Broiler chicken diseases often begin at a very young age due to the poor health of some chickens and their extremely rapid growth. Therefore, young broilers are usually kept separately from adult chickens and from other breeds.
Young chickens are very susceptible to infections of various kinds, therefore, sick ones should be immediately isolated, and their litter should not be disinfected and not used for fertilizer in the area where the bird is raised. Great attention should be paid to the prevention of disease and disinfection of premises.
Why do broiler chickens sneeze and wheeze?
Wheezing, sneezing and coughing unnatural phenomena for any bird. Therefore, as soon as they appeared, it is necessary to understand that the disease began. If the chickens began to sneeze or wheeze, while breathing is observed, it means that an infection has settled in the body of the cross and it is necessary to start treatment immediately.
However, sneezing and wheezing themselves are not a disease, but only symptomatic. It is very important to establish correctly as a result of what disease these symptoms appeared. It is recommended to visit a veterinarian with a sick bird.
Sneezing and wheezing in broiler chickens can be symptoms and infections with a fatal outcome and just a cold that has developed with the wrong content.
Broilers - a bird that does not tolerate dampness, cold and drafts in the hen house. If at least one chicken has sneezed, you should pay attention to the conditions of detention. The floor and bedding must be dry. On the floor should not draft. The heating lamps must be evenly spaced so that it is warm in the far corner and near the feeder.
For the prevention of young animals, both broilers and layers, antibacterial is added to water from 2 to 5 days of life enroxil or baytril (at the rate of 1 ml per liter of water). To stimulate growth and increase resistance to infections from 5 to 12 day give drink nutril selenium (at the rate of half a teaspoon per 3 liters of water) or vitamin concentrate trivit (6 drops per liter of water).
The cause of wheezing in young broilers can be an elementary cold. The disease usually rages in late autumn and, of course, in winter. The disease begins with a weightless, lately hatched chickens with a weakened immune system.
Inspect carefully eyes and beak of birds. Healthy eyes of a bird of normal coloring, without turbidity. Muddy eye - a sign of the onset of the disease. A sore pouches appear around the eyes with a cold, the eye constantly blinks and watery. The presence of a cold is also indicated by the state of the beak. A healthy chick has a beak, the lower part of which is half the upper. During a cold, the beak changes shape. due to inflammation of the larynx.
As in humans, quite often the runny nose in a bird is accompanied by sneezing. Although the majority of poultry farmers consider rhinitis as a continuation of minor colds and are not particularly serious about him, but it can be infectious and in conditions of crowding halve livestock. Birds crawl into the feeder nose, passing the infection to each other.
A sign of a cold is a dirty beak with crusts on the nostrils. When the nostrils clog the disease begins to develop especially quickly. The chick sneezes, yawns, he has tears. In the end, the bird refuses to eat and dies.
Main cold symptoms in chickens:
- livestock becomes inactive,
- chickens refuse to eat
- body temperature rises
- The chickens begin to wheeze, sneeze, and mucus from the nose constantly runs.
- with further development of the disease in the chickens, the eyelids begin to swell, and from the fever the beaks open for a long time,
- shortness of breath appears and the rhythm of the heartbeat accelerates.
Colds need to be treated urgently so that she does not turn into deadly bronchitis. Instead of water, chicks need to give a decoction of nettle, in a hen house spray Isatiozon. You can make inhalation special smoke bombs.
All livestock need to process streptocidwhich is applied with a cotton swab on the beak and water chloramphenicol and tetracycline (one tablet per liter of water for 4 days). You can drink for 5 days baytrilom Instead of baytril, you can give another antibiotic: Enrosept, Kolmik-E, Monklavit.
After the introduction of some live vaccines (for example, against infectious bronchitis) for 3-4 days, 5-10% of vaccinated chickens may show a reaction in the form of mild rhinitis and conjunctivitis.
Mycoplasmosis is manifested by the same symptoms as the common cold. This is the most common fungal disease in chickens that develops in dampness. Rising spores penetrate the respiratory tract. Chickens can catch the disease in the egg. Flowing slowly - up to 20 days.
