Animal protein: species, description, habitat, food, breeding


The life of squirrels has always interested not only scientists, but also ordinary travelers. It is always interesting to observe the behavior of the animal, its incredible activity, curiosity, sweet gullibility, lightning transitions from one action to another.

These are wild animals. Protein in natural conditions in Russia is found in the forest-steppe and forest zone. Starting from the end of the 20th century, this animal began to inhabit parks and gardens near various settlements, and sometimes in their territory. They are not afraid of large cities.

The squirrel, a description of which can be found in many publications, starting with school textbooks and ending with special reference books, lodges in hollows or in special nests in the shape of a ball — the gayns, which she makes from coarse branches on the outside and soft bark from the inside.

In settlements, it is often with pleasure to occupy birdhouses and other bird nests.

The squirrel is a very intelligent animal. She is in no hurry to migrate to warmer countries even in a very harsh winter, if she does not have problems with food or is fed by people.

Squirrel: description, external features

The ordinary squirrel is a rather small animal with a slender, slightly elongated body, a tail with a “comb” and a head of a regular, rounded shape. Ears are elongated, pronounced tassels appear in winter.

On the face, abdomen, front paws there are vibrissae, special senses that help animals to better navigate in space. The hind legs are much longer than the front, and the toes on the paws are crowned with sharp, tenacious claws. The hair is longer on the sides of the tail than on the whole body, therefore the tail has a slightly flattened shape.

The squirrel in winter acquires soft, tall and fluffy fur. In the summer it is more rare, hard, short. Color changes seasonally, within the same population. The animal molts twice a year (except for the tail - it molts only once).

In the spring molting occurs in April-May, and autumn - in September-November.

Eating squirrels

This cute rodent is a typical inhabitant of the forest. Probably, therefore, the basis of its diet are the seeds of trees and shrubs. Squirrel prefers to live in mixed coniferous-deciduous forests. Here she has the best feed conditions. In addition, the animal loves mature dark coniferous plantations - spruce forests, cedar forests, fir trees, followed by deciduous plantations, mixed pine, thickets of cedar pine. In the Caucasus and Crimea, the common squirrel feels very comfortable in cultural landscapes - vineyards and gardens.


The squirrel is a mobile and lively animal. She easily makes huge “flights” from tree to tree. Sometimes they "fly" in a straight line up to 10-15 m, while masterfully "steering" the tail. In the snowless time, as well as during the rut period, it spends a long time on the ground on which it moves in jumps.

Squirrel in winter moves mainly along the “tops”. At the slightest danger, hiding in the trees, usually hiding in the crown. Active in the morning and in the evening. Up to 80% of the time she spends looking for food.

In the midst of winter, it leaves its nest only for the time of feeding; it does not come out of the nest during severe frosts, falling into a semi-dormant state. The squirrel is not territorial - individual sites are expressed weakly.

Proteins differ in their ability to hide and find hidden seeds and nuts, they quickly realize that people can be a source of food and get used to eating from their hands.

Despite their charming appearance, they are rather aggressive, moderately suspicious, and even distinguished by their clumpiness. These cute animals can easily be tame animals, but pets in the usual sense is unlikely. They can not be attributed to animals, which can cuddle or "cuddle." Even with the warmest friendships, you only occasionally manage to stroke the animal by fur.

Very rarely, the protein becomes so tame that it allows you to pick yourself up. Young animals adapt to new conditions much faster than adults.

Squirrel species

The animals that are kept in captivity include ordinary squirrel and teleutka squirrel.

Squirrel ordinary refers to rodents, it is familiar to every person - an adult and a child, even if he saw her only in the picture. Distributed throughout Russia. The only exceptions are desert zones, steppes and semi-deserts.

The squirrel teleutka is a special subspecies of the common squirrel. It is mainly distributed in Eastern Siberia, on the Kamchatka Peninsula, acclimatized in the Crimea and the Caucasus.

These types of proteins differ from each other only in size and color - teleutka larger.


On average, the life span of these animals under natural conditions is no more than 3.5 years. At home, when the animal is not threatened by frost, it is provided with food and protected from predators, squirrels live up to 10-12 years. Cases when squirrels live in captivity up to 16 years, rather, an exception to the rule.

Maintenance and care

The home squirrel is a creature with irrepressible energy that can jump and run for hours. For its maintenance in the house a spacious aviary or a large cage is necessary.

For one animal, a cage with dimensions of 50x60 cm and a height of 150 cm will be required. It is better to make the rods galvanized, or to coat them with good powder paint. The gap between the bars should not be more than 2 cm. The cage must be equipped with a retractable tray to make it easier to clean. Put hay, cane, or forest moss on the pallet.

Be sure to cage should be drinking bowl, feeding trough and houses, where squirrels usually arrange nests. One small animal needs two houses, which should be well fixed at a sufficient height. Put in a cage pieces of soft fabric, pieces of wool yarn, small sawdust, a little wool, which the squirrel necessarily uses when organizing the nest.

The owner must have access to the house (for this you can use a folding roof or a wide entrance). Do not forget about the mineral and salt stones, which should be installed in a place convenient for the pet, it is better if this is a place next to the trough or the feeder.

