pigeons really "got crushed". Such a pair, especially if they started kissing with their beaks, can be safely released back into the pigeon house - they will no longer disperse, will always be together.
Dove breeding - mating
Must only need young and purebred pigeons, so that there is no mixing of blood. In nature, there are two types of mating:
With natural mating, the male chooses a female for himself, and when forced, a man chooses a female for him according to the necessary parameters and qualities. But if there are birds of the same breed in the house, then there is no point in forced mating.
But if the male himself picked up a femalethen a strong pair is formed. They all start laying eggs earlier and in greater numbers, and their fertility and hatchability is the highest. With forced mating, the picture is completely different - the male becomes aggressive and pays little attention to his pair, and therefore the creation of a family is delayed and, of course, the chicks appear much later and the hatchability of such couples is much lower than with natural mating.
Forced mating.The poultry breeder selects pairs of healthy, not very large and with good flight qualities. Picking up, he puts them in a closed box, usually do it at night. After mating, the birds are released back to the dovecote.
Young birds, most often quickly mate and conclude an alliance among themselves. To determine whether the pairing or not, just look at them. If the pairing was, then the pigeons are sitting huddled together, and begin to care for their companion. After that, you can safely release them in a common house.
The box in which pairing took place cannot be removed, since they will nest there. If pigeons for nesting choose another place, then the box should be put in the place chosen by them.
Natural mating. If a bird house breeds birds of the same breed, then it is not necessary to plant them in a box, because the male will pick up the female himself. Pigeons will fly together and lay eggs. In such cases, it turns out very strong family, high hatchability and strong chicks. Such a family, in most cases, converges the following year.
How do pigeons breed
- Laying eggs.
- Hatching eggs.
- Feeding chicks.
The reproduction of pigeons depends on the laying of eggs. An experienced pigeon breeder can foresee the clutch in advance, since at this time the female becomes less active, moves little and has more time in the nest. Such behavior of a pigeon is characteristic when it is going to produce egg-laying in two or three days. Usually laying eggs in pigeons occurs on twelfth to fifteenth day after their mating.
If the dove is too young or old, then it blows only one egg, and the sexually mature one - two eggs. The female immediately begins to hatch eggs after they are laid.
For the first five to seven days, the dove should not be disturbed, and then you need to check the eggs for the presence of embryos. Eggs from the nest must be taken very carefully so as not to pierce the shell and do not harm the embryo, which began to develop. If there is no embryo in the egg, then don't put the egg back in the nest.
To determine the presence of the embryo, you need to take a special device - ovoskop and check for them. If there is no such device, you can take an ordinary lamp or a flashlight. If there is an embryo, the blood vessels of the future chick will be visible in the egg, since by the eighth day the chicks are already well developed.
For a long time the egg from the nest can not be taken away, because it can be very cool.
Mostly young couples hatch about 64% of eggs, and more experienced ones - 89–93%.
Domestic pigeons sit on eggs one by one in order to prevent them from being supercooled and therefore are considered very good parents.
Chicks are born in twenty days (sometimes a little less). The nestling inside bites off the shell and is completely free from it after a few hours. Sometimes this process is delayed up to a day. Then adult pigeons throw the shells out of the nest.
After the appearance of chicks, the first two weeks, the parents feed them with milk, which is in their goiter, and then softened, in the same place, grains. The first chick receives food from its parents in three to four hours, the second in fifteen to sixteen, and therefore they develop unevenly. Weaker chicks may die.
Forty to forty-five days dove become like their parents and in the pack they are not at all distinguishable.
Breeding domestic pigeons is an interesting process. They are compared with people, as they can also love and create a family.
Pigeons are fairly common birds around the world. Scientists have found that these individuals came to us from Europe or North Africa. They live in the wild for about five years, and at home they can live up to fifteen. A very rare occurrence when pigeons live to be thirty years old, but this happens.
All pigeon breeders are interested in how pigeons mate, breed and feed their offspring. Since the success of this process depends on whether the offspring will be strong, healthy, and whether it will be possible to breed new breeds. Therefore, first of all, you should learn what these birds are fascinating about, how they behave in the wild, and how to create pairs. We will tell you in detail how pigeons mate and breed, as well as all the features of this process.
Mating pigeons can take place in different periods depending on what the climate in the region. In our climatic latitudes, the crossing occurs in the spring. Before proceeding to the question of how pigeons mate, it is necessary to determine which sex. Very often, sexual signs are not clearly expressed, the main one, of course, is body size. Pigeons are usually bigger than doves and rougher. Females are fragile, tender and refined. But the most accurate method for determining the sex of a bird is to observe its behavior in a normal environment.
Ready to breed
Usually, pigeons start puberty from 6 months, but the best age for breeding is 1-2 years. By the time all the organ systems are formed, strong immunity, the bird is ready to perform parental duties. The fertility of the bird increases every year to 5 years.
The age of the pigeons can be determined by the wax, which increases annually. The highest fertility rates are in birds that are well fed, strong and already molted. If they are kept in captivity, then for the winter, pigeons and pigeons are divided into different houses, fed with grain and vitamin supplements, so that the eggshell and bones of babies are strong.
Like any animal, the pigeon also has feelings and, of course, witnessed its “marriage ceremony”. Therefore, further we will talk about how pigeons breed (photo in the article). Males, having chosen the vending female, begin to coo near her. They swell the goiter, spread their tails, whirl and loudly coo. Doves at this time bow to the males, show their willingness to breed and swim up to them on the tail. If the dance took place between two males, then it ends in a fight. This happens in the case if the female is more active than the male, then they will not mate.