At about the same 20 days they can manifest. The risk zone for the disease - age from 20 days to 45 days. Mycoplasmosis is treated only with antibiotics. Suitable for the treatment of young tiamulin. Antibiotic added to food: 2 g per 10 kg of food. If the birds are not treated on time, then in 2 weeks the whole livestock may be left dead. The course of treatment must continue. 5 days.
For a small population of birds used injections. Chicks are administered intramuscularly:
- Thialong - 0.1 g per 1 kg of weight,
- Tilanic - 5% and 20%,
- Farmazin and Tilobel on 50 and 200,
- Tilokolin AF - 0.5g per 1 kg.
In the water, add drugs based on enrofloxacin, tiamulin, tilazina. The most affordable are considered Farmazin at the rate of grams per liter, Pneumatic 0.3 g per liter Tilsol-200 2.5 g per liter. Drugs with enrofloksatami diluted at the rate of grams per liter.
If the signs are not clear, complex drugs are added (or added to the feed) to the drink: Tilokol, Biofarm, Gidrotriprim, Eriprim, Denagard, Macrodox 2000. You can add drugs to the food. For 100 kg of feed should take 20 g of medicine. The course of treatment should be at least 5 days.
When mycoplasmosis can not be forgotten about disinfection. For spraying apply: Monklavit (at the rate of 3 ml per cubic meter), 30% lactic acid, Ecocide, Yodotriethylene glycol.
Bronchitis in chickens is considered the most dangerous disease from which they die very quickly. The particular danger of the disease lies in the fact that even recovered, cured chicken may infect chickens through saliva or droppings.
Symptoms: After 18-36 hours of infection (contact) the chickens become depressed, breathing becomes strained, wheezing, sneezing, mucus from the nostrils, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, infraorbital sinuses appear in the trachea. Flaccid chickens lose their appetite, breathe open mouth, stumble around heat.
The disease is often acute (from one to three weeks), the mortality of chickens 1-3 weeks of age varies within 33%.
Older chickens of 2 weeks have shortness of breath, coughing, sneezing, dry rales, conjunctivitis, and a mild runny nose. Having recovered infectious bronchitis, the young growth is stunted.
Bronchopneumonia is often the beginning of more dangerous pathologies. Symptoms of bronchopneumonia are as follows:
- chickens wheeze, cough and sneeze,
- may suffocate:
- nasal discharge appears,
- chickens sleep a lot.
If you suspect bronchopneumonia of sick birds, you need to plant it, ventilate the house, burn litter, disinfect feeders and drinkers with a strong solution of potassium permanganate, and walls and ceiling with a solution of hydrated lime. Healthy chickens otpaivat vodka: the chicken's mouth is opened, and poured in a couple drops.
Colibacteriosis is another disease in which breathing in broilers can be disturbed. Usually colibacillosis sick youngsters of one month of age. Its pathogen is E. coli ingested with poor-quality feed. To guard the poultry farmer should, if the birds have a dull appearance and stand motionless for a long time.
The disease is characterized by a short incubation period of 3 days. At first, the acute form is manifested and if the treatment is not started in a timely manner, the disease becomes chronic.
During colibacillosis, chickens drink a lot of fluids, but lose their appetite, which causes exhaustion. After 18-20 days, the birds develop cough and wheezing. If you listen to your breathing, you can hear the scream and crunch in the chest. After a while they begin to fall as a result of intoxication.
Symptoms of colibacillosis:
- loss of appetite by birds
- the birds wheeze and gasp for air
- blue skin.
If this symptom is observed, it means In a week, the sea bird may begin. After the moment the chickens began to vilify and wheeze to cure it is no longer possible. To stop the development of the disease at the very beginning, it is urgently necessary to drink the whole tribe with furatsilin solution. To get rid of wheezing levomycetin is suitable.
Biomitsin, terramycin, syntomycin, which must be taken within 5 days in the dosage recommended by the doctor, are also considered effective.
