Fish and other aquatic creatures

External filter for aquarium do-it-yourself and the principle of operation

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Water in the aquarium should be constantly filtered. This is known to all owners of home decorative fish. In pet stores there is a fairly large selection of aquarium filters of various designs. However, such a device can be made independently of the available material.

Some aquarists believe that it is not worth saving on the fish themselves and the food for them, but you can find a substitute for expensive equipment for the aquarium. Some accessories and accessories, including a water purifier, are quite capable of making with your own hands. Of course, for this you need to know the basic principles of filtration of water, as well as have some skills as a home craftsman.

What is necessary?

Materials for the simplest internal aquarium filter are commercially available at regular hardware stores. The exception, perhaps, is only a compact electric pump. However, it can be bought in the building hypermarket or in the electrical goods store.

So, for work will be required:

  • plastic container with a tight lid (suitable container for storing bulk products),
  • thick porous material or sponge
  • hermetic water pump with a fitting for fastening to the container lid,
  • ceramic granules or rings for biological filtration (for fine cleaning, simple cotton wool can be used as a filtering element),
  • 2-3 suction cups, adhesive resin.

Operating procedure

  • At the lower edges of the container, thin cuts are made along the entire perimeter. They will serve to absorb the water.
  • Then a sponge for tight cleaning fits tightly into the container, and from above - a material for fine cleaning (cotton wool or biofilter elements).
  • In the lid of the container a hole is cut through the diameter of the pump fitting.
  • The fitting is inserted into the hole and sealed around the circumference of the resin or silicone.
  • It is screwed on the pump itself, which creates a compression inside the container.
  • In the upper part of the wide side of the container are attached 2 or 3 household suckers.

Basically, the internal filter is ready. The suction cups will securely hold the self-made device on the wall of the container.

Such a filter can also be put directly on the ground. The latter will serve as an additional level of filtering.

What can you do?

Making such a device at home will take more time.

  • As the case, you can use a round high plastic canister.
  • If there is none, then a section of a large-diameter plastic garden tube will do. True, the upper and lower covers will have to cut and mount yourself.

Working process

First stage

  • In the lower part of the canister, a hole is cut into which a metal or plastic fitting with a one-way inlet valve is screwed tightly.
  • There are 2 holes in the cover: for fixing the water outlet valve and the electropump.
  • The pump itself through the fitting is attached to the inside of the cover.

Second phase

Now you need to make cassettes, or cartridges, with filter elements. They can be made from plastic flower pots, smoothly cutting off the top wide part.

At the bottom of each cassette burned holes for the passage of water.

The first cartridge, where the sponge is placed, is inserted into the canister so that its bottom is slightly above the adapter with the inlet valve.

A second cartridge is installed next, where the filtering material can be fiber, synthetic winterizer or cotton wool. A filter cartridge with biomaterial is mounted on top so that it is below the pump canister attached to the lid.

Third stage

Tubes or hoses are connected to the inlet and outlet adapters with valves. Their length is adjustable depending on the depth of the aquarium and the distance to the filter.

External aquarium water purifier ready.

As in the first case, the working pump creates pressure, under the influence of which water is first sucked into the canister, passes all filtration stages and then flows back into the aquarium.

The main element of the cleaner is the pump. When choosing it, you should take into account the volume of the aquarium. For example: a pump with a capacity of 300 liters per hour is suitable for an aquarium of 70 liters, and for a 200-liter one - 1000 liters per hour.

Instead of conclusion

At home, you can make a bottom filter or, as it is called, false. However, this is a more difficult task, which can be done by real craftsmen.

Quite a large number of owners of aquariums prefer not to spend money on expensive equipment. Aquafilters, diligently made with their own hands, work no worse than expensive branded devices. And the technology and frequency of their service is the same as in the sold models. In addition, a self-made device has a slightly different moral value. Is not it?

Video on how to properly make an external aquarium filter:

What is an external filter for aquarium

There are two types of filters: external and internal. How to choose the one that fits exactly in your case?