An interesting fact is that pairs consist of pigeons that are similar in temperament. Therefore, an inactive pigeon with a very active female will not be able to successfully mate and breed, as well as a weak female with a brisk male. If the pairs are matched correctly, then the marriage is quickly made.
After that, they nestle together, gently pluck the feathers and kiss their beaks. It is important to know that pigeons are monogamous birds, so if you release the real pair again in the pigeon house to the rest of the bird, you can be sure they will stay together forever. These birds are able to remain faithful, new couples most often remain not for a couple of seasons, but for a lifetime.
A very important point in the breeding process - this device nests. Those pigeons who live in a wild environment are looking for secluded places for hatching on their own, and help homey ones in building their home. Если у вас большая голубятня, то можно положить пару больших веток на пол, и тогда голуби сами найдут себе удобное и комфортное место.
В вопросе о том, как спариваются голуби (фото см. в статье), рассмотрим два типа сношения: естественное и принудительное. В первом варианте самец самостоятельно выбирает себе партнершу, а во втором – человек делает это для него, дабы вывести определенную породу.
Those couples that have been formed naturally, strong, faithful to each other all their lives, successfully multiply, lay eggs. And those couples that were created forcibly, often aggressive, males are inattentive to the female, and after mating, they quickly forget about them. After that, they can still form alliances with other females.
How pigeons mate: anatomical process
When the female begins to prepare the clutch, all sorts of changes occur in all her organs and tissues. An increase in the amount of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and vitamins is observed in the blood. A female has one ovary and oviduct, the male has two testicles. Fertilization of eggs on the funnel of the oviduct occurs upon completion of mating. After the pigeons make a mating flight. Then later the female arrives at the nest and lays an egg.
Hatching eggs and the birth of chicks
If mating went well, the female is prepared to lay eggs. The behavior of the bird will say whether it will become a hen or not. If she moves a little and sits for a long time, then eggs will appear soon. Two weeks after mating, the clutch will begin, lasting for several days. Usually the dove takes down one egg each, which weighs 20 grams with a break of 40-45 hours. After hatching begins. It can be carried out by both female and male for 20 days. After laying the bird is undesirable to disturb during the week, and when time passes, the eggs must be ovoskopirovat. As a rule, the young pigeon successfully hatches 65% of its chicks, and the mature - 95%.
Chicks hatch on the 18th day after laying. From the middle, the chick pecks at the shell and is freed from it after a couple of hours. Sometimes this process can take up to a day. Chicks are born without feathers and with closed eyes, so parents very carefully protect them and warm them.
When the chicks are born, the parents feed them with goiter milk for the first two weeks, and after the softened grains. The first hatchling chick receives food from its parents in 3-4 hours, while the second one gets in 15-16, so they develop unevenly. After 45 days, the pigeons are already similar to their parents, and in the pack they can no longer be distinguished.
Why don't we see the pigeons on the street?
It may seem to city dwellers that the number of pigeons is increasing miraculously, all the birds on the street are adults, but nowhere do we see chicks. A logical question follows, do they exist? We can assure you, there are chicks, but there is an excellent explanation for not seeing them. In some ways, this is related to where birds nest: pigeons usually build their homes in places that resemble caves and rocks. And in big cities, houses are being built under window sills, on roofs, under bridges. There is another reason why pigeons do not appear on the streets. They do not leave their nests from 4 to 6 weeks after birth, until they grow up.
Residents speak of pigeons as flying rats, but I want to note that these birds are very good and responsible parents. The male and female together feed and incubate the children, and if one parent dies, then the second will do everything to raise their offspring, even if it is very difficult for him. So, as a rule, chicks survive.
When they become old enough to live independently, they begin to ignore their parents and feed themselves. Young pigeons are adjacent to a flock of birds and live close to their families. Also, pigeons have their own territory, where they constantly spend time, and if a bird is carried away from there, it will try to return to its usual place.
Breeding (sex, reproduction, mating) pigeons at home: useful tips for beginners
Judging by the abundance of pigeons in our cities, these birds have no problems with reproduction. However, when it comes not to spontaneous reproduction, but to the purposeful breeding of these birds at home, it turns out that the controlled process obeys strict rules. They are not difficult, but their novice pigeon breeder needs to know.
Selection of pigeons for mating
In winter, males and females are usually divided in order to avoid premature egg-laying, which takes away strength from pigeons without bringing any benefit. At the same time, planning for future couples begins.
Important!It should pick up a pair of pigeons with the same temperament. Otherwise, an overly active pigeon and a timid pigeon will not get a normal mating, as well as a dashing male and a weak female.
It is also not recommended to make a pair of birds that have similar disadvantages, or who are in close relationship.
Domestic pigeons, which can live to 20 years, do not lose their reproductive abilities to 12 years of age.
However, experts do not recommend taking mating birds that are more than ten years old, since at this age there is no guarantee that the parents will have completely healthy chicks. Usually they have low immunity, which creates a predisposition to various diseases.
Although pigeons reach sexual maturity at the age of six months, it is not recommended to pair such young creatures. Too young females are often not able to fully sit out the eggs or feed the chicks. In addition, they often carry unfertilized eggs.
Pigeon breeders consider the optimum age for mating to be one or two years, when the birds are fully prepared for the normal production of full-fledged eggs, their proper brooding and fruitful feeding of the chicks.