We have already said that squirrels are in dire need of movement, therefore you cannot do without various ladders, hammocks, swings, large branches and wheels.

The home squirrel will feel comfortable in a cage set away from drafts and the direct rays of the sun. It should be cleaned in a day. It will protect your pet from infectious diseases.


In mid-latitudes, in natural conditions, proteins breed twice a year. Up to 12 cubs are born in the litter. Pregnancy squirrels at home lasts 5 weeks. Immediately after the birth, the protein begins to perform its maternal duties. She is a very good mother, surrounded by care and attention. At the age of two weeks, the young are covered with fur, at 4 weeks of age they begin to see clearly. By the 40th day, the babies themselves begin to look for food, in 2 months they begin to fully live independently. Full puberty occurs by five months.

It should be borne in mind that at home the protein does not often proliferate. The description of the experts suggests that this process in captivity is possible only with good care of the animal and its high-quality nutrition.

What does a squirrel look like?

According to the zoological classification, the animal protein belongs to the class of mammals, the order of rodents, the squirrel family. His description is as follows: a small, very nimble and mobile animal with an elongated body and a beautiful lush tail. The length of the body in squirrels is approximately twenty or thirty centimeters, the length of the tail is one third shorter. A squirrel's tail is not just a decoration. It serves as a rudder in a jump, a balance bar while running along tree branches, a blanket during sleep. The appearance of the tail is an indicator of the health of the animal, according to which the animals choose their partner.

There are giant squirrels with a body size of about fifty centimeters. And the smallest species does not exceed a length of seven and a half centimeters. Continuing the description of the squirrel, it should be noted that its head is small, slightly elongated. She has shiny black eyes, a rounded nose and long ears, which often have brushes.

The paws of a squirrel are strong, with sharp, tenacious claws. Hind limbs longer than the front. On the face, abdomen and front paws of the animal there are special hard hairs - vibrissae, performing the function of the sense organs.

Where do they live?

The habitat of squirrels is unusually wide. About fifty species of these animals "live" in Europe, Asia, Africa and America, where there are high forest. Squirrels are unpretentious animals. They feel well, both in the north and in the south, in the mountains and in the plains. They are also found in urban parks and squares.

From the place of residence of the animal depends on its appearance, size and color. Squirrels - the inhabitants of the mountains are larger than their flat relatives. And the closer to the center of the range, the brighter the coloring of animals becomes.


In nature, there are too many squirrel species to list them all. The most famous of them are: Aberta squirrel, fire, Caucasian (Persian), flying squirrel, Japanese, mouse, Indian giant, two-colored, and many others.

The only species living on the territory of Russia is the red squirrel or veksha. In this species of animals there are many subspecies, differing in size and color.

By the number of different color options, an ordinary species is ahead of all its relatives. At the same time the shade changes seasonally. In summer, the fur in representatives of this species has a red, brown or dark brown color. In winter, it becomes gray, sometimes almost black or brownish, as in the Carpathian, Far Eastern and Manchurian subspecies.

The largest among ordinary squirrels - teleutki - in winter flaunt in silver-gray and bluish coats. At the same time, their tail is pale gray with a tinge of black and yellowish-rust. On this basis, Teleut proteins belong to the Graytails.

Other varieties of winter tail color are browntails, redtails and blacktails. Among squirrels there are individuals with piebald color, as well as melanists (absolutely black) and albinos (absolutely white specimens).

Considering the description of the squirrel, it is worth noting that twice a year, like many other animals, they change the fur. In the spring it happens, most often, in April-May, in the fall - during the whole season. Spring molting in squirrels, starting from the head to the base of the tail. Autumn molt goes in the opposite direction - from the root of the tail to the head. Thus, the tail of these animals molts once a year.

The process of molting, like in other mammals, depends on the length of daylight. When it changes, the animal’s pituitary gland produces a special hormone that affects the activity of the thyroid gland. Due to this, molting begins.

The timing and duration of this process are not constant. They depend on weather conditions and the amount of feed. If there is a lot of it, the change of coat of squirrels starts earlier and ends more quickly. The quality of the new fur also depends on the climatic conditions and the food supply.

Squirrel housing

Squirrels always equip their homes on trees, preferring to use hollows for this purpose. Not finding a suitable shelter, the animal builds a spherical nest, located high above the ground among the dense foliage. Inside the squirrel dwelling is lined with dry grass, leaves, insulated with moss or lichen.

The nest has two entrances, one of which is located on the side of the trunk, so that the protein can escape in case of danger. In severe cold in one such house is going to several animals, the entrance is closed with moss, and it saves the animals from freezing.

Usually squirrels have up to one and a half dozens of dwellings, which they often have to change, presumably, fleeing from parasites. If the female has a squirrel, she transfers them to a new place in the teeth.

What eats squirrel in the forest? The basis of its diet is vegetable food - the seeds of coniferous trees, fresh and dried mushrooms, in the southern areas - nuts and acorns. With a shortage of basic types of food, proteins can eat kidneys and shoots of trees, tubers and rhizomes of various plants, berries, lichens. In early spring, during the mating season, the squirrels begin to eat animal food - insects and their larvae, frogs, bird eggs and the chicks themselves.