First of all, pay attention to the size of your aquarium. If it is large enough, then there is not much difference. But usually we have only limited areas on which you can place either a small or medium aquarium. In this case, it would be appropriate to use an external filter.

The external filter does not take place in the aquarium and does not spoil its overall appearance.

The work of this device is as follows: water from the aquarium enters the device, passes through the filter elements, and then returns to the fish.

The external filter has the following advantages:

  • it does not occupy a useful place inside the aquarium,
  • the contents of the aquarium looks more aesthetic without such devices
  • filtering fillers better purify water.

Of course, among the huge range of such devices, you can choose the right one in all respects for you. But their prices are too high.

So why not take the opportunity to make an external filter with your own hands? This project is easy to implement.

It turns out that everything you need can be easily purchased in stores and on the market, and the assembly and installation work itself is simple enough for even a beginner to cope with it.

How to care for the aquarium filter?

For the filter to work properly, it must be regularly clean. Otherwise, it will begin to work worse, and after that it will completely pollute the aquatic environment (the latter concerns internal filters).

The smaller the filter area and the larger the volume of water, the more often it is necessary to clean the filter.

To determine the regularity of cleaning the filter, you should not only carefully read the manufacturer's instructions, but also watch the filter in operation. If he starts to work less, then it's time to wash it. Smaller filters may require weekly cleaning, and large models may require just one cleaning in 2 months.

In order not to destroy the colony of good bacteria, wash the filter with water at room temperature and do not do it too thoroughly. In addition, you should not wash the filter, if you change the water in the aquarium, add new fish, enter a new feed, otherwise you will break the established balance in the aquarium.

Washcloth replacement in the filter - another important point. Do not do this too often. Wait until it begins to lose its filtering ability and shape. In addition, the washcloth in the internal filter consists of several parts, and only one of them is needed at a time so that, later, the beneficial bacteria from the “old” parts quickly spread to the new ones.

Remember that the filter in the aquarium should work constantly and without interruptions, so take a responsible approach to the choice of a suitable model and do not chase the cheapest option. Stop the choice on the qualitative equipment which well proved itself and will serve you for a long time.

Being a lover of aquarium with little experience, I came to the conclusion that the internal filter in my aquarium does not cope with its task. And from the frequent maintenance of the filter, only the inhabitants of my aquarium suffered.

After studying the information on the filters, I came to the conclusion that the unambiguous correct solution is to use an external filter. Biofiltration is extremely effective, and none of the methods of water purification can even partially replace it.

The composition of water purified by an external filter is approximately similar to water in slow-flowing natural bodies of water. With a weekly refreshment of one third of the volume of the main aquarium, it can be assumed that the ichthyofauna and hydroflora are contained almost in flowing natural water - hence all the successes achieved in systems with biofiltration.

Not pleasant for me was the news that the cost of the external filter was comparable, with the cost of the aquarium itself.

After reviewing the design of externalists, I decided to make with my own hands an analogue of the external filter Eheim.

For the manufacture of homemade external filter were purchased: - Pump (fountain pump), the company RESUN Chinese production 30 W., 2000 l / h. - PVC coupling for sewer pipe d = 200 mm. + 2 caps for it, - taps, corners, sgony, etc., - PVC pipe d = 20 mm. for receiving and supplying water to an aquarium 4 m., - a flask from a household filter,

- Fillers for the filter.

For inserts in the plugs used fittings of the following design.

My choice for this pump was due to the fact that the filter has many bends in the tubes and the final performance eventually fell by half.

Drilled holes in the upper and lower cap for the supply and pumping of water. When installing fittings, I used rubber gaskets with an additional use of silicone-ion sealant.

I tried to insert the plugs into the clutch with sealing rubber bands and I did not succeed, it worked out too tightly. Understanding that if I succeed in inserting a stub, I will not pull it out from there.

Based on this, I cut the edges of the coupling in order to disassemble the filter, if anything, then it was possible to remove the gum and thereby depressurize the filter.

At the bottom of the coupling made the seat under the inlet fitting.