But at the same time, the age of pigeons should be correctly determined, since half-year-old birds outwardly look very similar to their parents:
- To clarify the pigeon's age, first of all, they pay attention to the cinnamon, that is, to the leathery thickening at the very base of the beak. This ceres extends and grows coarser with the age of the bird. In young pigeons, it is sustained in pink tones, which eventually turn into white.
- You should also pay attention to the feet of the birds. In chicks, they are pink and covered with delicate skin, while in adults they become radically red and rough.
- The pigeon age can also be determined by the eyelid, which is practically transparent in young birds, and noticeably whiter in adults.
The assumption that the better the fattened dove is, the fatter it is, the more able it is to give better offspring, does not at all coincide with reality. In fact, the overly dove-dove has difficulty laying eggs. But an overly thin bird has a problem with hatching eggs, which its fragile body cannot fully warm.
Typically, this type of formation of pairs is resorted to at home, when the pigeon house contains birds of the same breed. A pigeon chooses a dove that he likes and starts gallantly courting her. The dove at the same time has the opportunity to favorably accept the marriage advances of the gentleman or to show him his complete indifference.
The pair of monogamous pigeons formed on the basis of reciprocity are extremely resistant. Birds, as a rule, remain loyal to each other throughout their lives.
Forced, that is, solely by the will of man, pigeon breeders mate in cases where they wish to engage in selection or breeding of purebred chicks. For breeding birds with new properties, males and females of different breeds are selected, whose best qualities they wish to combine in the new breed.
And to improve a particular breed, a male and female are chosen from this group, who have the most advantageous characteristics from the breeder's point of view. With the forced method, the selected couple is placed in a cage or a special aviary where it spends the night, after which the birds are released back into the flock.
The most crucial stage during the artificial creation of a pair is to correctly determine the sex of the pigeons. Since these birds do not have clearly visible sex differences, this is not very easy to do.
However, there are some characteristic features by which you can distinguish a pigeon and a dove, yet there are:
- pigeons are almost always more massive than pigeons, have a higher forehead and bright plumage,
- the doves are “dressed” less catchy, their heads are sloping, and their bodies are smaller.
Coupled together under duress is not always submissively subject to the requirements of man. There are overlays in the form of aggressive behavior of pigeons, late egg laying or inadequate reproduction of offspring.
And yet most often nature takes its own, and artificially formed couples safely give birth to offspring. However, a long-term union with them, as a rule, does not work: after rearing chicks, such pairs usually fall apart. This fact once again confirms the validity of the saying: "Love cannot be forced".
In the world of pigeons, the duty to build a nest lies on the male. He is engaged in the search for building materials in the form of twigs, straws and blades of grass, transports them to the site of the construction of the nest and builds it. The female, on a purely female basis, designs the family nest, trimming it and making it more comfortable and comfortable for future offspring.
Important!In order to avoid quarrels and fights between males for the best "apartment", it is recommended to install nesting boxes in the amount twice the number of pigeon pairs.
When nesting in the dovecote, it is necessary to help the birds and perform the following actions:
- before the birds start building nests in the pigeon house, general cleaning is carried out, for which winged residents are temporarily resettled in an aviary,
- each compartment in which birds live is divided by a partition into two parts and put there boxes for nesting, which are usually made of wood or wire,
- To make it easier for the males to find building materials, a pile of twigs, hay, straw or mowed grass is put on the floor of the pigeon house. Usually birds build their nests from two to three weeks.
Laying and hatching eggs
About two weeks after mating, the females lay eggs for two or three days. In mature birds, they rarely number more than two, and overly young or elderly females usually lay one egg. The weight of each egg having a white color reaches a maximum of 20 g.
In the process of pigeon laying, there is one significant point. The dove lays eggs at intervals of about two days. Most often, the dove starts incubation only after the appearance of the second egg. But sometimes she immediately sits on the first one, as a result of which the second chick appears a day or two later than the first, which is very undesirable.
Important!In hot weather, it is recommended to humidify the air of the pigeon house by spraying with water, which is useful for the embryo, since softening the eggshell makes the pigeon easier for the hatching process.
Born first, being more active and strong, pushes back the weaker second when feeding.
To solve this problem, the first egg is either simply taken from the mother, keeping it at room temperature aside until the second egg appears, or is replaced with a dummy again until the second one appears.
Pigeons are excellent parents, so the eggs hatch both, although the lion’s share of the incubation is still in the female. This process lasts from 16 to 20 days.
Care for offspring
Doves hatch and free themselves from the remnants of the shell not immediately, but for nearly twenty hours, appearing to the light blind and almost naked. However, after only a couple of hours after birth, they are able to eat.
To this end, a caring mother in her goiter prepares for them a special blend rich in protein and fats - the famous bird's milk.
This mixture pigeons feed for two weeks, and then transferred to the crushed and softened grain crops.
Find out where you can see pigeon chicks and how to feed the little pigeon.
They are already able to peck on their own, since by this time they have a fully formed beak. Pigeons do not leave the native nest until they reach the age of 40-46 days. After two months, the chicks in appearance is almost impossible to distinguish among adult birds.
How many times do pigeons breed each year
As already mentioned, the mating pigeon period lasts from the beginning of March to mid-September. A healthy mature couple is able to give offspring for a season up to seven times. However, golubevody not recommend pairing birds in the summer, since the hatched chicks may not have time to get plumage and die before the winter cold.