The room in which there were sick birds must be cleaned, the flooring should be destroyed, the walls, the floor and the ceiling should be whitened with hydrated lime. Also have to process troughs and drinkers. This set of procedures will help to cope with pathogenic bacteria.
If you notice a chick in a chicken coop with unusual behavior, pay attention to it more closely. If he has ruffled feathers, a sloppy look, a bad posture, put a broiler in an insulator and watch him for a while. Analyze the conditions of the poultry, make sanitary cleaning in the hen house and take a consultation to a specialist. The cause of the disease will determine the doctor he will prescribe treatment, and you will only have to follow his recommendations.
Historical background of the disease of chickens
In ancient times, chicken pox was not considered a single disease. She was considered as 2 separate diseases - diphtheria and smallpox, due to the fact that it proceeds in different ways. When the pathogen was well studied, it was classified as a smallpox species. The study of the disease involved scientists - Bollinger, Polovinkin and Borrel. These people have made significant contributions to the study of the viral etiology of smallpox birds.
Causative agent of smallpox in birds
The smallpox virus is resistant to physico-chemical effects. In the chicken coop at room temperature, it remains viable for 5 months, and in the down and feather cover of birds - up to six months. You can destroy it by thermal exposure - at a temperature of +60 degrees, it dies within an hour. When heated to 80 degrees, the smallpox virus dies in a quarter of an hour, and when boiled - within 6 minutes.
The causative agent of smallpox is unstable to weak solutions of acetic, hydrochloric and carbolic acid, as well as iodine and formalin. It is easy to destroy it with ethyl alcohol at a concentration of 96% and caustic soda.
Ways to infect chicken pox
Outbreaks of the disease are recorded at any time of the year, but most often they occur in October or November. The disease affects birds of any age, the young ones endure it heavier. In chicks, smallpox occurs in diphtheria or mixed form, and in adults, it is mostly in the skin form.
Reference. The pathogen enters the body of the chicken through microdamages on the skin and mucous membranes.
The source of the spread of infection are sick birds - both domestic and wild. Vector of a virus is often the person himself who can put it on his clothes or inventory. Skin parasites also contribute to the spread of smallpox.
Inside the chicken coop, the transmission of the virus occurs through direct contact with an infected individual, as well as through bedding, feed, water, feces. Rodents entering the house can carry the infection on their fur.
Symptoms of smallpox in chickens
The duration of the incubation period is 4–18 days and depends on the degree of strain virulence, the route of introduction and the resistance of the bird organism. After penetration of the virus into the body begins its intensive reproduction. Within a day, the infection enters the bloodstream and affects the internal organs.
Clinical manifestations of smallpox in chickens
Clinical manifestations of smallpox in chickens depend on the form of the disease. Skin form has a favorable prognosis. In this case, recovery occurs in 3-4 weeks. The mortality rate for skin lesions with pock marks does not exceed 10%. The most dangerous is the diphtheria form of the disease, in which the mucous membranes of the trachea and larynx are affected. In this case, the mortality rate can reach 70%. When mixed form there is a lesion of the skin of the head and mucous membranes. Consider the symptoms of smallpox in chickens, characteristic of various forms of the disease.
If the virus has entered the body of the bird through the epidermis, the skin form of smallpox most often develops. Its symptoms are specific:
- on the exposed areas of the head - eyelids, beard, comb, light yellow spots are formed, which later become red,
- then the spots turn into nodules that can merge with each other,
- from serum stands serous fluid,
- after it dries, crusts form on the surface of the nodules, which subsequently disappear,
- the general state of health of the bird is deteriorating,
- depression and lack of appetite.
When the virus enters the body through mucous membranes, the diphtheria form of smallpox develops. It is characterized by symptoms:
- difficulty breathing, with wheezing,
- stretching the neck
- refusal to eat
- yellow bubbles are formed on the tongue, in the larynx and on the mucous membrane of the esophagus, from which a cheesy secret is further distinguished,
- discharge of mucus from the nasal passages,
- breathing is done through the open beak,
- manifestations of conjunctivitis - tearing, purulent discharge from the eyes, bonding of the eyelids.