A cut of the coupling edge will later be installed inside the coupling, and will hold the grid.

In the lower cap installed mesh above the level of the nozzle. For this it was necessary to pull the box for vegetables.

After that, with a clear conscience, we can install the bottom cap in the coupling. Since the sealing gum will not be used here, it is necessary to coat the entire area of ​​the plug with silicone. And after installing the plug, we additionally coat the joints inside and outside with sealant.

In the lid additionally drilled a hole for the mains wire and air release. It was not necessary to fasten the pump to the plug, and even without this it is reliably fixed by the length of the hose and the mains wire.

For sealing the network wire used a fitting similar to that used in street lamps. In place of the wire break set the switch.

Under the inlet pipe installed bracket for mounting the bulb of the household filter, which will serve as a preliminary filter for coarse cleaning. It would have been possible to do without it, but then I would have to install a sponge on the inlet pipe directly in the aquarium, or wash the canister every month (in my plans, washing the canister will take place at least once every 6 months).

For the manufacture of pre. filter needed PVC sewer pipe d = 32 mm. In which many holes were drilled. It would be possible to use, additionally, in pre. filter activated carbon or zeolite, but first decided to do a foam sponge.

When all the details of the filter assembly proceed to filling with fillers.

1 layer. At the bottom in the first place we settle the material for coarse filtration. For these purposes, the most suitable foam with a large cell. But unfortunately I did not manage to find sheet foam rubber for aquariums of a suitable size. And instead he used something like a ball of fishing line.

2 layer. Fill with ceramic rings. The purpose of their application in the filter,, is to branch the flow of water and to evenly distribute its current over the entire transverse area of ​​the filtering material.

3 layer. We put a layer of foam rubber with a small cell. In my case the synthetic winterizer was used.

4 layer. We fill the substrate for colonies of nitrifying bacteria with “bio-balls”. In this section all the mysteries of the nitrogen cycle take place.

Here heterotrophs, nitrificators, and denitrifiers peacefully coexist, properly performing the duties assigned to them, the working volume of the chamber should be 4/5 of the capacity of the biofilter housing.

As a substrate for bacteria, claydite (preferably crushed) can be used because it has a porous structure.

5 layer. It is not necessary, but I decided to add the substrate FLUVAL. Externally, it looks like ceramic rings, only the material has a porous structure. If you take a ring into your hand, a ring, plug a hole on one side with your finger, and blow it into the other on the other, then all the air will escape through the micropores.

6 layer. The final layer, directly in front of the exit intake hole (ie, before the filter pump, it is necessary to place the synthetic winterizer. It will protect the rotor from the ingress of dirt into it.

Homemade external filter for the aquarium is ready, the assembly was successful. Testing showed very good pump performance, although pump performance was 2 times less in performance. The top cover is not fully installed, due to the strong tight fixation of the sealing gum. If you close the lid to the end, it is in full possible that you will no longer open the filter.

Filter maintenance is reduced to cleaning the pre-filter as it gets dirty. Opening and washing the cans in half a year. I want to note that it is necessary to wash in the filter only ceramics and foam rubber and always aquarium water. The extract is washed only as needed.

The first time after launching a homemade external filter actually works only as a mechanical one. Beneficial bacteria have not yet colonized the substrate. Dirt fills the filter, which causes a decrease in its performance.

The water pressure gradually decreases. But there is a reverse process. Dirt is food for bacteria. They break down the organic matter that accumulates here and is processed into nitrate, i.e.

begins biological self-cleaning filter.

Full colonization of the substrate by colonies of beneficial bacteria occurs within 2-4 weeks. And then it all depends on which process takes up - pollution or self-cleaning. If the first, the filter will continue to be contaminated.

Not as intense as the first two weeks, but inevitable. When the filter performance drops below 30% of the maximum, it needs to be cleaned and restarted, otherwise a so-called can occur.

“Tilting” is a violation of biological processes, as a result of which poisonous substances are produced and thrown into the aquarium.