Breeding pigeons at home does not require excessive physical effort from a person, but presupposes in him the presence of patience, accuracy, observation and, of course, great love for these wonderful birds.
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How do pigeons breed when chicks are born, how does mating happen
Many poultry farmers are interested in how pigeons breed, as they mate. We meet pigeons in parks, squares, on the streets, we see on rooftops and window sills.
In the city pigeon came from the steppe. A number of scientists call the species gray, some of them - steppe. As the bird was easily tamed, city pigeons appeared. Note that adults are common, and few have seen chicks. Let's learn about the reproduction of pigeons, when they fly away from the parental nests, to begin an independent life.
- Pigeons are fairly widespread throughout the Earth. It was possible to establish that their original homeland was Europe or North Africa.
- In nature, these birds live for about 5 years, and domesticated individuals live to 15 years. There is even evidence that the pigeons were up to 30 years old!
- The success of the mating of pigeons depends on whether the chicks will be healthy, whether it will be possible to breed a new breed.
- First of all, you need to find out what the doves are interested in, how they behave in nature, how to create pairs in order to breed.
- Pigeons can mate in different periods, it depends on the climate of a particular region. In Russia, the pairing of pigeons occurs in the spring.
- Often the sexual characteristics of the male and female are difficult to distinguish. However, the first thing to do is look at the size of the torso. As a rule, pigeons are bigger and rougher doves. Females are fragile and tender. But it is better to observe the behavior of the bird to determine its gender.
- Intercourse can be natural and forced. In the first case, the male chooses the female, in the second - the person does it for him, in order to breed another breed.
- Couples, formed naturally, are strong and stay together for the rest of their lives, breed, lay eggs.
- Forced couples are often aggressive, males are inattentive to doves and after mating, they quickly forget about them. Later may make alliances with other doves.
- Puberty pigeons comes in six months, but they prefer to multiply upon reaching a year or two. By this age, all the organs are formed, the immunity is strong, and the depth is ready to become a parent.
- Fertility increases annually to 5 years of age. The age of the birds is determined by the wax, increasing from year to year. The highest fertility rates are noted in fattened, strong and molting birds.
- If the pigeons are kept in captivity, in the winter they are lodged in different houses, given grain and vitamin supplements, so that the eggshell and bones of the chicks are strong.
- Like all animals, the pigeon conducts its “marriage rite” when it wants to mate.
- Having chosen a female, the male proceeds to coo near her. He fanned the goiter, spreads his tail and spins nearby. Doves bow, showing readiness for mating, and are selected to males on the tail.
- You can see two dancing males, but this process ends in a fight. So maybe in the case of greater activity of the female and mating will not work.
- Interestingly, pairs are formed from birds of similar temperament. Thus, in an inactive male and a very active female, the chicks cannot be born. The same applies to a weak female and a brisk male. If the pair is matched correctly, reproduction is guaranteed.
- The birds who have found a common language snuggle up against each other, pinch one another's feathers, rub their beaks.
- Pigeons are monogamous, and if you run a pair of dovecote to other birds, they will stay together.
When the female starts preparing laying, in its tissues and organs corresponding changes occur. The blood increases the content of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, as well as vitamins.
The female has one ovary and one oviduct, and the male has two testicles. In the funnel of the oviduct, the eggs are fertilized at the end of the mating. Then the pigeons make a mating flight, the female flies into the nest to lay the egg.
Incubation and birth of chicks
After successful mating female preparing to lay eggs. By the behavior of the bird, you can determine whether it will be a hen. If the dove is inactive and spends a lot of time in a sitting position, it means that it will soon carry the eggs.
Masonry begins two weeks after mating, and lasts several days. As a rule, the dove blows one egg, weighing 20g, with a break of 40-45 hours. Then it begins to hatch chicks.
The male can be engaged in incubation, and the process lasts 20 days. After laying, the dove is not recommended to be disturbed for about a week, after this period, the eggs are digested.
Обычно молодая птица успешно высиживает 65% птенцов, а зрелая особь – 95%.
Где от нас прячутся голубята?
Городской житель может недоумевать по поводу увеличения численности голубей. Ведь на улице он видит исключительно взрослых птиц.
Частично это связано с особенностями гнездованиями: как правило, голуби строят жилища в местах, напоминающих скалы и пещеры. In cities, nests are built under window sills., under the bridges, on the roofs.
Also the reason is that the pigeons do not leave the nest 4-6 weeks after birth. They adjoin the pack already grown up.
How pigeons breed: recommendations of experienced breeders for the procedure
The breeding of pigeons is an occupation with which both an experienced breeder and a novice dovecote can cope. But, despite the fact that the process is not too complicated, it is worthwhile to study how pigeons breed, and then take into account all the features and nuances of the process.
The onset of puberty pigeons
The choice of the optimal time for breeding chicks depends on the region, more precisely, on its climatic conditions. In the middle zone, the favorable period for mating is the end of March and the beginning of April, and in the warm regions, two weeks earlier.
Pigeons begin to grow up from 6 months.
For healthy offspring, it is necessary to correctly determine the time of mating pigeons. Pigeons have the ability to reproduce offspring with the onset of puberty. Growing birds starts from 6 months. But this does not mean that during this period the bird is already ready to give offspring.
Young birds by this age do not yet reach the optimum child-bearing age, therefore the chicks from them will turn out weak and with poor pedigree qualities. And the percentage of fertilized eggs in the laying of a six-month dove is too small.