Everybody knows about protein storing. On the eve of winter, they harvest nuts, acorns and cones, hiding them in hollows or burying them under the roots of trees. Forgets its protein reserves. They are accidentally bumped into by either herself or other forest dwellers. But she can find “pantries” made by mice, chipmunks or nutcrackers under a 1.5 meter layer of snow.


Squirrel ordinary or wexa brings posterity, usually twice a year. In the south of the range, there are also three litters. Only the Yakut squirrel breeds calves once a year. In the mating season, females seek from three to six males. They behave aggressively towards their rivals, purr and bang their paws on the branches.

The strongest gets the right to mate with a female, after which she builds a nest. In it, after 36-37 days and born squirrel. The number of calves can be from three to ten, usually in the second litter there are more than the first. Squirrels are born naked and blind, each of them weighs about 8 g. The mother feeds them with milk for about a month and a half. At the age of about 9 weeks, babies begin to lead independent lives.

Having considered the description and way of life of an interesting forest dweller, which is an animal squirrel, one can get closer acquainted with the peculiarities of this species.


Squirrel ordinary distributed in the boreal zone of Eurasia from the Atlantic coast to Kamchatka, Sakhalin and Japan (Hokkaido Island). Successfully acclimatized in the Crimea, the Caucasus and the Tien Shan. More than 40 subspecies of common squirrels, differing from each other in coloring features, have been described. Squirrel ordinary lives in all forests of the European part of Russia, Siberia and the Far East. Around 1923-24. appeared in Kamchatka, where it is now common. In Russia, fossil proteins are known from the Late Pleistocene. The northern boundary of the distribution of squirrels coincides with the northern boundary of the high forest: begins in north-western Russia near the town of Kola, goes along the Kola Peninsula, then from Mezen through Ust-Tsilma and Ust-Usu to the Northern Urals, from the Ural Range to the middle reaches R. Anadyr, and from there to the south-west along the shores of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk and the Sea of ​​Japan to Sakhalin and Korea. The southern border in the west roughly coincides with the southern boundary of the forest-steppe, but at the southern tip of the Ural range sharply turns north to Shadrinsk, then goes through Omsk and northern Kazakhstan (Pavlodar, Semipalatinsk) to southern Altai. The rest of the southern range refers to the MNR, northeastern China, Korea and Japan. Since the late 1930s. the squirrel repeatedly settled in the mountains of the Caucasus, the Crimea and the Tien Shan, in the island forests of Central Kazakhstan, as well as in the Mogilyov, Bryansk and Rostov regions.

Scientific classification

It is a small animal of typical squirrel appearance, with an elongated slender body and a fluffy tail with a "comb". Its body length is 19.5–28 cm, the tail is 13–19 cm (approximately 2/3 of the body length), weight is 250–340 g. The head is round, with large black eyes. Ears long, with tassels, especially pronounced in winter. Sensible vibrissae grow on the muzzle, forepaws and belly. Hind limbs markedly longer than the front. Fingers with tenacious sharp claws. Hair on the sides of the tail reaches a length of 3-6 cm, which is why the tail has a flattened shape.

The winter fur of a squirrel is high, soft and fluffy, the summer one is more rigid, sparse, and short. In terms of variability in protein coloration, it holds one of the first places among Palearctic animals. Its color varies seasonally, by subspecies, and even within the same population. In summer, it is dominated by red, brown or dark brown tones, in winter gray and black, sometimes with a brown tint. The abdomen is light or white. There are melanist proteins with completely black fur and albinos, as well as spotted squirrels, whose fur is covered with white spots. According to the winter coloration of the tail, squirrels are divided into “red tails”, “brown tails” and “tails”. In the steppe forests of Western Siberia there are graytail proteins.

The size of the squirrels decreases from mountainous to flatlands, the size of the skull from south to north, and the color brightens towards the center of the range. The black and brown tones of the winter fur in the Carpathian, Far Eastern and Manchurian subspecies are replaced by bluish and ash-gray, most pronounced in the protein-pulleys. At the same time, the area of ​​the white field of the abdomen increases in the same direction and the percentage of “red tails” increases.

The squirrel molts 2 times a year, with the exception of the tail, which molts once a year. Spring molting occurs mainly in April-May, and autumn - from September to November. The timing of molting is highly dependent on the feed and meteorological conditions of a given year. В урожайные годы линька начинается и заканчивается раньше, в плохие сильно задерживается и растягивается. Весенняя линька идёт c головы до корня хвоста, осенняя — в обратном порядке. Взрослые самцы начинают линять раньше, чем самки и сеголетки. Линька у белок, как и у всех других млекопитающих, вызвана изменением длины светового дня, что влияет на деятельность гипофиза. Выделяемый гипофизом тиреотропный гормон влияет на активность щитовидной железы, под действием гормона которой происходит линька.

Белка — типичный обитатель лесов. Since the basis of its nutrition is the seeds of tree species, it prefers mixed coniferous and deciduous forests that provide the best feeding conditions. It also loves mature dark-coniferous stands - cedar forests, spruce forests, fir-trees, followed by larch forests, elfin cedar bushes and mixed pine forests. In the north, where mainly pine and larch woodlands grow, the density of its livestock is low. In the Crimea and the Caucasus has mastered the cultural landscapes: gardens and vineyards.

