Rabbits appreciate the beautiful fur, excellent taste of meat. But growing them is not as easy as it seems at first glance. When breeding livestock breeders face a variety of problems. After all, these animals are very demanding to the conditions of detention and often get sick. Diseases of rabbits can destroy most of the livestock in a matter of days. In order to help the animals in time, it is necessary to be able to determine the disease, as well as to vaccinate in time, follow the rules of care.
Sick rabbit or healthy
Some diseases of rabbits do not have a pronounced clinical picture. But even in such cases, you can distinguish a sick animal from a healthy one. And in order not to miss the first signs of ailments, it is necessary to conduct periodic inspections of all individuals. Usually this is done before the mating, after okrolov. When rabbits appear, they are inspected daily until two weeks of age.
Healthy animals are always active, they have a good appetite. They are characterized by:
- Brilliant, beautiful, smooth hair.
- Lack of nasal discharge, eyes.
- Smooth breathing (about sixty times per minute).
- Smooth pulse (120-160 beats per minute).
- Body temperature from 38 to 39.5 degrees.
Daily inspect fecal masses. On them it is possible to assess the state of the gastrointestinal tract. Calamine dark brown or black feces in the form of peas are considered normal.
An unhealthy animal changes its behavior: it becomes inactive, it may refuse to eat or eat with reluctance. Also, a sick rabbit may lie with his eyes closed.
In some diseases, the respiratory rate changes, there is a strong thirst. There may be sores on the skin; from the nose, eyes, there may be a discharge. Sometimes rabbits have diarrhea or constipation, it can be seen bloating. When touched, hair falls out: it loses its attractiveness. In some diseases, rabbits shake their heads, scratch their ears and other parts of the body. There are diseases that can cause paralysis, cramps, trembling.
Rabbit disease requires immediate treatment. But before proceeding to therapy, you should consult with a veterinarian. He will carry out analyzes of fecal masses, take scrapings from wool, places of defeat, will take away material on analyzes in the presence of secretions. All this will help to accurately diagnose and prescribe the correct treatment.
How are diseases
The types of rabbit diseases, symptoms and their treatment determine the possibility of recovery of animals. There are diseases that cannot be treated, and sick individuals are destroyed. There are illnesses whose treatment does not cause problems.
Rabbit diseases are many. For convenience, they were divided into groups: infectious or infectious, non-infectious or non-infectious. Consider them in more detail. The most dangerous are precisely infectious pathologies, as they are able to quickly move from one animal to another, infecting all the livestock. It is worth noting that some diseases are dangerous for people.
In a separate group of diseases of rabbits allocate parasitic ailments. Penetrating into the body, parasites can spread throughout all organs and systems, affecting different areas. This species includes worms, mites and others.
Scabies or psoroptosis
Rabbit diseases, symptoms and their treatment, started on time, can be determined independently, without the participation of a veterinarian. These diseases include psoroptes or ear scab. What it is? Its pathogen is a itch mite that lives in the auricle. The parasite causes inflammation. Rabbit starts combing auricles. Ticks begin to move to other areas, penetrating deeper into the fabric.
The incubation period for scabies lasts up to five days. Usually the clinical picture is very pronounced: the rabbit shakes his head, scratches his ears. On the inner surface of the auricle there are scratching.
With timely treatment, the disease is easy to defeat. Conduct surface treatment of the auricle of all infected rabbits. To do this, use turpentine, dust or special drops from scabies sold in vetaptekah.
Rickets is manifested in rabbits from an early age. Such individuals are stunted, practically do not gain weight. They show the deformation of the limbs: the legs resemble an oval. Ricket rabbits have a huge belly.
The treatment is carried out by prescribing a course of vitamin D in drops, as well as calcium and phosphorus. Preparations are added to the feed.
Coccidiosis in rabbits is caused by parasites affecting the gastrointestinal tract. According to statistics, about 70% of rabbits die from this very disease. To prevent this, conduct prevention of coccidiosis.
This disease is of two types: liver and intestinal. In the latter case, the parasites develop very quickly. Rabbits die in a week or two.
When the liver form pathology develops slowly. Animals gradually lose weight, and they have diarrhea.
The incubation period for coccidiosis is about three days. The main manifestations of the disease is loose stools, the presence of bloody discharge, jaundice. For an accurate diagnosis, laboratory examination of the feces of the animal is necessary. Rabbits can get sick at any age. But the young susceptibility suffers from the age of one and a half to four months.
When coccidiosis is detected in rabbits, they are treated with the method of feeding with drugs dissolved in water. This may be sulfa drugs: "Sulfadimezin", "Sulfadimethoxin". Water rabbits twice a day for five days. There is a three-week break between courses.
Good results are obtained by feeding with a solution of iodine: adults prepare a 0.01% solution (dose of 100 ml per animal / day for ten days), for rabbits the dosage is 50 and 100 ml.
In vetaptek you can purchase special drugs for the treatment and prevention of coccidiosis. They are used in accordance with the instructions.
Myxomatosis in rabbits is a dangerous disease caused by viruses. Outbreaks are recorded in the summer-autumn period. Carriers of infection are mice, rats, blood-sucking insects.
When myxomatosis rabbits have the following symptoms:
- Swelling of the nose, ears, lips.
- Discharge from the eyes and nose.
- On paws, ears seal are formed.
- Apathy appears, and the rabbit has wool.
As the disease develops, the animal’s ears drop, it falls into a coma and dies. The disease is very fast and always fatal. All individuals are disposed of, carcasses are not fit for human consumption. The rabbitry is disinfected, the remaining animals are vaccinated.
Pododermatitis or plantar dermatitis in rabbits is manifested in individuals contained in cages with mesh floors. Because of this, appear on the paws of the sores, into which the infection falls. As a result, the process of suppuration begins: the illness turns into an acute form.
Most often, poddermatitom sick animals with large body mass, with not lowered legs. A side factor is the poor state of the cells, polluted air, and high humidity.