If self-cleaning gains the upper hand, then the filter on the contrary is gradually freed from dirt and the performance that falls to 50-70% of the maximum is restored.

Theoretically, after that the filter should work forever. In practice, productivity is not fully restored, and inside the canister, from time to time, stagnant zones are formed.

Therefore, I recommend cleaning it from time to time, even if the water pressure is strong.

In addition, I want to note that all metal parts should be free from lubrication. Because a drop of oil can spoil a ton of water and thereby destroy all of your inhabitants. Therefore, it is desirable to use plastic parts (fittings, angles, taps), which in turn are much cheaper than metal parts.

P.S. Later, I replaced the hoses with corrugated ones (which are used to drain the washing machine), since PVC hoses easily crumpled and thus blocked the access of water.

The lid will need to be pulled off with studs, otherwise it may tear out when the light is turned off.

Metal taps and fittings replaced by plastic which are used for irrigation.

External filter for aquarium (homemade)

Anton - 03/05/2010

There are 2 types of filters for aquariums: this external and internal.

Internal filters Immersed directly in the aquarium and attached suction cups to the machines.
External filters located outside the aquarium. Water is taken through a tube immersed in an aquarium. Through the same tube the water comes back.

How necessary is filtration of water in an aquarium? This question often arises in novice aquarists.
Do I need to filter and which filter to choose?

In most cases, filtering the aquarium is necessary, especially for those who have recently begun to practice aquarism.

There are 2 types of filters for aquariums: this external and internal.

Internal filters Immersed directly in the aquarium and attached suction cups to the machines.
External filters located outside the aquarium. Water is taken through a tube immersed in an aquarium. Через такую же трубку вода поступает обратно.

Безусловно внешний фильтр лучше:

  1. фильтр не занимает место в аквариуме, а значит подводный мир выглядит эстетичнее,
  2. внешний, содержащий различные фильтрующие наполнители лучше очищает воду, нежели его внутренний собрат.

Having launched my aquarium, I initially used an internal filter, since I already had it.
I do not have many fish: 13 neonok, 2 speckled catfish, a female guppy and a dozen of its fry. All this living creatures live in a 75-liter aquarium.

You can of course buy a filter, but you can do it yourself!
Desire to do external homemade filter did not leave me.
The desire was stronger

Let's look at the general scheme of my self-made filter.

The filter has the shape of a cylinder located vertically. At the top is an electric pump that circulates water in our system. Water from the aquarium enters the lower part of the filter, and passing through the filter elements rises to the top, and then through the pump and the tube - back into the aquarium.

Foam rubber and ceramic biofilter are used as filtering part (this filler is sold in any pet store).

Buying building materials and all sorts of things for the house, I also selected parts for the future filter.

What is needed for the manufacture of an external filter for an aquarium?

As you can see in the picture this:

  • 2 pieces of plastic sewer pipe, which fits one into the other (inside the rubber cuff). One pipe is also possible, but longer (up to 60 ms),
  • 2 end plugs per pipe (bottom and top),
  • fittings (according to the diameter of the outlet from the pump),
  • tap on the exhaust pipe,
  • Mayevsky's faucet to release air from the filter,
  • nuts
  • pump for pumping water
  • FUM tape for sealing threaded connections and a set of wrenches.

The heart of the external filter was the pump from the former submersible filter.

In the lower part of the pipe we make a hole of such a diameter so that the fitting can be screwed tight. Pre-thread the fitting tightly wrapped FUM tape to seal the connection. We twist a nut from the inside. In the photo, the nut is smeared also with silicone - this is not necessary, I took off the silicone from all the nuts, because water did not pass under the fittings.

So that the inlet is always free, I cut out of a plastic bottle, a kind of cap in which I drilled holes. From above, he made a grid of CD (also with holes). Water will flow freely through these holes.

The holes can be done much more than shown in my photo. With the next cleaning of the filter, (as the pressure of the water will be weaker), I will drill again.

1 - a cap grid at the bottom of the filter,
2 and 3 -the same, but already assembled
4 - on top of the grid lay a layer of foam.