Fully formed body are birds aged 1 year. The best age of a bird for receiving the first offspring is 1-2 years. Fertility subsequently persists up to 10-11 years.
The best age of a bird for receiving the first offspring is 1-2 years.
Mating games birds
By the onset of the mating season pigeons need to prepare in advance. Depending on the region, mating games begin in birds from the end of winter to the beginning of spring. In order for reproduction to succeed afterwards, the dove intended for mating must be separated from the flock in 2-2.5 months.
This technique allows them to gain weight, to prepare for the mating season. In the preparatory period, females are allowed to fly a lot. Diet need to diversify. Females are given fresh greens, vegetables, and vitamin-mineral complexes.
When pigeons breed in nature, they choose their own pair. The male begins to "care" for the dove. If the female accepts courtship, pairing occurs quickly. At home, the couple is formed by the host, so it’s not a fact that the dove will quickly appreciate the lady and begin the process of courtship.
In the mating season, the male cares for the dove.
The sexual instinct is developed in pigeons quite well, so sometimes you have to wait quite a long time.
If the pigeon is in good health, the instinct will immediately take its own. And he will begin to coo and care for the female. The pigeon starts cooing, whirls around itself, puffs up the goiter. If a cavalier likes a female, she bows to him and begins to "float on the tail."
In nature, males arrange battles for their favorite female. But it happens that the winner is rejected by the dove, but this does not happen often. If the couple starts to pinch each other feathers. To coo, it means a pair is formed, and soon they will have offspring.
Marriage games appear cooing, the male puffs up the goiter and whirls around him.
Before preparing the nests for birds in the pigeon house, thorough cleaning and disinfection is carried out. Birds at this time are released or deposited in another room. After disinfection in the dovecote, new straw is spreading.
After cleaning the dovecot, nests are made - steam boxes. The number of such houses for couples should be 2-3 more than the planned number of pairs for breeding. If the number of boxes will coincide with the number of pairs, a fight will begin.
Boxes for fallowing should be done as closed as possible to create a cozy and intimate atmosphere.
The nest for the dove should be as cozy and comfortable as possible.
Pigeons love solitude in the process of breeding chicks. It is not by chance that in the wild we rarely know where pigeons breed. The more comfortable the nest is, the more chances to get a positive result.
Experienced breeders recommend the following techniques for identifying your own pigeon house:
- The boxes are not installed in a row, but “scattered” around the dovecote.
- The color of the nests should be different.
- For the convenience of the owner of the boxes can be numbered.
- After installation, the location of the box can not be changed.
If the dovecote is small, you should not overload it with additional boxes. Nests are placed on the racks, fencing off the edges with sides.
For the convenience of the owner of the boxes can be numbered.
When the hatching is not the first time, previously prepared nests are used. In this case, the dovecote is first launched by an old pair, in order to give it the opportunity to occupy its nest.
Features of pair selection
Selection and formation of pairs of pigeons for mating is carried out by a special method. You need to start with an accurate determination of the sex of birds. The male is larger than the female. He has a powerful and rough looking beak. The male has a confident walk. The female is smaller and more tender appearance. Walks also gently and smoothly.
Incorrect sex determination can lead to two males or two males in the mating cage. Then it is possible to fight for the territory, and, in both cases.
When breeding breeding pigeons take into account their breed qualities.
During the selection of a pair it is necessary to take into account the appearance of the birds and their temperament. If the groom is active, he should pick up the same "live" bride. The quiet gentleman must mate with the same calm dove.
When breeding breeding pigeons take into account their breed qualities. If postal pigeons are bred, flight qualities are taken into account. For meat breeds pay attention to the size of the pigeon.
Before selecting a pair, it is necessary to accurately determine the sex of the pigeons.
Artificial feeding of chicks
To prevent the death of babies, experienced dovecats provide artificial feeding. Typically, this method is undertaken in case of late formation of milk from the parents.
The pigeons otkazhennyh from parents are fed with warmed, mashed yolk, diluted milk. Prepared slurry is put into a syringe with a thin tube put on it. The tube is placed in the chick's esophagus and the prepared mixture is squeezed out.
Ten days after hatching, the chicks are transferred to liquid porridge, bread. Soaked in milk, flour talker.
Little pigeons can be fed artificially with a syringe.
How pigeons breed: the process of mating and video
For all amateur and professional pigeon breeders, the breeding of birds is a very important and integral moment of a hobby. After all, the appearance of healthy strong offspring, the breeding of new species and breeds depends on it. Consider the pigeons how to breed, and also find out all the subtleties of this process right now.
In different regions, depending on climatic conditions, pigeons reproduce at different times. For example, in our country, in the middle lane, birds begin to cross in the spring from the end of March to the beginning of April. In the warm southern regions of the pairing can begin before about 2-3 weeks.
Of course, in order to pair the pigeons, you need to be able to distinguish between their gender. In this case, we note that the majority, both wild and domestic, of these birds have poorly expressed sexual characteristics. Newcomers sometimes to determine the articles seek help from specialists.
One of the most important traits that will help distinguish a male from a female is body size. As with many other living things, the male pigeon is slightly larger and rougher in stature than the female. In addition, the doves are more gentle-looking, more graceful.
Many in the practice of resorting to various methods of determining the sex, for example, pull the beak or raise their paws. We will say that the most unmistakable way is to follow the behavior of the bird. Of course, the male will tok, care for the dove, show any interest in its individual.