The lifestyle is predominantly woody. The squirrel is a live, mobile animal. She easily makes jumps from tree to tree (3-4 m in a straight line and 10-15 m in a descending curve), a “rudder” tail. In the snowless period, as well as during the rut, it spends considerable time on the ground, where it moves irregularly up to 1 m long. In the winter period it moves mainly “tops”. When danger lurks in the trees, usually hiding in the crown. Active in the morning and evening hours, from 60% to 80% of this time spending in search of food. In the midst of winter, leaves the nest only for the time of feeding, and in severe frosts and bad weather hides in the nest, falling into a semi-dormant state. Not territorial, individual sites are weakly expressed, overlap.

Shelter ordinary squirrel arranges only in the trees. In deciduous forests usually lives in hollows, dragging a soft bed of grass, tree lichens, and dry leaves. In conifers builds spherical nests of dry twigs (gayna) which is lined with moss, leaves, grass, and wool. The diameter of the nest is 25-30 cm, it is located at the fork of the branches or among dense boughs at a height of 7-15 m. The squirrel also willingly occupies birdhouses. Males usually do not build nests, but occupy empty nests of females or thrushes, forty, crows. As a rule, each animal has several nests (up to 15), and every 2-3 days the squirrel changes its shelter, apparently fleeing from parasites. The calf female in the teeth. In winter, 3–6 squirrels can spend the winter in one nest, although usually these are single animals.

Large migrations (migrations) of squirrels are mentioned in ancient Russian chronicles. Sometimes they are caused by drought and forest fires, but more often crop failures are the main fodder - seeds of coniferous trees and nuts. There are migrations in the late summer and early autumn. Most often, squirrels migrate close to another forest, but sometimes make long-distance and long-term migrations - up to 250-300 km. Nomadic squirrel goes wide front (sometimes 100-300 km) one by one, not forming significant flocks and clusters, except in natural obstacles. During migrations, he enters the forest-tundra and tundra, appears in the steppe regions, crosses rivers and even sea bays, penetrates to the islands, crosses bare mountain tops, even enters settlements. In this case, the animals in a variety of drowning, dying from hunger, cold and predators.

In addition to mass migrations, seasonal migrations are associated with protein, associated with the consistent maturation of feed and the transfer of young animals to an independent way of life. Juveniles settle in August — September and in October — November, sometimes moving 70–350 km away from nesting stations. When starvation, seasonal migrations can migrate. At the same time, part of the adult individuals remains in place, with the usual food they switch to feeding on low-calorie foods with a high fiber content (buds, lichens, needles, bark of young shoots). It is through this group that the local population is then restored.

The diet of squirrels is very diverse and includes more than 130 kinds of fodder, among which the bulk of seeds are coniferous trees: spruce, pine, Siberian cedar, fir, larch. In southern areas, where oak forests grow with hazel undergrowth, it feeds on acorns and hazelnuts. In addition, the protein consumes mushrooms (especially deer truffle), buds and shoots of trees, berries, tubers and rhizomes, lichens, and herbaceous plants. Their share in the diet increases markedly with the failure of the main feed. Very often, protein-free feeds intensively eat flower buds of spruce, damaging these plantings. During the breeding season, do not hesitate to animal feed - insects and their larvae, eggs, chicks, small vertebrates. After hibernation, the squirrel readily gnaws the bones of dead animals, visits salt licks. The daily amount of food depends on the season: in spring, during rut, the protein eats up to 80 g per day, in winter - only 35 g.

For the winter, the squirrel makes small stocks of acorns, nuts, and cones, dragging them into hollows or burying them among the roots, and also dries mushrooms, hanging them on the branches. True, she quickly forgets about her warehouses and finds them in the winter by chance, as other animals use - birds, small rodents, even a brown bear. At the same time, the squirrel itself uses the reserves of other animals (chipmunk, nutcracker, mice), which it easily finds even under a 1.5 m layer of snow.

Squirrels are very prolific. On the most part of the range they bring 1-2 litters, in the southern regions - up to 3. Yakut squirrels usually have only 1 brood per year. The breeding season, depending on the latitude, feeding conditions and population density, begins in late January - early March and ends in July — August. During the rut, 3–6 males are held near the female, which show aggression towards competitors - they loudly purr, beat their paws on the branches, run after each other. After mating with the winner, the female builds a brood nest (sometimes 2-3), it is neater and larger.

Pregnancy lasts 35-38 days, in litter from 3 to 10 cubs, in the second litter less. Newborn babashes are naked and blind, weighing about 8 g. Their hair appears on the 14th day, they only begin to see the 30–32 day. From this moment begin to go out of the nest. Milk feeds up to 40-50 days. At the age of 8-10 weeks leave the mother. Sexual maturity reaches 9-12 months. Having raised the first litter, the female fattens a little and mates again. The interval between broods is about 13 weeks. In October — November, the squirrel population by 2/3, and sometimes by 75-80%, consists of belleville-yearlings.