On top of the foam rubber poured ceramic biofilter as shown in the diagram above. Another layer of foam rubber and ceramic filler again.

Photo top - filter cover.

The pump is held by the fact that it is connected to the fitting of the output pins with a piece of reinforced hose.

The picture shows an external homemade filter for the aquarium already in operation.

The height of the filter is 42 cm, diameter - 10 cm.

BUT - In the upper part there is a fitting with a tap (water outlet to the aquarium), a Mayevsky tap, a hole for the output of the pump wire.
B - All threaded connections must be wrapped with a FUM sealing tape to avoid leakage.
C - The wire outlet is also sealed.

Stainless steel plates are twisted from above and inside, and between them a rubber tube is compressed and put on the wire. When twisting, it is distributed in all directions and hermetically closes the hole. At the place of the wire break, I put the switch.
D - The joint of 2 pipes and the bottom cap I reliably soldered together with an electric burner.

After filling with water in some places the seam was leaking. I rewrote these places additionally.

For the intake and water from the aquarium, I used a glass tube, the one in my hand. The second tube - through it the water enters the aquarium.

I fixed the first one on the back wall with a suction cup, the bottom edge - it rested against the ground, the second one just hung on the wall, slightly submerging it in water.

Thus, the place in the aquarium does not deal with any filters, and the glass tubes, you can say, are not visible at all!

The filter has been repeatedly tested for leakage. Approximately 6 times the leaks were eliminated. Now the filter is in front of the nightstand with the aquarium - as long as I observe it will not flow. Then I hide it behind the cabinet and it will not be visible at all.

The first cleaning of the filter is planned in a month - one and a half.
It is possible that I will also put a coarse filter element on the inlet tube in order to wash the filter less often.

the cost of the external filter in the pet store - from 1500 rubles. Self-made, it cost me 500 rubles. taking into account the fact that the pump was (only parts were bought).

Characteristics of the external filter:

dimensions: height is 42 cm, diameter of a pipe is 10 cm. filter volume: 3 liters

Approximate throughput: 5 liters per minute.

So the filter is able to pass the entire volume of my aquarium in 15-20 minutes. A strong flow filter does not create - fish and plants feel comfortable.

If you have questions about the manufacture or design of the filter - ask. There are ideas and additions - write, discuss!

We make an external filter for the aquarium with your own hands

Anyone engaged in the breeding of ornamental fish knows about the need to filter the water in the aquarium. To do this, use special devices that are easily available in the store, but their price, unfortunately, is not always happy.

Anyone engaged in breeding ornamental fish is aware of the need to filter the water in the aquarium.

Therefore, we suggest that you equip yourself with the necessary tools and materials and make an external filter for the aquarium with your own hands.

Necessary materials

First of all, prepare everything you need. Here is a list of what you need for a self-made external filter:

  • water pump,
  • sewer pipe with a diameter of 110 mm,
  • plugs - 4 pcs.,
  • input glands pg-7 and pg-16 - 2 pcs.,
  • Mayevsky's crane,
  • outlet pressure regulating valve,
  • a hose with a diameter of 8–10 mm (preferably transparent),
  • fillers,
  • silicone.

Materials and parts for external filter

The above list of required materials and tools is averaged. You can change some details as you like, depending on the selected external filter model.

Step-by-step instructions for making the device

We suggest you make a simple and efficient external filter that is perfect for both ordinary and nano aquariums (they are compact in size, up to 40 liters).

External filter is perfect for both conventional and nano aquariums.

    A docking coupling will serve as the filter housing. Its internal diameter is fully consistent with the increased internal diameter of a conventional pipe where the plug enters it.

You can also take a repair coupling or plumbing pipe. Cut a piece of the required length, for example 17 cm. Cut 5 holes in one of the plugs. They will be installed seals and crane Mayevsky. Keep in mind that the holes must be 1 mm smaller than the diameter of the thread of the valve and glands.

Cut in the plug holes for glands and Crane Mayevsky

Tighten all parts tightly and coat with silicone to seal.