Clinically, the disease is manifested by a lack of appetite, the animal barely moves, lies more. When viewed, visible damage to the legs. Treatment of Pododermatitis is carried out by smearing the lesions with zinc ointment or Vishnevsky's liniment.
If a rabbit has watery eyes, then this may indicate conjunctivitis. Pathology occurs when dust gets into the eyes from contaminated hay, grass, and animal feed. The disease manifests itself in the form of redness, swelling of the eyelids, lacrimation. Subsequently, the discharge becomes purulent, eyes sticky. Rabbits are trying to tear their paws, further aggravating the situation.
The treatment is carried out with daily eye treatments with a solution of boric acid, “Levomitsetinom”, strong brewing of black tea. Eyes are treated for a week.
Worms in rabbits can lead to the death of the animal. They not only cause inflammation, but also dangerous for eared ones.
When infected with worms, the following symptoms are observed:
- Increased thirst. Rabbits drink a lot: they come to a bowl of water more often than usual.
- In the feces you can see the slime of a greenish color. Diarrhea and constipation in rabbits alternate.
- Wool fades, loses shine, begins to fall in large quantities.
- Blurred sclera eyes.
- Rabbits become lethargic, lie a lot.
- Because of the worms there is an itch in the anus, forcing to drive on the floor.
Treatment of worms is carried out with the help of special drugs. This may be Shustrik, Gamavit, Albendazole, Tetramizole, Pyrantel and other antihelminthic drugs available in the vet pharmacy. Means are applied strictly according to the instructions.
Rabbits are very sensitive to food: when improperly selected feed, the animal may be poisoned. Such a phenomenon can cause such herbs as datura, potato tops, caustic buttercup and other poisonous plants.
In case of poisoning, the following symptoms occur: excessive salivation, vomiting, diarrhea, movement coordination is disturbed. With these signs, it is necessary to feed the rabbit with a decoction of rice or oats, replace the food.
Runny nose or pasteurellosis
The disease affects animals at any age. When pathology observed discharge from the nose. They can be purulent or mucous, the body temperature rises, diarrhea occurs. Rabbits are in a depressed state, they refuse food and water. Patients are immediately isolated, and their cells are disinfected.
For treatment in the nose it is necessary to instil “Furacilin”, solution of “Penicillin”. The antibiotic is diluted with water in the ratio of 1 to 1. After recovery, the rabbits go to the face. For mating such do not leave.
Diseases of the respiratory system
If rabbits live in a draft, then they may have problems with the respiratory organs: pneumonia, bronchitis. When these ailments are observed wheezing, depressed breathing, body temperature rises. For treatment, it is necessary to inject intramuscularly "Penicillin", a solution of "Sulfidine" 0.3 g per individual. Be sure to add vitamins to food. Rabbits are moved to warm cages without drafts.
If the cages with rabbits stand all day in the sun, then the animals can overheat and get a heat stroke. Large individuals do not tolerate heat and heat.
When overheating, they refuse to eat and water, stretched to their full height in the cells. They have increased breathing, convulsions may occur.
Helping is to transport animals to a cool place. This may be some room where it is colder than in cells. A cold compress can be applied to the head.
Stomatitis or “wet muzzle”
Juveniles are often exposed to infectious stomatitis or wet face disease. It is caused by viruses.
The disease affects the mucosa, causing salivation, diarrhea, inflammation. Secondary signs of the disease are: increased humidity of the integument, sudden changes in temperature.
The main clinical manifestations are:
- Appearance in the language of plaque: first it is white, and then grayish-red.
- The formation of ulcers.
- The animal loses its appetite, becomes sluggish.
- During the meal you can hear the champ.
When such symptoms are detected, treatment should be initiated immediately. The oral cavity is washed with a solution of potassium permanganate or copper sulphate. Good results are given by Streptomycin. Powder treatment is carried out by the method of falling asleep in the oral cavity of 0.2 g once a day for three days.
The main disease prevention in rabbits is vaccination. It helps protect livestock from the most dangerous diseases that can destroy the entire economy in a matter of days.
What vaccinations do the rabbit need and when are they given? The first injection is done at the age of 45 days, with a mass of at least 500 grams. The following vaccinations are performed every six months throughout the life of the individual. If a break between vaccinations is allowed, then disease prevention is resumed, regardless of the age of the rabbit.
The vaccination can be performed as follows:
- The first vaccine is given at the age of 45 days with an associated vaccine.
- Revaccination is carried out after 3 months.
- Further vaccinations are done every six months.
Another scheme is as follows:
- The first vaccine is given by UHB monovaccine at the age of one and a half months.
- Two weeks later, vaccination for myxomatosis is given.
- After another two weeks, revaccination of UGBC is performed.
- Two weeks later - revaccination from myxomatosis.
- After 3 months, the vaccine is associated vaccine.
- Six months later, revaccination is performed with all three vaccines.
When vaccination according to any scheme, a two-week quarantine is necessarily maintained. It helps to avoid possible infection of the pet during the development of immunity. At this time, it is recommended to feed the animal with germinated grain, rowan, fish oil, pumpkin.
Timely vaccination and proper treatment will help save the livestock of rabbits, as well as prevent outbreaks of dangerous infections.
Rabbits purchased at another farm must be held in a separate cage for 3 weeks. If during this time the symptoms of any diseases do not appear, you can sit them down with other animals. Regular inspection should be carried out on small rabbits and adults before mating.
If any disease is suspected to be disinfected, the cells and feeders are disinfected with special chemicals designed to combat specific pathogens. The metal parts are treated with a blowtorch or boiling water.
A healthy rabbit is cheerful, has a good appetite, it has a shiny coat, breathing is calm, and its eyes and ears are clean. If you notice any abnormalities in his condition, it is better to immediately call a doctor. It is recommended to slaughter a sick rabbit to prevent the spread of the disease.
The most common diseases of rabbits and their treatment
All diseases of rabbits can be divided into two groups: non-infectious origin and infectious. The first group includes eating disorders. Such diseases of rabbits, their symptoms and treatment have long been widely known. The causes of food disorders are usually poor quality food in adults or the switch to hard food in rabbits after mother's milk. The presence of the disease is determined by the absence of feces, too loose stools, abdominal distension.