Pigeons become sexually mature at the age of 6 months, but this does not mean that birds can already mate. The fact is that natural maturity differs from the most successful. At this time, young birds may produce even weak, poorly developed offspring. Reproduction of immature individuals must not be allowed. They give unfertilized eggs.
The best period for obtaining offspring is the age of 1-2 years. During this period, the bird is already well-formed organism, immunity. Then, with age, fertility increases and persists up to 10-12 years. Of course, another question arises here - how to correctly determine the age of a bird, if it was not yours?
You will find the answer to this question in our previous publication. However, it should be noted that a cep serves as an indicator of puberty. Every year it increases.
If you are breeding some breed or want to improve the offspring, then you should remember that in such cases it is better not to mate the birds if they already have 5 years. In many cases at this age pigeons produce weak offspring.
However, if there is no opportunity to find a young male, then you can choose only one young female.
Like any animals, pigeons also have feelings and they must make their bird “mating game”. In nature, the pigeons themselves find a mate, the male begins to leak and show interest in the female he likes.
If she accepts his courtship, mating occurs after a short period. At home, however, often golubevody consciously, for various reasons, make up a couple of birds themselves. In such cases, too, do not have to wait long.
Do pigeons well-developed sexual instinct.
So, a suitable male and female are caged. If the pigeon is healthy and well developed, he will immediately show interest in his girlfriend, he will begin to flow.
The male coos during this, that is, makes certain sounds, starts spinning in place, as if picking up paws, inflates the goiter to appear larger and larger.
If the female reciprocates, she bows to her chosen one and makes characteristic moves forward or “floats on the tail”.
With free keeping, for example, in the pigeon house, males often enter into a fight for the female they like. And the female often does not agree to the courtship of the winning male. Although it is rare.
All active sexually mature young birds start their marriage games quickly. During the first acquaintance, they are pressed against each other, they begin to pinch feathers on the neck and head.
If they also kiss their beaks, then this is an inseparable couple and there will be offspring.
It is important to note that pigeons are paired birds and monogamous. Dove with a dove can live a lifetime. It is precisely dovish loyalty that often becomes for people symbols of eternal and pure love.
Before steaming pigeons, a poultry farmer should take care of their nest. In nature, birds themselves are looking for a suitable place for laying and build a "house" themselves. At home, a person should help them, for example, by hanging various branches for construction or by already placing ready nests.
If the dovecote is large, then more nests should be made there or a lot of branches should be applied. This is to ensure that birds do not fight for a place. In addition, the birds themselves train in the room straws and dry blade of grass. The nest is built by a male.
To date, pigeon breeders use two methods of mating birds: natural and forced. What does it mean? With the natural pairing of pigeons occurs, as in nature, that is, the male chooses a female for himself.
And when forced man chooses a girlfriend for a pigeon. The latter type refers to breeding work to obtain the desired offspring with the desired qualities.
Note that during breeding work it is not allowed to mix blood.
It is also worth noting that, in contrast to forced mating, very strong pairs are formed under natural conditions, which remain faithful to each other all their lives.
However, they always lay many eggs. When artificially choosing a pair, males often show inattention to females, are aggressive and quickly forget their friends.
In such cases, the families of the birds form later, and the eggs are laid less.
Before the female is going to lay eggs, she changes her behavior: becomes inactive, moves a little, sits in the nest. Just before laying, the cloaca swells up and increases in size. As a rule, the dove makes laying for 2-3 days and it happens 12-15 days after mating.
The young sexually mature female usually blows 2 eggs, but older individuals - one. Pigeon breeders who are seriously engaged in breeding pigeons mark the date of each egg being laid and mark the degree of development of the chicks. Eggs of pigeons have an average size, white color and weight of about 19-20 grams.
As soon as the female lays all the eggs, she begins to incubate them. In the first week you should not disturb the birds, but on day 8-9 you can check the eggs for the presence of fruits. To do this, use the ovoskop. By the end of the first week, blood vessels will be well developed in the egg.
When brooding in young couples, about 65% of the fruits are displayed, but for the more experienced ones and those who choose the pair on their own in a natural way, this figure reaches 95%. All domestic pigeons are good parents, they carefully protect their offspring and hatch their eggs well.
After the hatchlings hatch, the female nourishes them with goiter milk. Then, by about 14 days of life, they already eat crushed grains. The chicks hatch blind and almost naked, and therefore need to be protected and heated parents. The baby receives the first food 4 hours after birth.
Doves develop their beak very quickly. Already on the 12th day of life, its length reaches the length of the adult individual. At the age of 2 months, as a rule, the weight of chicks reaches the adult mass. See also the video for more details on how pigeons breed.
In this video, you will be able to see the male's kisses and the mating dance near the dove, to hear him cooing. This behavior in birds is called toking.
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Yes, it is true that pigeons are monogamous, but not all. My grandfather had one pigeon, and so he and his dove lived for three years, until she died. So the pigeon grieved so much that in two months he died of exhaustion, did not eat, drank a little, did not fly, which only his grandfather did not do to him. Here is a story!
Thank you for the article. To be honest, I didn’t think that pigeons are such good fellows in terms of choosing a pair, and also arranging the nest. I thought they, like most birds, are polygamous.
I really liked the article, I learned a lot from it for the first time, although I am already 66!