In captivity, squirrels live to be 10–12 years old; however, in nature, a squirrel older than 4 years is already old. The share of such animals under the most favorable conditions does not exceed 10%. In areas with intensive squirrel fishing, the population is fully updated in 3-4 years. Particularly high mortality of young animals - 75-85% of squirrels do not survive their first winter.

Enemies of squirrels are owls, goshawk, pine marten in the European part of Russia, sable in Asiatic and Harza in the Far East. On the ground, they are caught by foxes and cats. However, predators have no significant effect on the state of populations. Much stronger on the number of proteins affected by starvation and epizootics. Epizootics usually occur in the late fall and most develop in the spring. Proteins die from coccidiosis, tularemia, hemorrhagic septicemia, they are usually worms, ticks and fleas.

Squirrel: description and photo

A common squirrel has a long body, bushy tail and long ears. The ears are squirrels large and elongated, sometimes with tassels on the end. The paws are strong, with strong and sharp claws. Thanks to strong paws, rodents climb trees so easily.

An adult squirrel has a large tail, which is 2/3 of the whole body and serves as its “steering” in flight. She catches them air flows and balances. Also tail squirrels hide when they sleep. When choosing a partner, one of the main criteria is the tail. These animals are very attentive to this part of their body, it is the tail of the squirrel that is an indicator of its health.

The size of the average protein is 20-31 cm. Giant proteins are about 50 cm in size, with the tail length equal to the body length. The smallest squirrel, mouse, has a body length of only 6-7.5 cm.

The squirrel's coat is different in winter and summer, as this animal molts twice a year. In winter, the fur is fluffy and dense, and in summer it is shorter and more rare. The color of the squirrel is not the same, it is dark brown, almost black, red and gray with a white tummy. In summer, squirrels are mostly red, and in winter, the fur coat becomes bluish-gray.

Red squirrels have brown or olive red fur. In the summer, a black longitudinal stripe appears on the sides separating the belly and the back. Light on the tummy and around the eyes.

Squirrels fly along the sides of the body, between the wrists and ankles there is a skin membrane that allows them to plan.

Dwarf proteins have a gray or brown fur on the back and light on the abdomen.

Where does the protein live?

The squirrel is an animal that lives on all continents except Australia, Madagascar, the polar regions, the south of South America and north-western Africa. Proteins live in Europe from Ireland to Scandinavia, in most of the CIS countries, in Asia Minor, partly in Syria and Iran, in northern China. Also these animals inhabit North and South America, Trinidad and Tobago islands.
Squirrel lives in various forests: from northern to tropical. He spends most of his life in the trees, excellent climbing and jumping from branch to branch. Traces of protein can be found near the reservoirs. Also, these rodents live in the vicinity of a man near tilled lands and in parks.

What do squirrels eat?

Basically, the squirrel feeds on nuts, acorns, seeds of conifers: spruce, pine, cedar, larch, fir. The diet of proteins includes mushrooms and various grains. In addition to plant foods, it can eat various bugs, frogs, lizards, and bird birds. When crop failure and early spring squirrel eats buds on trees, lichens, berries, bark of young shoots, rhizomes and herbaceous plants.

Squirrel in winter. How is the squirrel preparing for winter?

When a squirrel prepares for winter, she makes many shelters for her stock. She collects acorns, nuts and mushrooms, can hide food in hollows, burrows or dig holes on her own. Many winter stocks of squirrels are stolen by other animals. And about some caches squirrels simply forget. The animal helps to restore the forest after a fire and increases the number of new trees. It is because of the forgetfulness of squirrels that hidden nuts and seeds germinate and form new plantings. In winter, the squirrel does not sleep, having prepared a supply of food in the fall. During the frost, she sits in her hollow, in a half-slumber. If the frost is small, the squirrel is active: it can plunder the caches of mice, chipmunks and nutcrackers, finding prey even under a 1.5-meter layer of snow.

Squirrel in spring

Early spring is the most unfavorable time for squirrels, since during this period the animals have practically nothing to eat. The stored seeds begin to germinate, and new ones have not yet appeared. Therefore, the squirrels can only eat the kidneys in the trees and gnaw the bones of animals killed during the winter. Squirrels living next to humans often visit bird feeders in the hope of finding seeds and grains there. In the spring, squirrels begin to molt, it happens in mid-late March, the molt ends in late May. Also in the spring, squirrels start their mating games.

How many squirrels live?

The squirrel lives a maximum of 12 years, but only in captivity. In the forest, this rodent can live to 4 years, and even this will be very rare. The enemies of the squirrels are martens, owls, sables, foxes and cats. Proteins living in the forest often die of hunger, epizootics, ticks, fleas and other parasites, and can also be carriers of various diseases, including rabies. Diseases of proteins greatly shorten their lifespans.

Protein content at home

It is very important to create the right conditions for the content of proteins. The squirrel is an active rodent, so you need to acquire a high aviary about 1 meter high, about 0.5 meters long and wide. The squirrel house should be put in a quiet place where there are no drafts. In the aviary you need to put a nest or birdhouse, several branches along which the squirrel will jump, planks or shelves on which the animal will sit.