In this case, the rabbit should be kept on a starvation diet for about 12 hours, and after that you should start feeding with a mixture of soft food and boiled potatoes. If the animal suffers from constipation, they give Glauber, Carlsbad salt or castor oil in a teaspoon. In rabbit diarrhea is treated with a solution prepared from 2 liters of water and one tablet of syntomycin. They should be fed animals in the morning and evening. After a few days, the rabbit foodborne illness and their symptoms disappear with this treatment.
Often, animals can get hurt in a cage. All kinds of injuries on the body of rabbits also belong to diseases of non-contagious origin. If the injury is small, then after a few days it passes on its own. It is possible to cope with small wounds in which the integrity of the skin is disturbed by smearing them with iodine. It is difficult to cure deep injuries in rabbits, so these animals are usually usually killed immediately. Fractures of the paws occur if animals enter them in the cracks in the cage. With such an injury, rabbits still live very long. To treat a fracture is unprofitable and expensive, so the animal is also killed.
Rabbits should be protected in the cold, as they can freeze the ears. If this happens, the animal must be placed in a warm room. Frost-bitten areas are neatly lubricated with melted warm grease.
Like humans, as well as many other animals, rabbits are subject to heat and sunstroke. You can determine it by the following symptoms: the rabbit is stationary and lies on its side, the eyelids, mouth and nose are reddened, breathing is speeded up. The compress helps to cope with the effects of heat and sunstroke. The towel should be applied to the rabbit's head, constantly moistening it in cold water. If there are convulsive twitching of the extremities, it will not be possible to cure the animal. It remains to score.
Catarrhal diseases in rabbits develop if they are in a draft for a long time or fall into the rain. Animals sneeze, clear discharge from nose. Rabbits need to be transferred to a warm place, a few drops of furatsilin solution are buried daily in the nose, for the preparation of which 1 g of the substance is diluted in 100 g of water. Even if rabbits were ill with diseases of non-contagious origin, their meat can be used without restrictions. The situation is different with infectious infections.
Coccidiosis in rabbits
It is caused by parasitic protozoa - coccidia. Coccidiosis is dangerous in that it causes damage to the liver and intestines. Pathogens enter the body through water, mother's milk and feed. Причиной развития кокцидиоза также становится большое количество кроликов в клетке, несбалансированный рацион, нарушение санитарно-гигиенических норм питания.Symptoms of the disease are constipation, diarrhea, bloating, lack of appetite, ruffled coat on the abdomen, and general weakness.
You can cope with the disease by eliminating all the reasons that provoked its development. In addition, often used in accordance with the instructions drug baykoks for rabbits. This is the most effective means, according to most experts, in the treatment of coccidiosis. It can also be used for poultry and ornamental animals.
The method of use of the drug is determined by its concentration. Therefore, before applying it, you should carefully read the instructions.
Another well-known drug - solikoks for rabbits. Instructions for this drug characterizes it as a tool with a wide spectrum of action. Solikox helps to cope with all types of coccidiosis pathogens in rabbits. It is well combined with other drugs and various additives.
It is important that solicox is low toxic, therefore it is safe in case of overdose.
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease
The main areas affected by this disease are the liver and lungs of animals. It spreads very quickly, the duration of the incubation period is several hours. Rabbits may have seizures, nosebleeds, general weakness, and fever. Infection occurs through the litter or feeder, which was used for a sick animal, by direct contact with the carrier of the disease. The treatment is impossible, but there is a special serum with which you can protect the rabbits for 2 hours. During this time it is necessary to plant them from sick animals.
Infection of the rabbit comes from the mother, with scales of the skin of the sick animal in adults. The spread of the ear mite is more active when crowded living rabbits. Symptoms of the disease are clearly visible externally in the form of crusts on the inner surface of the ears. In addition, the rabbit is actively scratching them, trying to get rid of these formations on the skin. Treatment of ear mites in rabbits is carried out with the help of regular treatment of the ears with a special mixture, which includes creolin, turpentine, kerosene and glycerin.
Differences sick rabbit from healthy
Not all diseases are accompanied by severe symptoms, but you can see the difference between a sick rabbit and a healthy one. And in order not to lose sight of the first signals of the disease, animals need a systematic examination. This is done before mating, as well as before and after okrol. After birth, rabbits are inspected for the first time every day, and then once in 14 days. Most of the diseases and their treatment methods are not very serious, the main thing is to prevent the development of complications and take measures in time.
A healthy rabbit is distinguished by its activity and good appetite. The main signs of a healthy animal:
- no mucous discharge,
- the fur glitters
- respiratory rate about 60 times per minute,
- uniform pulse 120-160 beats per minute,
- temperature of 38.5-39.5 degrees.
If the urine or feces changes, this may indicate a disease that has begun. Normal feces are black or dark brown in the form of peas. Urine must also be dark. Its shade depends on the type of feed.
Signs of an unhealthy animal
Each disease has its own distinctive signs, but there are a number of symptoms that indicate a disorder in the rabbit. If they have appeared in an animal, it is necessary to immediately contact a specialist to avoid the spread of the disease to other individuals and to start treatment in time.
Many diseases begin with the following symptoms:
- atypical behavior
- the rabbit lies with his eyes closed
- animal breathes hard and often, wants to drink all the time,
- hair loss
- discharge from the nose or eyes,
- the appearance of formations on the body,
- the animal paralyzes, it trembles or beats in convulsions,
- breaking stool.
Types of rabbit diseases
Rabbits can suffer from numerous diseases that can be divided into the following groups:
The most frequent are infectious diseases. They are the most dangerous because an infected animal carries a potential threat to the lives of others.
The cause of invasive diseases are parasites (worms, mites, etc.), which, once in the body, can spread through it, causing damage to various organs and tissues. Penetrating into the body of an animal, they lay larvae there and multiply. As a consequence, there is a fall in the number of rabbits.
Infectious diseases develop as a result of the entry of microbes or viruses into the body of a rabbit, or cutaneous parasites. The sick animal often becomes a carrier of the virus and carries a danger to the rest of the herd ..