This form of chicken pox is characterized by the appearance of nodules on the scalp and mucous membranes of the mouth, larynx and esophagus. With timely treatment, the outcome is favorable - recovery occurs in 4–6 weeks in 70% of cases.
Diagnosis of the disease
When making a diagnosis, they take into account the epizootological data, the clinical picture, the results of laboratory studies and post-mortem examination. The main task of the employee of the veterinary service is to exclude manifestations of hypoavitaminosis A, aspergillosis, infectious bronchitis, laryngotracheitis and other diseases that have similar symptoms.
Reference. Histological examination of the contents of the smallpox formations reveals accumulations of Borel bodies in it.
Methods of fighting smallpox
If the diagnosis of a smallpox is confirmed, the farm is quarantined. At the initial stage, the disease is treatable, especially when the lesions affect only the skin. Infected chickens are sucked off by the Anfluron immunostimulator, adding the medicine to the drinking water. A veterinarian may recommend a course of antibiotics to prevent bacterial infection and complications.
In large poultry farms, infected stock is not treated, but destroyed. All dead birds, as well as suspicious, are eliminated in specially allocated sanitary zones. Fluff and feather are kept for one hour in a formaldehyde solution, after which they can be used.
In accordance with the rules of quarantine is prohibited:
- to export chickens and chickens out of the farm, including for slaughter at meat processing plants,
- sell meat and egg products,
- Do not remove eggs for incubation.
Quarantine is removed 60 days after the last case of smallpox was detected in the premises. The farm vaccinates the entire population. In the poultry houses they do the cleaning, after which the premises and equipment are disinfected with 40% formaldehyde solution, caustic soda (3%) or Brovadez-plus with a concentration of 1.5%. Litter is disinfected by the biothermal method.
Conditionally healthy chickens after vaccination are kept in clean, warm rooms with good ventilation. The diet of birds is enriched with vitamins and mineral supplements.
In case of detecting in the nearby farms of the infection of chicken with smallpox on prosperous farms, livestock are vaccinated. Chickens can be vaccinated when they are 6–7 weeks old. Vaccines against smallpox in chickens:
Chickens are vaccinated by scarifying the outer part of the thigh or by puncturing the wing membrane. The dosage for each bird is 0.01 ml.
Other preventive measures against smallpox:
- keeping the coop clean, regular disinfection of the floor, walls and equipment,
- protection of the house from the penetration of rodents,
- fight with ectoparasites
- immunization of young animals with vitamins,
- quarantine of new arrivals at the farm for 3 weeks.
It is possible to cure smallpox in chickens if the disease is detected at an early stage. The chances of a happy outcome are much higher with the skin form of the disease. With timely treatment, the disease retreats after a few weeks, and the appearance of dry crusts at the nodule site indicates an improvement in the health of the birds. If diphtheria or mixed smallpox is diagnosed, treatment is ineffective.
Conditions affecting bird health
Broilers - the bird is delicate and it does not tolerate dampness, drafts, cold in the hen house. If you cough and cough up at least one chicken, you must pay attention to the condition of the room. It should be dry, including bedding. From the floor should not pull a cold draft.
Лампы обогрева размещают так, чтобы тепло было у кормушки и в дальнем углу. Подстилку поменять на свежую. В тесном помещении необходимо предусмотреть проветривание без сквозняков.
If the chickens are bought in a large farm, they are already vaccinated against common diseases in the region. Then, in the first place, adults will fall ill, and this will be an occasion to vaccinate the livestock.
You must carefully examine the diseased chicken. Perhaps he was just eating a large foreign body, and it stuck in the throat.
Doctors about rattle broiler, as a sign of the disease
One of the reasons why broilers wheeze can be a cold. In this case, the temperature in the coop should be above 15 ° C for the time of illness, the litter is dry. Broth nettle to give instead of water. Indoor spray Izatizon or its analogs, so that the birds breathe. Cold broilers can sneeze and wheeze, than to treat them, the vet will determine. You can do inhalation for all broilers, using special smoke bombs.