For the well-being of homemade protein, it should be properly fed. The diet of proteins should include dried or fresh mushrooms, acorns, hazelnuts, pine nuts, various insects. Also, the animal needs cones with seeds, earrings of willow or aspen, young leaves of birch. In no case can not feed this animal food from your table.

Remember that homemade protein is still the same rodent, so it needs to be given chalk or egg shells to avoid a shortage of minerals.

Squirrel can be taught to eat with it. Since this animal is adapted to hide excess food, it will take from you as much as you will offer.

It is believed that proteins can not be given peanuts, both raw and fried, as well as salted seeds are not beneficial for them.

Interesting facts about proteins

  • For a week period, a protein can eat food with a mass equal to its own body weight,
  • A male squirrel spends more time caring for his coat than a female. The squirrel is considered the purest rodent,
  • When falling from a height of up to 30 meters, the protein will not receive any damage. This is due to the structure of the calf and the large tail, which serves as a parachute.

Author: admin · Published 07/07/2016 · Last modified 11/08/2018

Author: admin · Published 06/25/2016 · Last modified 11/13/2018

Author: admin · Published 12/07/2016 · Last modified 09/21/2017

comments 49

I learned a lot of new and interesting things here, I advise you to read it.

Write it with an English translation.

Ksyusinya, good evening. It is likely that in the future we will make several languages ​​on the site, including English.

Thank you so much for creating such a wonderful site! From these sources you can learn a lot for yourself! Thanks a lot.

Thank you so much for creating this site. VERY COOL. He just came in handy to me. THANK.

thank you but in English write

Do squirrels eat mushrooms?

I did not ask this

I was tortured with stories of literature

Good afternoon, Lisa.
Squirrels eat mushrooms.

very good information

crap crap and crap

I've learned so much interesting

Thank you, but now I fed a young squirrel miracle cottage cheese.

We have a squirrel living in our country house, running straight through the garden and through the trees. We love to watch her. Now I know how to feed a squirrel. Thank you for the article.

Last year, a squirrel settled in our birdhouse on our site. She gnawed at the entrance to the birdhouse to the size she needed. This year, after seeing a squirrel peeping out of a nesting box, I went to admire her. Suddenly her head began to push another attractive face. Then a pretty little squirrel jumped out onto the birdhouse wreck and climbed the trunk upwards. Next to the mom's face, another face appeared. Interestingly, up to this point I did not even assume that there were kids in the birdhouse. When the squirrel went for a walk, a blade of grass always protruded from the birdhouse and it did not even move as long as there was no protein. That is, the children sat completely quiet and did not give any signs of life. After they got out of the nest, they no longer live there. Only the squirrel mother comes to the feeder. I also cannot understand whether she sleeps in a nesting box, usually she runs away from the trough into the forest.
Weeping flowers under a birdhouse, found whole bunches of some kind of “cotton wool”. I assume that the squirrel has thrown out last year's down from the nest.
One morning I saw an interesting picture. On the dacha table and benches ran squirrel and magpie. Who ran away from whom I did not understand.
I usually put hazelnuts and pine nuts in the feeder. Cleaned and inshell. So the birds went there. Not only that big. so very tiny. And they choose a bigger nut. Here the little sparrow takes off from the trough, and holds a hazelnut in its beak. And as soon as it fit in its beak, I had to close the feeder with transparent plastic from three sides.
I wonder if it is possible to hang several houses for squirrels in the same area, as there must be squirrels somewhere ... Or do squirrels have a certain size of territory?
The most interesting thing is that the appearance of a squirrel on my site is some kind of mystical. About ten years ago I saw a program on TV where a woman was talking about a squirrel at her dacha. Like, she bought a pair at the zoo and constantly found on her parcel stifled squirrels. It turned out that they were caught by neighbor cats. A woman patched holes under the fence and for some year a squirrel appeared in the nest. I was impressed by this program. But I did not see squirrels in our forest. But in one article I read that if nuts appear on the site, squirrels will come. I planted three hazel bushes. For three years, the bushes have grown a little, but there is no fruit on them. I already wanted to post on the store an advertisement for the purchase of a fruiting hazel, as a neighbor showed me a photo of a squirrel on his site. Then another neighbors told me that they saw a squirrel. Only she did not come across my eyes. And now such a surprise. I called our squirrel Ksyushka. Here I am thinking how to create a winter warehouse for nuts for her, because we are at the dacha only in summer.

I liked it very much. I learned a lot of interesting things. I would like to know about other people animals.


The most common among all species. Occurs in temperate latitudes of Eurasia. The diet includes nuts, seed cones, insects, berries. In winter, it stores food and lives in the hollow of trees.

The length of the body is from 15 to 26 cm, and the mass can reach 500-700 g. The tail is 12 to 20 cm long, wide and light. С его помощью пушистая красавица может прыгать на расстояние до 15 м. Голова круглая, глаза большие, черного цвета, уши длинные, имеюткисточки на конце. Лапки сзади длиннее тех, что спереди. Окрас зависит от места обитания. Европейские белки имеют рыжий мех, а дальневосточные – бурый и черноватый. У всех них белое брюшко. В летнее время зверек линяет.