Non-communicable diseases are mainly tied to the wrong diet, with violation of the requirements for the content, temperature. These include all sorts of bruises and injuries. Noncommunicable diseases do not endanger the life of other animals - the sick rabbit is not infectious.
Parasites under the microscope (Coccidosis)
The cause of this disease is the parasite coccidia, which affects the gastrointestinal tract of the animal. There are two stages in the development of the disease: the first is in the body of the rabbit, the second is beyond its limits, then the pathogen is a threat to the animal. Statistics show that the cause of death of rabbits in 70% of cases is coccidosis. In order to prevent this, constant prevention and timely diagnosis is necessary.
The disease can develop in two forms: hepatic and intestinal. In the first variant, the disease can last for about 50 days, during which the animal has diarrhea and it loses weight. The intestinal form is fleeting - in 10 days the rabbit dies.
During the incubation period (2-3 days) jaundice is observed in the rodent, the feces have blood impurities. The age of the diseased animal may be different, but the most vulnerable 2 - 4-month rabbits. To diagnose the disease is possible only after analyzing feces for the presence of the pathogen.
Coccidosis can be treated in several ways. An iodine solution can be given to the animal: for an adult 100 g of a 0.01% solution per day from the 25th day of pregnancy, then the volume is increased to 200 g per day of a 0.02% solution. Courses for 10 days each. Rabbits are treated according to the same scheme, only the volume of the solution should be 2 times less. The second method is treatment with an aqueous solution of sulfa drugs. Give the rabbit a solution 2 times a day for 5 days.
For more information about this disease, we told in the article coccidiosis in rabbits, for familiarization go to the following link http://kroliki-prosto.ru/kokcidioz-u-krolikov.html
Liver of a rabbit affected by cysticercosis
The disease is caused by cestode larvae. It affects the liver and its complication is peritonitis. The percentage of extinction of rabbits from cysticercosis is very high, especially among the young. The cestode larva becomes a mature parasite in the dog’s body, and the rabbit becomes an intermediate carrier.
The diseased animal is sluggish and has no appetite. Gradually, the body becomes weaker and the rabbit dies. When you open it, you can see the affected liver. Multiple bubbles are visible on the belly. It is possible to diagnose a disease with the help of an allergen injected under the skin.
Unfortunately, there is no treatment for cysticercosis. It is necessary to take only preventive measures to prevent the spread of the pathogen. If the dead organs are found in the dead rabbit by the cestodes, the corpse is destroyed. In the rabbit farms can not keep dogs, except for the guard. Do not allow stray dogs to the area. As chemical prophylaxis, 10% mebenvet granulate is added to animal feed for 30–40 days.
Dead rabbit from pasteurellosis
This disease affects all livestock very quickly if there is a sick animal in the herd. The age of the diseased can be any. But the source of infection can be not only a sick rabbit, but also contaminated food and care items. Pasterallosis carriers are birds and rodents.
When the rabbit gets sick, he has a sharp rise in temperature to 41-42 degrees. Their condition is depressed, breathing is fast. This disease is rapid - after 1-3 days the body temperature drops to 33 degrees and the rabbit dies. This disease may also have a chronic form in which purulent rhinitis appears.
At autopsy, a hemorrhage of all internal organs is noted in a sick animal. The spleen is significantly enlarged, and there may be dead areas on the liver.
Treat pasteurellosis with antibiotics - biomycin, chloramphenicol and others. As a preventive measure, rabbits are vaccinated.
Hides of sick animals are disinfected, and their insides are disposed of. Meat can be eaten when thoroughly checked.
You can learn more about this disease from the article pasteurellosis in rabbits.
When rhinitis in the rabbit appears serous from the nose, then mucus. He often sneezes and scratches his nose.
Treat the animal with furatsilinom 1% penicillin mixed (20 000 units per 1 mg). Bury the mixture 2 times a day. You can use ecmonovocillin as a treatment by diluting the preparation with boiled water 1: 2 or with NaCl solution. Instill 5-6 drops into the nostrils.
Read about this disease in more detail in the article Infectious Rhinitis in Rabbits, in it you are the main symptoms, causes and methods of treatment.
The main factors causing the disease are drafts, sudden changes in temperature, high humidity. To diagnose it is not difficult:
- lack of appetite,
- high temperature (up to 42 degrees),
- the presence of wheezing during breathing,
- discharge from the nostrils.
In the presence of these signs, the animal is placed in a comfortable environment without drafts with optimal humidity and temperature. Giving him intensive food and antibiotic treatment. Give him as much as possible to drink.
Often poisonous herbs that fall into the grass for feed are the cause of poisoning. Signs of poisoning are diarrhea, vomiting, increased salivation. Coordination of the body is often disturbed. Read about how to feed the rabbit and how.
First you should change the feed and give the rabbit a lot to drink. Make rice or oatmeal broth. They have an absorbent property.
Non-contagious - characteristic symptoms
Often, this group of diseases occurs in violation of the norms of content and feeding, injuries and hypothermia.
The most common non-communicable diseases of rabbits include (picture 1):
- Feed poisoning due to feeding hay or green grass mixed with poisonous plants or when animals eat large amounts of salt. Accompanied by diarrhea, loss of appetite, great thirst and drooling. For treatment use warm enema and milk, which should be given to drink instead of water.
- Rickets occurs when the young animals are not feeding well, when the body lacks vitamin D, phosphorus and calcium. The disease is accompanied by growth retardation, deformities of the extremities and the spine. For the prevention and treatment of young animals should include more feed rich in vitamins and minerals (young green grass, germinated grain, bone meal and vitamins).