The same symptoms of broilers, if they get sick mycoplasmosis. It is a fungal disease that develops mold in dampness. In cramped conditions, spores rise into the respiratory tract and can affect the entire pack. If mycoplasmosis is detected, antibiotics are used for broiler chickens:
- tetracycline series
- spiramycin and the like.
Antibiotics are added to the feed at the rate of 2 g per 10 kg of feed. If you do not treat the birds, there will be no one to feed for two weeks.
A more serious disease of broilers is colibacillosis, when broilers wheeze. How to treat a sick bird? If the bird has a depressed appearance, it stands still for a long time and refuses to eat, it is time to sound the alarm. Only the doctor determines the stamp of the pathogen and prescribes treatment.
The disease is dangerous because it is accompanied by death, and the remaining individuals are lagging behind in development, the taste of meat changes. It cannot be called dietary, since as a result of the use of large doses of antibiotics for broiler chickens, residues may be contained in the muscle mass. Veterinarians see the reason for the spread of the disease in non-compliance with the conditions of poultry.
Bacteria of colibacillosis can get into the house along with a new brood of infected eggs, if hygiene is not observed in the henhouse. What to do and why broilers who have just hatched wheeze. Such a brood can be considered doomed. The content of the breeding stock should be reviewed, and the material should be clean, with no traces on the shell when laying in the incubator.
Sign of what ailment is broiler sneezing
Sneezing broiler chickens raises the question of why and how to treat. Improper maintenance, cold, dampness, drafts lead to respiratory diseases of chickens. The weakest begin to sneeze first. It is necessary to drink the sick birds with vitamins. Powder them with streptocide, rubbing the powder into the nostrils. But such treatment will help in the first stage of the disease. Chickens, after sneezing, can develop fatal bronchitis. Therefore, it is better for young people to drink levomycetin and tetracycline as a preventive measure (1 tablet per liter of water), Isation or Losevalle.
Can broiler chickens be contagious?
A runny nose among poultry lovers is considered a continuation of colds and does not cure it. But a runny nose can be contagious and halve the population in crowded conditions. After all, it is with the nose that the birds climb into the feeder, passing the infection to the whole community. Especially the disease is rampant in late autumn and winter for obvious reasons. The disease begins with weakened, lagging in weight, late-hatched chickens. They have a weakened immune system.
A sign of the disease is a dirty beak with dry crusts on the nostrils. After clogging the nostrils, the disease develops quickly. The chicken starts:
- to yawn,
- tears are flowing
- a tumor appears on the eyelids.
The bird refuses to eat and dies. Therefore, broilers with the first signs of a cold should be isolated.
General rules for keeping broilers at the onset of diseased birds
If during feeding you notice a bird with unusual behavior for the flock, take a closer look. If the feathers are ruffled, the look is messy, posture is depressed, it's time to put the broiler in the isolator and watch him. At the same time, analyze the conditions of detention, do the sanitary cleaning in the hen house and consult with a specialist. If broilers sneeze and wheeze than treat, the doctor will determine. You should follow his recommendations to save livestock.
Chickens sneeze and wheeze - how to treat?
Why do broilers wheeze and sneeze? The broiler wheeze speaks of any infectious disease. If birds, in addition to wheeze, also breathe heavily, then, most likely, these are symptoms of bronchial disease. The wheezes themselves are both wet and dry.
First of all, the farmer should contact the veterinarian.
Broiler chickens are very susceptible to colds. Every breeder of these birds knows this. You can not keep them in a damp, poorly heated room and drafts. Under such conditions, rhinitis or inflammation of the respiratory organs are provided.
Share colds into viral and bacterial diseases. Symptoms of colds following:
- Chickens become lethargic and inactive.
- The body temperature rises.
- They stop eating or eat very little.
- Sneezing and nasal mucus discharge appear.