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How pigeons breed: the characteristics of bird mating
Almost all animals and birds have mating games. Pairing pigeons also involves performing a certain ritual. Under natural conditions, pigeons themselves acquire pairs. In this case, the male shows interest in the liked female. Conflicts and fights often flare up between several applicants. But the female can refuse the legitimate winner.
It is noted that this bird has a pronounced sexual instinct. The mating games of all young and mature individuals come quickly. Initially, during the meeting the pigeons are pressed against each other.
Then they begin to pinch feathers from each other, which grow on the head and neck. Birds can also "kiss" with their beaks. Such "kisses" indicate that a couple has developed and they will have offspring 100%.
It is necessary to understand that pigeons are monogamous and pair birds, so they find a mate for almost a lifetime.
Birth of chicks
How are pigeons born? Chicks from hatching eggs begin to hatch on the 18th day after laying. Nestlings can be born with a difference of one day.
They are born with eyes closed and without feathers. Therefore, parents warm their offspring and protect against external threats. However, the chicks quickly grow and soon become completely independent. After birth, pigeons feed on goiter milk, which the dove feeds its offspring. Two weeks after hatching, pigeons can already feed on ground grain.
Juveniles are capable of breeding approximately 65% of the clutch, while in more mature birds in vivo it is possible to breed 95%. Therefore, if you are breeding this bird at home, you need to know how this process is performed correctly. After all, ignorance of the habits of birds or the characteristics of hatching eggs can destroy the whole laying.
Naturally, in captivity, pigeons are bred in compulsion. This is due to a small livestock. Поэтому люди, которые занимаются разведением этой птицы в домашних условиях, должны понимать, что процент вылупления в этом случае будет намного ниже.
В неволе сформированную пару нужно отсадить в отдельную клетку. В случае если голубь полон сил и здоровья, он почти сразу начнет проявлять интерес к выбранной самке. Обычно интерес проявляется в токовании (ворковании). Помимо издавания определенных звуков, голубь начинает кружиться на одном месте. In doing so, he performs the following actions:
- picks up the paws,
- inflates goiter, which allows it to appear larger than its true size.
After such a “dance” of the male, the female, if she liked the chosen one, will begin to bow to him and perform certain actions with his tail. After that, the birds form a pair and start breeding. The process then proceeds in a similar way with the natural reproduction of pigeons in nature.
It is not recommended to disturb the bird during the first 7 days of incubation. The screening of fertility for fertilization with an ovoscope is performed on the 8–9th day. At this stage, it is necessary to check not only the presence of the embryo, but also its proper development.
By this time, blood vessels and other elements should form inside the egg, which will serve as confirmation of the correctness of the processes inside. Poultry farmers who breed pigeons mark in their special calendar the date of mating and breaking each testicle.
You can also make special notes regarding the development of chicks.
At the same time, one should know which species can be crossed and produce the most viable and healthy offspring.
Thanks to this breeding work, it is possible at home to breed new breeds that will have an unusual and very attractive appearance.
Knowing how pigeons reproduce, one can easily grow for the soul or for sale various species of these beautiful birds in one's loft.
Interesting facts about pigeons
- In Christianity, the dove is a symbol of the Holy Spirit, peace, baptism and brings the gospel. According to the Bible, the pigeon sent Noah to find dry land after the flood, and he brought an olive branch.
- Simple urban pigeons perfectly hold a reference point in space and always find their way home. First of all, birds on their way remember certain features of the landscape, secondly they remember smells well, and they have an “internal compass” that helps them navigate the Sun.
- There is another interesting fact that researchers encountered just a few years ago. It turns out that pigeons can distinguish between human habits. The experiment was conducted as follows, two researchers of approximately the same build treated the pigeons differently. The first was kind and courteous, and the second, while feeding, chased them around the cage. After some time, the scientists stopped appearing in front of the pigeons, but when they came again, the birds recognized them. They avoided the one who offended them, and they flew up to the second one, who was good with them, if they got away with it.
- There are about 300 species of pigeons in the world. They live in all corners of the earth, except in too cold areas. But most of them live in a tropical climate.
- Urban pigeons have a very interesting body. At first they fill the stomach, and when the food does not fit, they send it to the goiter, which consists of two bags. First, the left and then the right pouch gradually fill up. Principle like hamsters.
- Drink in an interesting way. Pigeons put their beak into the water and suck the liquid through it, as if it were a straw.
- Interestingly, pigeons can reach speeds of up to 70 km per hour and can fly up to 900 km per day.
In this article, we told you how pigeons mate, where their offspring live, and why we don’t see little pigeons on the street. In the end, I want to say one thing: pigeons are a symbol of peace, goodness and love, and therefore we must treat them accordingly, feed them and, of course, do not offend.
Creation of bird families
Beginners in pigeon breeding need to study how pigeons breed at home. To achieve certain characteristics in young stock, it is preferable to artificially create bird pairs. It is necessary to choose the right individuals so that the chicks have all the positive qualities of the parents. To do this, follow some principles:
- choose only purebred individuals with strong immunity. Weakened birds are not used in breeding. Females often bring unfertilized eggs: they are called chatterboxes. Defective embryos may develop in hatching eggs. Sometimes they can not peck through the shell. If they are helped, there is still a big risk of the chick dying in the first few days,
- pigeons are selected for temperament. The family will not take place if the female is more active than the male. With excessive activity of the pigeon, the dove may experience stress, which will affect the quality of the clutch. Individuals are selected for a close temperament
- take into account age features. Pigeons up to 1 year old do not participate in breeding. In young animals, the reproductive system is poorly developed. From young parents chicks appear weakened, often sick. If it is early to use thoroughbred pigeons, then their reproductive organs will no longer function. In addition, females are reduced immunity. The optimal age for creating pairs is 1-5 years. In the future, the ability of pigeons begin to decline,
- How do pigeons breed if there are individuals with good characteristics in the flock, but their age is more than 5 years? How to achieve decent abilities in young? If in the pack there are only overgrown males, who have good characteristics, then young females sit down to them. And vice versa, the dove of age is connected with young partners,
- to create families choose medium-sized individuals with a normal weight. Obese females bring unfertilized eggs. If there are clear signs of exhaustion in the hens, the embryo will develop in the egg with abnormalities.