- Catarrh of the stomach, intestinal and flatulence also occurs when improperly fed. There are three forms of Qatar (alkaline, sour and cold), in which the animals are oppressed, they have diarrhea, and fecal masses stick to the fur on the back of the body. To determine the shape of Qatar can be on the nature of fecal masses. Thus, in sour catarr, feces are frequent, taupe and frequent. Alkaline is accompanied by rare acts of defecation, and the feces are dark, liquid and have an unpleasant putrid odor. Syntomycin and disulfan are used for the treatment of acid catarrh, and in the alkaline form, a solution of potassium permanganate is used. When a catarrh occurs, the sick individual is not fed for 20 hours, and then they begin to give out only dietary feed (decoction of oats, grated carrots, acidophilus, high-quality hay).
- Flatulence often accompanied by constipation, bloating and general lethargy. The mucous membranes of the nose and mouth may also turn blue. Sick animals need to issue a solution of ichthyol.
- Hypothermia can provoke bronchitis, pneumonia and non-infectious rhinitis in animals. These diseases can provoke a high content of dust and ammonia in the air. Sick animals are transferred to a warm room and heavily fed. Correct treatment can be prescribed only by a veterinarian.
- Sunstroke It also quite often affects rabbits if they have been in the sun on long-term runs without canopies or in cramped cages without adequate ventilation for a long time. At the initial stage, they become lethargic, refuse to feed, and constantly lie on his stomach. Such animals are transferred to a cool room and a cold compress is placed on the head or watered with cold water. To prevent sunstroke, the roofs of the cells should be covered with straw or twigs, whitened, and watered in the hot season.
- Frostbite ear occurs in the cold season when kept in unheated cells. At the first stage, frostbitten areas blush and swell, then bubbles appear with a transparent liquid inside, which die off at the last stage. With the first degree of frostbite, it is enough to transfer the animal to a warm place and rub camphor ointment into the frost-bitten areas. In the second stage, the bubbles open and also smeared with ointment. At the third stage, the dead areas should be cut off, treated with iodine and bandaged.
- Very often, rabbits are injured, for example, when kept in defective cages or in group housing, when animals begin to fight among themselves. The health of individuals does not suffer from blows and bites, but the quality of the skins significantly deteriorates. In some cases, strong blows can cause paralysis of the hind limbs. In this case, the animal must be sent for slaughter. In addition, rabbits are fearful on their own, and can be accidentally injured. Therefore, you need to take care of them quietly, without making sudden movements and not making loud noises, and the cells should always be in good order.
- If dirt gets into the eyes, conjunctivitis (catarrhal or purulent) may begin. The catarrhal form is accompanied by copious tearing, redness of the eyelids, and hair begins to fall on the cheeks. Purulent conjunctivitis causes sticking of the eyelids due to the release of pus, and the cornea of the eyes may become clouded, causing blindness. For treatment, eye rinsing with a solution of boric acid (catarrhal form) is used, and in case of purulent form, rinsing is accompanied by application of iodoform ointment to the eyelids.
This group of rabbit diseases includes:
- Stomatitis of infectious origin
This is a viral disease that very young young people get sick from 25 days old to 3 months of age. Infection occurs from sick individuals to healthy ones. At the initial stages of infectious stomatitis in the language of an infected animal a raid forms, which can change color (from white to grayish-red) from the degree of disease progression. Also, a rather large ulceration occurs in the tongue, salivation occurs, which may increase with the further development of the disease. Infected individuals scratch their faces with their paws, become lethargic and inactive, and also very often cage into a corner. The presence of the disease does not affect the appetite, but because of the existing wounds in the oral cavity, the rabbits eat and drink very little, which leads to rapid exhaustion. The severity of the disease can manifest itself from mild to the most complex form. With the onset of mild form in young animals with the onset of 10-12 days of the disease, recovery occurs, but in severe form they die during the first week. The main signs of infectious stomatitis are shown in Figure 2.
Note: However, drooling is very often observed in other diseases, since infectious stomatitis is characterized by other symptoms (diarrhea, depression, etc.) after the onset of saliva, but for other diseases, these symptoms may appear differently. Distinctive symptoms of the disease are the characteristic type of language and the presence of slurping sounds when chewing.
Upon detection of diseased individuals, it is necessary to immediately isolate them, disinfect the cage and equipment. Animals that have had infectious stomatitis can only be used for commercial purposes. Also, you can not allow them to mate with other individuals.
Figure 2. Symptoms of infectious stomatitis
After finding a sick young in a cage, all the young that were in the same cage should be treated, and the sooner the better. Also improve the diet of livestock and wash your mouth with a solution of potassium permanganate or copper sulfate. Sometimes white streptocide powder is poured into the oral cavity, or penicillin is administered subcutaneously.
Young animals with no signs of disease are transplanted into other cells, streptocide powder is poured into the mouth, and the cells are disinfected.
This is a very common disease that is triggered by microbes that are constantly in the nose of animals (Figure 3).
В нормальных условиях микробы никак не проявляются, но если слизистая оболочка носа была травмирована или воспалилась, микробы начинают размножаться, провоцируя болезнь. An infected animal becomes a peddler of the disease, spreading pathogens when sneezing.
Signs of infectious rhinitis are:
- Constant sneezing
- Animals rub paws nose,
- From the nostrils, mucus and pus are secreted, and crusts form around the nose. Sometimes they even block the nasal passage and the animal is forced to breathe through the nose,
- The nasal mucosa is swollen.
It is worth noting that if the inflammation has spread only to the nasal cavity, the disease can become chronic, which does not affect the functioning of the individual. But if the inflammation has affected other respiratory organs, the disease progresses rapidly and the animal dies within one to two months. At the same time, his breathing becomes hoarse, his temperature rises, signs of exhaustion appear, as animals eat little and reluctantly.
Note: Rabbits are prone to non-contagious rhinitis, which is the result of a cold or injury to the nasal mucosa. It is possible to distinguish infectious rhinitis from non-infectious by the appearance of a secret. If rhinitis is non-contagious, serous or serous-mucous fluid will be released from the nose, and in case of infectious rhinitis, it is purulent.
Sick individuals are immediately sent for slaughter, bedding and food are buried or burned, and the cage and inventory are disinfected. It is possible to treat only the mild form of infectious rhinitis using furatsilina solution.