- There is redness and swelling of the eyelids. Discharge begins to appear, drying in the form of crusts.
- Due to the chickens temperature, the mouth is constantly open.
- Shortness of breath begins with hoarseness.
- A cough-like sneeze of a bird.
Once these symptoms have appeared, you should immediately contact the veterinarian. Only a specialist will correctly select the treatment. The diseased bird is immediately removed from the rest until they are infected, and in the room itself they are wet cleaned and disinfected.
How to treat?
Aromatherapy has proven itself as a treatment for colds in birds. With the help of essential oils, fir and eucalyptus are inhaled, and broilers are sprinkled on the nose with a thin layer of streptocide powder. For this, streptocide tablets are crushed to a powder. And you can also use chloramphenicol or tetracycline, which are also crushed and with a cotton swab they fan the beaks of birds.
This disease is caused by unicellular microbes - Ameri. They affect the mucous membrane, as well as often provoke other diseases. It has been observed that coccidiosis is often the cause of other ailments. Eimeria can hide in the most diverse habitats of chickens: in bedding, feeders and drinkers. Usually the disease affects broilers whose age is at least two weeks. Symptoms:
- Chickens stop gaining weight.
- There is a sharp loss of appetite.
- They weaken and become inactive.
- The skin of broilers is blue.
- Birds start to yawn constantly.
- Constantly tormented by thirst.
- In the next stages of coccidiosis, there is diarrhea with bleeding.
- In some cases, you can see in the litter mucus secretion cherry color.
If the last symptoms are not observed, then it speaks only of the intensification and greater danger of the disease.
Coccidiosis bacteria are introduced into the chicken coop through infected things. This may be clothes breeder or his shoes. Thus, getting on the litter where the chickens are located, the microbes begin to multiply rapidly. The best environment for their development is a sticky chicken bed. The causative agents of the disease are extremely tenacious, and, unfortunately, it is impossible to completely get rid of them. They are able to live in the bird's stomach all the time, and any disinfection will not bring results.
Moreover, the causative agents of coccidiosis mutate and adapt to drugs designed to get rid of them.
You can get rid of this disease by prophylaxis with coccidiostatics. These drugs are: Narasin, Salinomycin, and Monensin. They begin to give chicks with a two-week period and continue to give constantly until slaughter. I stop taking medications two weeks before slaughter. In case the disease struck the birds, the following remedy is prepared: add Nicarbazine, Amprolium or Robenidin to water. Chickens drink water with drugs for 3-5 days.
It should be remembered that coccidiosis is the main disease from which chicks age 2-3 weeks die.
This is a very dangerous fungal disease affecting newborn chickens. Spores of the fungus are often found in the litter and bird feed. This disease is characterized by its extremely rapid course and acute form.. Symptoms:
- Broilers breathing becomes rapid and difficult.
- Chickens stop growing and grow weak.
- Begin to wheeze.
- The bird begins to stretch its neck as if it lacks air.
- In adult birds, mucus begins to seep from the eyes and nostrils.
- Egg production is reduced and embryo death is observed.
It is possible to determine this fungal disease in chickens by egg. Inside the egg will be a black spot. Antifungals, antibiotics are used as treatment: Nystatin, Mycoplasma, Nystatin and iodine-containing drugs: potassium iodide.
First of all, the room should be ventilated and sanitized. Chickens are added to water in blue vitriol for six days.
Treat the chicken coop with the following solutions:
- Iodine solution and take.
- Boric acid solution.
- Lime and turpentine.
- Iodine monochloride.
Treat the room for three days.
In its symptoms, this disease is very similar to the common cold. Symptoms:
- Difficult breathing and wheezing sounding like a rattle.
- Redness of the eyes and tearing.
- From the nasopharynx flows mucus.
- In chickens, the number of eggs decreases dramatically.
The disease is transmitted very quickly, it takes only a day for the infection to catch almost all the livestock. Therefore, sick chickens should be immediately isolated.