Зверек коренастый и более крупный, чем большинство видов семейства. Тело длиной около 30 см, длина хвоста небольшая (2,5 см). Масса от 1 кг до 1,5 кг. Голова массивная и широкая, шея почти незаметна. Глаза небольшие, зрение плохое. Уши маленькие (их едва заметно из-под меха). Шерсть короткая, густая, растет вертикально. Hind limbs longer than the front. On the front are long claws for digging the ground.

Habitat - US Pacific Coast. There, the animal lives in the forests with a developed bush layer. He lives in a large hole with a length of more than 10 m, which he digs. In the rainy season, it copes well with the flood in its home, because it floats well. Eats ferns, bark of trees.



Another name is the Caucasian squirrel, which indicates the habitat of this species in the wooded zone of the Caucasus and in the Middle East. Lives on trees, but very often on the ground. Still swims well. It can jump at a length of 3-5 m. The power is the same as that of a normal squirrel.

Differs from the usual smaller size and shorter body. Its length is 20-25 cm, and the tail is about 15 cm. Weight is 300-400 g. The ears are small, there are no brushes. The back is brown or chestnut in color, with a black or silver spot on it. The abdomen is light orange or white. The tail has a chestnut-rusty or brown color. In winter, squirrel coat darkens slightly. Shedding occurs twice a year (April and October).


Mountain long-nosed

The body of the animal reaches 20-27 cm, the tail is 10-15 cm. It weighs 250-350 g. The fur is saturated brown, on the sides it is slightly lighter. On the tummy white wool. The tail is dark and white at the end. The head is rounded. A characteristic feature - elongated attractive face. Lower incisors that are very long are distinguished. The ears are short, round-shaped. The back paws are larger than the front. They are placed 5 fingers.

Habitat - Southeast Asia, the islands of Sumatra and Kalimantan. The mountain squirrel feeds on insects: crickets, cockroaches, grasshoppers.

Mountain long-nosed


The species lives in the Appalachian forests of North America. Squirrels are a little bigger than a chipmunk. Body length 28-33 cm, tail - 10-15 cm. Fur from brown to olive-red shade. The tail is slightly darker than the trunk. The eyes are black, the wool around them is light. On the belly of the animal, it is also light. In summer, a dark strip appears on the sides, which is placed along the body. She divides the back and belly of the animal.

The animals of this breed do not hibernate in the winter, the squirrel can be seen on the ground or a tree in a cold season. Also this animal is a good swimmer.


White strap

The size of an adult individual is about 30 cm, the tail is approximately equal to the body. Rodent mass from 250 to 500 g. A distinctive feature of the species are white longitudinal stripes on the sides. The back is black and red, and the belly is of a light cream color. The tail is fluffy, darker than the body. The muzzle is elongated, the auricles are large and visible.

The distribution region is the West African coast. They can live in tropical jungles, and in scrub groves, and in hot savannas. Live in small groups.

White strap

The body is 22-28 cm, and the tail is from 18 to 25 cm. The mass of the animal is from 500 g to 1 kg. Wool is hard, there is no undercoat, because the animal lives in a hot climate. The color of the back is sandy-brown, and the abdominal part is white-yellow. On both sides there is a short light band. The tail of the gray-brown races flowers. The head is elongated and slightly flat.

Striped squirrel is found on the territory of Morocco, Uganda and other countries of North-West Africa. It lives in earthen holes, which digs with its long claws, or termite mounds, openings between the rocks.


The smallest member of the family. Its length is the same with the mouse - about 5-7 cm. The tail has a length of 5 cm, at its end there is a white spot. The back is yellow-green, and the lower part is olive-white. The ears are rounded with a white spot on the end. The muzzle is slightly elongated.

Habitat region - dense humid tropical jungle near the Congo River. Leads a reclusive life, lives high in the trees, so little studied.


Indian giant (two-tone)

Woody squirrel, whose body reaches the mark of 35-55 cm, tail - 60 cm. Weight can be up to 2 kg. The upper part of the body is brown-red, and the abdomen and lower legs are white and cream. The sharp transition of two shades is clearly visible on the front paws of the animal. Head brownish or sandy. Between the ears there is a bright spot.

The species is distributed in Southeast Asia and on the Indian Subcontinent. He lives in tropical forests away from human settlements. Spends most of the time high in the trees.

Indian giant

Fox (black)

The animal reaches a length of 45 to 65 cm, the tail accounts for 20-33 cm of the total. Weight ranges from 500 grams to kilograms. The color may be brownish yellow, dark brown or black. Some representatives of the species have a white pattern on the tail or face.

It lives on the North American continent. Lives in hollows or nests in trees. Most often inhabits woodlands, but rodents have adapted to urban conditions.



A small species, whose length is 16-23 cm. Tail length equal to the body. Maximum weight about 350 g. Hair on the body is short and tough. The upper part of the animal is red-brown with light longitudinal stripes. Boca cream, light brown. The tail consists of black and gray hairs. It is very fluffy compared to the body.

Region of residence - North-Western Sahara. Inhabits the bushes of the tropics and subtropics. Dig burrows for living and avoiding predators. Eat seeds, roots, insects, small lizards.