It is an infectious disease, the causative agent of which is Pasterello. It is worth noting that pasteurellosis can affect not only rabbits, but also other domestic animals and birds, and in some cases even humans. But among rabbits, the disease spreads very quickly.
There are two forms of the disease: typical and atypical. In typical form, microbes penetrate the blood and lymphatic systems, spread rapidly throughout the body and cause the death of the animal. In this case, the individual temperature rises, breathing becomes rapid, the animal refuses to eat. Sometimes symptoms are accompanied by diarrhea and serous discharge from the nose.
Atypical form of pasteurellosis is characterized by a longer and weaker course. It is characterized by the formation of one or several subcutaneous abscesses, which burst independently after a few months and gradually heal (Figure 4). In most cases, the atypical form of pasteurellosis is accompanied by complete recovery of the animal.
Figure 4. Manifestations of pasteurellosis
If a typical form of pasteurellosis has been diagnosed in rabbits, they are sent for slaughter, and oxytetracycline or biomycin is administered as a preventive measure to healthy individuals. All cells and equipment must be disinfected, and feed and litter are destroyed.
Carcasses and skins of sick individuals can be used for cooking or making products only after thoroughly heat treatment and disinfection.
Infectious disease caused by Listeria bacteria. The disease affects birds and other mammals, and poses a serious danger to humans. Often listeriosis infects females during the period of suckering. Infection occurs from rodents and sick individuals, and various insects can carry the bacteria.
Listeriosis can occur in an ultra-acute, acute and chronic form. With the development of an over-acute form, the pregnant female suddenly dies, and with an acute form, it is aborted in the second half of the suckle. The acute form lasts up to 4 days, and the female often dies. A concomitant symptom, in addition to abortion, is paralysis of the hind legs.
The chronic form of listeriosis is not accompanied by abortion, but the fruits die and begin to decompose in the womb. Often females die in two weeks or a month. The surviving individuals do not give further offspring.
Note: Sometimes listeriosis is hidden and is not accompanied by any symptoms. It can only be determined by probing the abdomen, as with a latent form, the embryos dissolve on their own. If nevertheless happened, infected youngsters die within a week.
Listeriosis can also be diagnosed after the death of an animal by finding white nodules on the liver. Also in the process of the disease, the spleen increases and softens, and its color becomes black and red.
There is no treatment for listeriosis, so all sick animals are sent for slaughter, cells and equipment are disinfected, and litter and fodder are burned.
This disease affects only rabbits and hares. The causative agent is myxoma virus, which spreads from sick to healthy individuals. Since myxomatosis is spreading very quickly, when the first symptoms of the disease are found, it is necessary to isolate the sick individual and consult a veterinarian.
Note: Infection occurs from various insect parasites (lice, mosquitoes, ticks), as well as when feeding infected feed or using infected equipment or from an infected person.
Myxomatosis can develop in edematous and nodular form. If animals are affected by the edematous form of the disease, they first develop conjunctivitis, which later joins rhinitis, and tumors appear on various parts of the body (head, thighs, sides) with mucous fluids inside (Figure 5).
It is this symptom that is characteristic of myxomatosis, which is often confused with roving pyemia. However, with the development of a similar disease, the tumors are isolated and there is a purulent fluid inside them.
Figure 5. Symptoms of myxoplasmosis
In individuals with the edematous form of myxomatosis, a depressed mood appears, they lose their appetite, and gradually lose weight.
The body temperature rises, mucous membranes turn blue, the ears begin to hang, and breathing becomes hoarse, the eyelids begin to stick together from the serous-fibrous secretions. The disease lasts a maximum of a month, and most individuals die.
Nodular form is not accompanied by oppression of the rabbit. But on the head, in the ears and on the eyelids nodules are formed that can necrotize or self-absorb. The duration of the nodular form exceeds a month, and about half of the infected animals recover.
Since there is no treatment for myxomatosis, all individuals with signs of the disease are sent for slaughter, and the cells and equipment are disinfected twice. Manure, bedding and cheap inventory is recommended to destroy.
The disease is provoked by staphylococci, which affect animals regardless of age. And since the disease is dangerous for humans, it is necessary to closely monitor the state of health of the livestock and promptly carry out preventive and curative measures. Infection occurs from sick animals, as well as from infected feed and litter.
Note: Staphylococcus can manifest itself in a variety of forms, depending on the nature of its course (vaginal pyemia, poddermatitis, mastitis, etc.). All these diseases have similar symptoms, but some differences still stand out.
For example, with the development of septicemia from the birth of the young on the body, you can notice small pustules. If the animals are stranded with wandering pyemia, large abscesses cover the sides and back, and mastitis is characterized by redness and hardening of the mammary glands. Pododermatitis is accompanied by the formation of ulcers and fistulas on the paws.
There is no effective treatment for staphylococcus, therefore all animals with signs of illness are sent for slaughter. Meat can be used for food only after thorough disinfection, but manure, bedding and contaminated feed should be burned or buried.
It is best to engage in the prevention of staphylococcus. To do this, animals need to carefully inspect and sanitize all scratches, snacks and small wounds.
This is a very common disease, the origin of which has not yet been established. Pododermatitis often affects individuals with weak pubescence of the paws, which for a long time were kept on the mesh floor. Since the pressure increases on the scalp part of the paws, ulcers and scuffs form on the skin, metabolic processes are disturbed, and when the infection penetrates through the wounds, the animal develops staphylococcosis. In this case, animals have abscesses and abscesses on their paws, they practically cannot move, they constantly lie, gradually deplete and die (Figure 6).
Figure 6. Signs of Poddermatitis
At the initial stage of the disease, before the formation of fistulas and ulcers, the affected skin can be smeared with lead or zinc ointment. You can also bandage with these drugs. Patients need to be fed intensively, but if a staph infection has joined, treatment is impractical. Animals are sent for slaughter, and their meat and skins can be sold.
For the prevention of poddermatit cells should always be clean, and the net floor is better to cover the wooden. The wooden floor should be regularly cleaned of dirt and manure and periodically whitewash. If rabbits are kept on slatted floors, but still suffer from poddermatit, the floor must be cleaned and whitened every week.