Another reason why broilers wheeze and sneeze. It is believed that a runny nose - this is not a separate disease, but only a consequence of a cold. However, rhinitis is extremely contagious and dangerous diseaseannually reducing the number of chickens in many farms. Due to the large crowding of birds, it is transmitted very quickly and is able to spread with great speed.
The development and spread of rhinitis contribute drafts in chicken coops, high humidity and poor heating system. It is not surprising that the peak of the disease occurs in the autumn-winter period.
The source of infection is often drinkers. It is in them fall from the nose of the bird.
- Birds sneeze continuously.
- Head bump.
- Nostrils contaminated due to dried discharge.
- Eyes peel and swell.
- Chickens make unnatural sounds and constantly snort.
- Begin to lose weight dramatically and eventually die.
How to treat? Birds with even minor symptoms should be immediately isolated. They are carried away to a warm room and the nasal openings and eyes are treated with two percent boric acid. As a rule, such treatment brings good results. If treatment of large numbers of poultry population is required, then tar will be needed.
Broilers are closed indoors for four hours. A sheet of iron is put in the middle, on which the baked bricks are placed, and they are poured over it with tar. Feeders and drinkers are thoroughly disinfected.
It should be remembered that it is almost impossible to determine where a disease comes from. It is very important to take warning steps: monitor pet food and cleanliness of the room; organize heat insulation and water resistance of the chicken coop. As a rule, careful care significantly reduces the risk of disease.
What is infectious bronchitis?
In most sources, you can read that infectious bronchitis of chickens (IB) is characterized by high contagiousness (spreads rapidly). It mainly affects the respiratory system and is especially dangerous for young animals. Indeed, the disease spreads very quickly, especially if there is a violation of the conditions of detention and the recommended density of planting is not observed.
It is believed that for the first time a virus that causes infectious bronchitis was isolated in 1930 in the United States by scientists Schalk and Haun. But then the disease was called the "new chickens respiratory disease" for the similarity of symptoms with the common cold.
The first officially registered case of infectious bronchitis in the USSR was in 1946, it is believed that the virus penetrated along with imported chickens and pedigree chickens. Currently, most outbreaks of the disease occur in Argentina, Canada, Japan, Italy, Australia, France, Holland, Germany, but it is found on all continents and all countries. The virus that causes IBD is quite tenacious and belongs to the family of RNA-containing Coronaviridae microviruses. If in the 1950s only 2 strains of this virus were distinguished, nowadays there are about 30. Of course, this makes it difficult to fight the disease and makes many vaccines ineffective.
Infectious bronchitis is rapidly transmitted from one individual to another by airborne droplets, as well as through feed, water, or through clothing and personnel equipment at large poultry farms. At the same time, the disease is not dangerous for a person.
Its main targets are the usual domestic chickens, although signs of this disease have been identified in pheasants and quails. It is also not uncommon for chickens to be born by IBC carriers, if they were bred from an egg laid by an infected layer. After all, the virus develops very well in chicken embryos.
Therefore, congenital infectious bronchitis can cause late embryo dying, death of young animals or the birth of weak chickens. Infectious bronchitis can affect birds of any age, however, small chickens or young hens are at the greatest risk, and their egg production is at risk. The fact is that in addition to damage to the respiratory organs, IB has a very negative effect on the egg production rate of the bird. Therefore, the appearance of IBC in the herd is a serious cause for concern. Due to the disease, egg production can be expected to decrease by 30–40%, broilers begin to slow down significantly in growth and weight gain, and feed conversion significantly worsens.
Remember that the recovered bird remains a carrier of the virus for 100 days. It will excrete the virus along with saliva, droppings, mucous membranes. Most often outbreaks occur in the spring and summer. Infectious bronchitis can complicate the course of other infectious diseases.
There is an opinion that the hen that underwent IBC acquires immunity against the disease in the future, however, how long it remains is not yet clear. Approximately 10 days it is necessary that the bird's body develops antibodies to bronchitis, which, by the way, will be transmitted to the offspring. And then we advise you to watch a video about the most common chicken ailments.