If parents previously had good flying qualities and the ability to navigate in space, but for some reason they were not in the air for a long time, then the probability of transmitting positive characteristics to their offspring decreases. Nestlings can not inherit them. Golubevody argue that it is possible to restore flight abilities, but systematic training is required. The ability to navigate the terrain is almost completely lost. It is difficult to restore it.
Ornithologists prefer to create bird families only from the pigeons that live on their farm. Purchased individuals are rarely used. One can only guess what abilities they possess. It turns out that empirically. First check their flight and other characteristics. When buying, be sure to check the age of the bird Up to 10 years, pigeons are able to mate, but after 5 years their reproductive functions are reduced.
Experts say that with the natural creation of pairs, pigeons better relate to each other. They do everything together: they build a nest and incubate chicks, and take care of the offspring. When couples are forced to mate, males quickly lose interest in the female. They may have decreased libido.
In regions that are in temperate latitudes, pigeon breeding occurs in March-April. In the northern areas, birds begin to build nests for 2-3 weeks later. In areas with hot climates, the mating period falls at the end of February. If the birds created pairs on time or the person correctly formed a bird family, the female lays eggs in a timely manner.
By the fall, the chicks have time to lean, gain weight. They can trace the flight characteristics. With the late clutch, the young are born weak. Development is not good enough. In the mating season, birds should be monitored in order to connect them in pairs in time, place them in the nests. It is necessary to consider some points:
- equip nests. Shelves with nests are installed in the dovecote. If mating took place naturally, the males themselves choose the nest. After examining him, they call out to the female in a certain cooing tone,
- in the herd may be uneven-aged couples. Some pigeons try to occupy nests already familiar to them. That between beginners and older generation there was no conflict. In the room with nests, first of all have families that have developed in the past. After they find a place for themselves, beginners get into the room,
- sometimes it happens that pigeons do not like nests that are in cages. This can be seen in their behavior. They take the stems of dry grass to a certain place on the floor. Pigeon breeders do not recommend retraining the birds, and forcing them to build a nest in a specific place for them. It is better to put the box in the place that the pigeons chose independently.
When the nest is ready, the male motivates the female to sit in it. Sometimes pigeons behave aggressively: males are excessively active, they can pluck feathers from a pigeon and inflict wounds on it. In this case, the pair must be divided. In the cage install the partition, which consists of a grid. Partners will see each other, but they will not be able to communicate. Usually in 2-3 days the condition of the birds is normal. The partition is removed.
The female carries out the first clutch 2 weeks after mating. All this time she often sits in the nest, warming it with her body, giving it a comfortable shape. After 44 h after the dove brought the first egg, she makes the second laying. After that, she sits in the nest. The hatching period begins.
Laying takes a hen of a lot of strength and energy. In young doves, the process is difficult. Egg can get stuck in the oviduct. The cloac can be injured during its withdrawal. The reproduction of pigeons is a difficult process. To him should prepare the birds. In order for the males to show interest in females, the layer safely completed laying, the flock is released into the air. Chasing pigeons daily. They must move actively. During the laying and brooding period, pigeon pairs are not taken for training. They are constantly in the dovecote.
The female and male incubate the chicks in turn. In the dark, a dove is in the nest, in the morning the male changes it. This distribution of parental responsibilities gives the birds the opportunity to recuperate. The incubation period lasts 19 days. The chicks begin to curse already on the 16th day. During the day, individuals flip eggs with limbs so that they warm up evenly from all sides.
Pigeons in the nest
Sometimes the dove sits in the nest immediately after it has laid the first egg, not waiting for the second laying. In this case, the chicks appear at different times. The first newborn can damage the second egg with its large beak. To avoid this, it is recommended to pick up the first egg and place it in the refrigerator at a temperature not lower than 10 C. Install it with a blunt end up to avoid damaging the air chamber. After the female completes the second clutch, the egg is returned to the nest. Pre-incubate it at room temperature so that it warms up.
Nestlings appear weakly feathered, with a large head and beak. They are completely different from their parents. Both parents take care of the offspring. They feed the young with goiter milk. After 3-5 days they bring grain to the chicks. The pigeon breeder installs a feeder for chicks in the cage. For feeding use grain mixtures or feed for chickens, the starting version.
Chicks are in the nest until they are one month old. After their first molt has passed, the children's beak has changed for an adult, the young growth leaves the nest, joins the flock. If the nests were not stationary, then they are carried out of the pigeon house. The cells are washed, cleaned and disinfected.
Breeding pigeons requires some knowledge. If the sex of the birds was correctly determined, couples were left on time and with high quality, then as a result you can get young animals with good flying abilities. It is necessary to create favorable conditions for pigeons in order for the reproduction process to be successful.