Mexican prairie dog

They are often called gophers. The body reaches 38-45 cm, and the mass is about a kilogram. Male individuals are significantly larger than females. The color of the animal is yellow and light brown, the belly is lighter than the back. For the winter changes a fur coat for warmer with an underfur.

They live only on the territory of Mexico. Rodents are very social. They live in small groups, occasionally in colonies up to 200 individuals. Burrows are dug, which simply go down or go down in a spiral to a distance of 1 m. After this, the tunnel forks horizontally. Hills that remained after the dug pit clever rodents use as an observation post for predators. When an enemy is detected, the guard sent a signal to everyone to hide.

Mexican prairie dog

The rodent reaches a length of 15-20 cm, the tail - 10-15 cm. Weight is about 100 g. Wool is thick, but short, and long on the tail. The color of the upper part of the animal may be gray or black. Along the back there are 5 wide light bands. The belly of the animal is light.

It lives in India and on the island of Ceylon, and the northern palm squirrel subspecies in Pakistan and Nepal. It occurs most often in tropical jungles and palm groves, but there are frequent cases of detection in cities.

Palm tree

Japanese flying squirrel (momonga)

He lives on the islands of Japan. A small animal with a length of 15-18 cm and a tail of 10-15 cm. The upper part of the animal is gray-brown in color, and the lower part is light gray. The muzzle is obtuse, triangular ears, rounded at the ends. The eyes are very large, which allows the animals to see perfectly in the dark. Like other flyers, they have membranes between the front and hind legs.

Most often found in evergreen dense forests. Leads nocturnal. Most of the time sitting in the trees.

Japanese flying squirrel

Western gray

The length of the animal along with the tail is 43-62 cm. The mass reaches from 400 g to 1 kg. The coat is silver-gray on top, and white on the belly. The tail is very fluffy, gray, sometimes with black spots. Ears are long, without brushes. There is a white bezel around the eyes.

It lives in the United States and Mexico. Most often found in deciduous and mixed forests, where there are oaks, plane trees and poplars.

Western gray

Cape Earthen

The animal is 22-25 cm long, the tail is from 20 to 25 cm. Weight is 400-650 g. Males are slightly heavier than the opposite sex. The skin of the animal is black with brown short fur. The undercoat is not. On the muzzle, neck and belly the fur is lighter. On the sides there are light stripes. The tail is flat, consisting of white and black hairs mixed.

Common in South African countries. They are found in arid regions, meadows and savannas. Dig burrows for shelter and rescue from predators.

Cape Earthen


The habitat region is the eastern part of the North American continent. The body length is from 35 to 52 cm, and the tail is 15-25 cm. The mass is about a kilogram. The fur is gray with brown or red hairs. The belly is white. The tail is fluffy. There are individuals with completely black fur.

The animal lives in mixed or coniferous forests. It feeds on tree buds, young shoots, unripe and ripe fruits, nuts, various seeds and eggs of birds.


A large representative of the family that lives on the Indochinese peninsula and Indonesian islands. The body length of the animal is from 32 to 35 cm, and the tail is 37-44 cm. The mass ranges from one kilogram to one and a half. Color bright and noticeable. The back and head are dark brown or gray, and the tummy is white or yellow. The ears are short, but rather large.

The animals live in wet forests. The squirrel spends most of its time in the trees, and only descends on the ground to hunt other species of rodents. Representatives of the species eschew human settlements, preferring the wild forest.


This species is a real giant among the Belkov family. The animal is 30-52 cm long, and the tail is slightly smaller. Weight reaches 1-2 kg. The color is elegant: the back is chocolate or chestnut brown, the sides are yellow and white, and there is a dark brown strip on them. There are dark “gloves” on the front paws, and the hind legs have a saturated brown color. The abdomen is white and the tail is darker than the body with a patch of light hair. It has such a long fur that visually the tail looks a third larger than the rest of the body. The ears are long with large tassels, which served as the name of the species.

This species is spread on the island of Borneo, where it inhabits moist forests. The diet includes not only seeds, plants and fruits, but also small birds and reptiles.



Body size varies from 20 to 28 cm, and the tail from 10 to 15 cm. The mass of the animal is 250-350 g. The back is red-brown, and the sides are light brown in color. The belly is white. The muzzle is stretched, which served as the name. It has long lower incisors and a very long tongue that perfectly catch insects for feeding on squirrels. The ears are short, round. The eyes are black. On the face, front paws and belly there are vibrissae - sensitive hairs.

Habitat - the south-eastern part of Asia. He lives on the ground and cobbles a nest near rocks, stones and low hollows.


Squirrel berdmore

A bit smaller than a simple squirrel. The body length is from 15 to 20 cm, and the tail is 10-15 cm. Weight is approximately 200-300 g. The back is gray-brown, the sides are light gray, and the head has a rich gray color with an admixture of brown tones. On the sides there is a light brown strip. Abdomen yellow-white. The ears are long, brown in color.

This animal is an inhabitant of the dense forests of the Indochinese Peninsula. He spends most of his time on the ground, but he does climb trees perfectly.