This is a very common intestinal disease, which is provoked by E. coli. Normally, these microorganisms live in the intestines of most animals and people, and are also found in water, feed, and on soil contaminated with faeces. Under certain conditions, microorganisms acquire pathogenic properties and can provoke undesirable consequences for the organism.
Rabbits become infected most often by eating infected feed, and if they are weak or improperly contained, the disease develops much faster. Sick individuals become apathetic, their motor activity decreases, they eat poorly or completely refuse food, because of which they quickly lose weight and die.
Very often a symptom of colibacillosis is diarrhea, so for accurate diagnosis of the disease, laboratory analysis is necessary. Sick animals are isolated, their cells are disinfected, and animals are not fed for 12 hours, after which they give easily digestible food with chloramphenicol or biomycin.
It is a disease that affects only rabbits. The disease is provoked by coccides of various types that can develop in a wide variety of organs (liver, intestines, biliary tracts, etc.). It is this disease that is considered the most common, and infection of healthy individuals from patients occurs within five days.
Note: If coccidiosis develops in a mild form, the health of the livestock is not impaired, but if the animals are kept in poor hygienic conditions and are malnourished, the disease may worsen.
If the animals were hit by a severe form of coccidiosis, they refuse to feed, constantly drink water, bloating and signs of general exhaustion appear. The coat becomes dull and disheveled. With an exacerbation of the disease, convulsions begin and death occurs within two weeks. However, if coccides hit only the liver, the disease develops within a few months, and animals die rarely.
Accurately establish the form of coccidiosis is possible only by opening the dead or slaughtered individuals. The most effective drug for the treatment of coccidiosis is sulfadimethoxin, which is mixed with food and given out within five days. However, only the veterinarian can advise the most effective treatment of a particular form of coccidiosis. For prevention in the morning give iodine tincture (including lactating uterus and young).
Carcasses and skins of dead rabbits can be used, but the intestines and liver must be destroyed, since it is in them that the pathogens are concentrated.
One of the most common diseases of rabbits, which is caused by pinworm worms. The disease affects predominantly adult individuals, absorbing helminth eggs along with food or water. Infected animals begin to rub against the floor and the walls of the cage, as the reproduction of pinworms provokes severe itching in the anus. Scratches appear on it, and the feces become thick. Also in it you can notice the impurities of mucus.
For treatment during the day, the population does not give food, and then they begin to feed them on boiled potatoes with the addition of drugs (piperazine adipinate, piperazine phosphate). Passalurosis is treated fairly quickly and most of the infected individuals completely get rid of parasites.
It is worth noting that the life span of the parasites is not very long, and if the farm creates conditions that make it impossible to re-infect, self-healing cases can be recorded.
It is provoked by trichophyton fungi. This is a very common disease, and sick rabbits are a danger to humans. A characteristic feature of ringworm is round-shaped bald spots. The hair on the affected areas is broken at the roots, and the area itself is covered with a crust without bleeding areas. Often, ringworm affects the hair near the eyes, feet and neck, and can easily become chronic, lasting more than a year (Figure 7).
Note: When the first signs of ringworm are found, sick individuals should be isolated, and if most of the hair was affected, send for slaughter. Disinfectant measures are taken, and food and litter are burned or buried deep in the ground.
The mild form of ringworm is completely treatable. To do this, remove the crusts and cut the hair from the affected areas, and immediately burn them. The affected skin is smeared with iodine or petroleum jelly. The treatment is repeated after a few days.
Figure 7. Rabbits affected by ringworm
After recovery, the rabbit needs to be transferred to a new clean cage, and all animals that have been in contact with an infected one are given antibacterial drugs for prevention.
Rabbits can become infected with this disease from dogs or other carnivorous animals that are carriers of this type of worms. Rodents are intermediate hosts of helminths, in the organism of which they develop from eggs to larvae and can be localized in various organs.
It is difficult to diagnose cysticercosis, since it does not manifest characteristic signs. The only symptom is depression, but it is also characteristic of other diseases. If parasites multiply in the body en masse, the animal may die. Especially this concerns young stock up to three months.
Since there is no effective treatment for the disease, it is necessary to take appropriate preventive measures, first of all, to limit the access of dogs to rabbit cages.
It is provoked by small ticks. This is a fairly common disease in home gardens. Due to the special physiology of ticks, they easily move along the skin, causing severe itching. Infection occurs from diseased individuals, as well as from an infected person. Podsosny young can become infected from mothers.
To diagnose itchy scabies, you can use a simple visual inspection, during which you can find crusts, scabs and bleeding cracks on the skin. Sick animals show great anxiety, they have poor appetite, low weight, and with a strong spread of ticks, rabbits may even die.
For treatment use turpentine or birch tar, which grease the affected areas.
It is also quite common in home farms, and also provoked by mites, parasitic on the inner surface of the ears, adjacent skin, and sometimes the skin of the front paws (Figure 8).
It is also quite easy to determine the disease, since it is accompanied by the formation of crusts and scabs on the inner surface of the ears. In addition, sick animals begin to shake their heads, scratching their ears, or trying to honor their ears about surrounding objects.
Figure 8. Symptoms of ear scabs.
For treatment, oil-based anti-tick drugs are injected into the ear, preheating them. Next, the ears are massaged to remove ticks. An effective remedy is also a mixture of turpentine with vegetable oil.
In winter, the content of rabbits must be treated especially carefully, because at this time of the year animals are more prone to the diseases described above. But in winter there may be other diseases characteristic of the cold season (Figure 9):
- Cold: The main symptoms are lethargy, runny nose, and refusal to feed. The rabbit lies in a hunched position or stretched out on its side, the look becomes dull, and the animal practically does not react to external stimuli. Sick animal is isolated from the rest and kept in a warm room. He was heavily fed and furatsilin solution was instilled into the nose to fight a cold. With proper care, the cold goes away after about a week, and after another week it can be transplanted into a common cell.