Symptoms of the disease
Almost always, infectious bronchitis of chickens is accompanied by difficulty in breathing, tracheal wheezing, coughing, sneezing, and discharge from the nasopharynx. Symptoms of the disease in chickens and adult chickens are divided.
So, for chickens such symptoms of IBC are characteristic:
- difficulty breathing and the previously listed problems associated with this,
- conjunctivitis and mucosal lesions,
- loss of appetite and weight loss
- swelling under the eyes
- lowering the wings and neck curvature.
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For adult chickens, the symptoms may be as follows:
- also difficulty breathing or whistling with a sigh,
- a sharp decline in egg laying; chickens can lay eggs with a soft shell;
- there may be diarrhea green,
- chickens are marked by nervousness of behavior and lowering of wings,
- at autopsy, you can see foci of hemorrhages in the bronchi and trachea.
The most serious damage that IBC causes to the housekeeping is considered to be a decrease in egg production in productive chickens. In addition, the chicken that has had the disease will find it difficult to return to the peak of its egg production again. It is also noted that, among the affected chickens, 50% can lay eggs that have a noticeable lime scale, while 25% will carry eggs in a soft and thin shell.
Proceeding from all manifestations of infectious bronchitis, its syndromes can be divided into 3 types:
- Respiratory syndrome. It is typical for all age groups of sick birds, but it can flow more brightly in chickens. Because of wheezing, coughing or rhinitis, which is characteristic of infectious bronchitis, it is often confused with the common cold. In the case of respiratory syndrome in chickens, a violation of thermoregulation can also be observed, they often stray into flocks and warm themselves at the heat source.
- Nephrosonephritis syndrome. Infectious bronchitis can also affect the kidneys of a bird. If diarrhea is observed in adult chickens, especially with admixtures of urats on the background of coughing and wheezing, almost 100% can be considered infectious bronchitis. At the autopsy in this case, kidney damage and strengthening of the vascular pattern on them will be clearly visible.
- Reproductive syndrome. Characteristic for adults, with this syndrome, nothing else can be observed, except for a decrease in egg production and slight periodic wheezing. Eggs from a hen, in which you suspect IB, do not need to be used for hatching.
At the first manifestations of the disease in your hen house, "suspicious" individuals should be removed immediately. Ведь, как правило, в течение 48 часов клинические проявления можно уже наблюдать и у других птиц. Однако, смертность среди взрослого поголовья, как правило, незначительна. Зато у цыплят в возрасте до 6 недель может составлять до 25%.In principle, mortality from infectious bronchitis largely depends on the virus strain, the immunity status of your birds, their feeding conditions and housing.
Ways to fight
Treatment of IB is difficult at most because of the diagnosis. After all, symptoms similar to the symptoms of infectious bronchitis, there are a number of similar diseases, such as laryngotracheitis, Newcastle disease, respiratory mycoplasmosis. Therefore, in order to ascertain the diagnosis, it is recommended to conduct cytological studies of swabs from the trachea and larynx and blood tests. Scrapes from the trachea, kidneys and oviduct are taken from the dead birds. If an IBV virus is detected, it is recommended to disinfect it first.
By the way, the virus dies under the influence of high temperatures, but freezing does not affect it.
For processing the house recommend such solutions:
- 3% hot soda, infectious bronchitis virus dies from it within 3 hours,
- 6% chlorine-containing lime - the death of the virus occurs in 6 hours,
- 0.5% formaldehyde - the virus must die within 3 hours of exposure.
Also in the chicken coop, which is in quarantine, apply chlorosquidine, Lugol solution, aluminum iodide, glutex. Processing means should be carried out 2 times a week. At the same time, vitamins and minerals are included in the diet of chickens, and the most affected individuals are excluded from the general herd. Vaccination with inactivated vaccines is widely used to warn its chickens against infectious bronchitis. In addition, the farm that is experiencing an IBC epidemic should stop the supply of eggs or birds to other farms and suspend the incubation process for 2 months.