- Frostbite: occurs if the cells are not properly insulated. Most often, rabbits frost paws and ears. In adults, the effects of frostbite can be eliminated quickly enough, and the young may even die. Frostbite is of three stages. Самой распространенной считается первая, при которой пораженные участки становятся красными и болезненными, а животное начинает их интенсивно чесать. На этом этапе достаточно перенести животное в теплое помещение и смазать поврежденные части тела жиром.In the second stage, the skin is covered with small bubbles with liquid, and in the third stage, the damaged areas begin to frown and die off. The second and third stages can only be treated by a veterinarian.
- Heatstroke also often occurs in winter due to improper cell heating. As a rule, heat stroke occurs when a heater is installed near the animals, and the rabbits are under constant exposure to warm air. Heat stroke is manifested by redness of the mucous membranes and apathy in the absence of a runny nose. The animal should be slightly cooled, wrapped in a cool (but not cold cloth).
In order to prevent diseases of rabbits in the winter, it is necessary to warm the cells properly. To do this, you should make the outer lining with insulating materials or keep the cells in the room.
Rabbit ear disease
Ears - one of the most sensitive parts of the body in a rabbit. In addition to frostbite, the ears can be affected by other diseases that reduce the productivity of the animal and cause him serious inconvenience.
This disease of the ears easily passes from one rabbit to another, as the tick can be found not only on the surface of the body, but also in feeders or drinkers.
Figure 10. Psoroptosis at various stages of a lesion.
It is easy to determine the presence of psoroptosis by the characteristic symptoms (Figure 10). At first, rabbits are anxious, start rubbing their heads against the cage and lose their appetite. Gradually, on the site of the lesion, ticks form bubbles with a liquid, which burst and cover the skin with a crust. If you do not start treating the disease in time, the symptoms may worsen and it can lead to brain diseases, a general decrease in immunity and the death of the entire population.
This is a serious pathology, which, if delayed treatment, causes a chronic form of the disease, leads to brain damage and death of the animal.
Manifestations of purulent otitis include purulent discharge from the ears, anxiety when touching the ears and head in principle, general lethargy and loss of appetite. In addition, the rabbit constantly shakes his head and scratches his ears. Since many of the symptoms of purulent otitis and ear tick lesions are the same, you need to contact a veterinarian for an accurate diagnosis.
If purulent otitis is confirmed, special anti-inflammatory drugs are instilled into the ears and the animal is transferred to an enhanced feeding regimen.
The most common eye disease in rabbits is considered conjunctivitis, the symptoms of which have been described above. However, animals can manifest other eye diseases, both of viral or infectious origin, and as a result of injuries.
The main eye diseases of rabbits include (Figure 11):
- Uveitis - it may appear when infection penetrates (both eyes are affected) or as a result of injury (only one eye is affected). Spots appear on the cornea, and the mucous membrane becomes dry. The eyes of the animal are constantly watering, photophobia appears and the pupil narrows. Antibiotics are commonly used to treat.
- Exophthalmos manifested by the fact that the eyeball begins to strongly protrude and the animal can not blink. As a rule, the causative factor of the disease is a dental abscess, located directly behind the eyeball. Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment, so the rabbit is either sent for slaughter or an eyeball is removed from it. For prevention, you need to carefully monitor the health of the teeth of animals and in time to carry out their treatment.
- Corneal ulcer appears after injury or chronic erosion. Although it is a rare disease, it causes serious consequences that require treatment. At the initial stage, inflammation of the cornea appears, then its tissues gradually die off. A sick animal is operated to remove the formed film from the surface of the eye, and antibiotics are also administered.
Also, rabbits may develop a cataract, which is provoked by various bacteria. Infection occurs in all age groups of animals, and for treatment it is necessary to establish the pathogen for the appointment of correct treatment.
Several times a year in rabbits there is a molt. In order not to confuse this process with skin diseases in which the wool is also actively falling, you need to carefully examine the animal. If the loss of wool is triggered by moulting, a new coat immediately grows in place of the old one. Rabbit skin diseases not only provoke the formation of bald patches, but also the appearance of additional symptoms: itching, redness or peeling.
Skin fungus (ringworm) transmits not only from one animal to another, but also to humans. The animal appears itchy and peeling, the skin turns red and the coat falls out. For treatment, you need to remove hair from the affected areas and lubricate the skin with antifungal ointments. You need to do this with gloves.
Rabbit skin infections also include ringworm and ticks, which can also worsen the quality of the fur. Loss of hair can cause avitaminosis and hormonal imbalance, so you need to carefully monitor the diet.
Rabbit Disease Prevention
In order to prevent the development of diseases, rabbits need to be kept in healthy and clean cages, periodically disinfect equipment and inventory, as well as fully feed the animals.
For disinfection of metal inventory is better to use a blowtorch, and small objects can be kept for 15 minutes in boiling water or liquor. Wood equipment can be periodically scalded with boiling water, hot liquor, or treated with disinfectant solutions (Lysol, Creolin).
All new individuals purchased from other farms must be quarantined for a month.
Proper disease prevention is the key to the health of rabbits. From the video you will learn how to properly care for animals, protect them from poisoning, frostbite and sunstroke, as well as how to carry out other preventive measures.
Keeping rabbits in clean, disinfected cells is important in preventing disease. Since it is in the cells they spend most of the time, the pathogens can be inside the structure and cause re-infection.
Cell disinfection can be performed in several ways. (Figure 12):
- Burning with a blowtorch or gas burner. This is the simplest and most effective method of disinfection, as under the influence of high temperatures, the causative agents of almost all diseases die. Even wooden cages can be disinfected by burning, until the wood acquires a light brown tint (just a few minutes is enough for this).
- By chemical means: in household farms you can use any substances that can destroy pathogens. Often for these purposes use a solution of bleach or ash liquor. You can also use a spray solution of formaldehyde.
For prevention, cells are disinfected once a year and after each replenishment of the herd with new individuals. The procedure is carried out before planting rabbits in a cage. It is also necessary to carry out processing after detection of the disease of rabbits. Even if all animals received treatment or preparations for prophylaxis, the cells in any case need to be treated with disinfectant solutions.