Installed parts sealed with silicone

Put the piece of hose tight on the tube coming out of the pump.

Insert the design in the gland until it stops, tighten it. Check that the pump fits snugly. In a small gland, stretch the wire from the pump, after cutting it.

Install the cap on the pump, put on the hose, insert the wire

Insert a PVC tube into the second gland, putting a water intake hose on it. The distance between the tube and the bottom of the filter should be about 1 cm. Coat the cap with silicone and insert it into the coupling.

Pump with a plug ready for installation in the coupling

Take two plugs, cut the protruding rim so that they easily enter the inside of the case, drill holes: one for the intake tube exactly in diameter, and also many small ones for water circulation in the filter. Close the pump so that it is inside two plugs stacked together.

Drill holes in the plugs.

Make the bottom cover for the filter. From one plug with holes cut the end part.

Cut off the end of the plug

Cut a ring out of the cut part (height - 1 cm), reduce its diameter.

Reduce the diameter of the cut ring

Glue the ring into the whole cap, secure the top of the bottom of the plug with the holes that you had previously cut off.

Glue the whole cap into the ring

Cut a ring out of the pipe, the height of which should be equal to the distance between the installed plugs. Collect all parts, lay the filler.

Approximate scheme of assembly of the external filter for clarity

  • External filter for aquarium ready. As you noticed, the second small gland remained unused during the assembly process. Through it, you can enter the temperature sensor so that it does not interfere inside the aquarium.
  • If you need a larger filter, you can make a slightly complicated model using exactly the same principle. The assembly scheme is similar, and as a filtering material, you can use both a ceramic filler (biofilter) and foam rubber layers laid on a rigid mesh partition.

    Complicated external filter circuit

    External filter for aquarium do it yourself. How to build a filter for the aquarium:

    If you decide to acquire an aquarium, then you need to think in advance about what is needed for its normal functioning.

    Ready-made equipment can be easily purchased at a specialty store. But often the cost of the tank and additional elements to it is very high.

    This article will tell you how to make an external filter for the aquarium with your own hands, and what is needed for this.

    Varieties of water regulators

    One of the most important elements of any aquarium is the filter. It not only purifies water, but also removes soluble medicines, circulates the fluid and fills it with oxygen. Installations come in several forms.

    Allocate external and internal filters. There are also bottom regulators. They look like a plate with a certain number of holes through which water circulates. This installation is easy to install and very effective.

    However, it can only be put in a new tank.

    By the principle of operation, filters for cleaning an aquarium are divided into biological, mechanical, and chemical. The latter work on the principle of absorption. Activated carbon is used as a filler. Often, special adsorbents are used to remove nitrates. They eliminate water from ammonia and other harmful substances. The most popular are the flotators.

    The mechanical external filter for the aquarium do the easiest things to do. This kind of capacity, made of a material through which water passes. The regulator cleans the liquid from turbidity, algae, etc. It should be changed frequently so that the decomposing mass does not poison the water in the aquarium. This type of filter works on the simplest principle - it removes debris from water.

    Biological external filters for the aquarium (feedback about them is very positive) are some kind of pumps. They provide a constant circulation of water. The installation consists of a sponge with nitrifying bacteria and a gravel substrate.

    If you do not know how to install the filter in the aquarium correctly, it is better to contact the master. He will take into account that the pump must drive through itself 3 times more water than is present in the tank. Most often it is installed inside the aquarium.

    When replacing the pump, you should not leave a sponge inside the tank - all bacteria may die.

    Differences between internal and external regulators

    Before you install the filter in the aquarium, you need to decide which one to choose. Internal installations are attached to the glass with suction cups. External - are located outside. They take water through a tube that is immersed in an aquarium. Comparing the characteristics of filters, I would like to note that external regulators look preferable for the following reasons:

    • cleaning quality is much better
    • the filter does not take place inside the tank,
    • the underwater world without the internal structure looks much more aesthetic.

    Also, the external filter is easy to maintain. Cleaning and washing do not need to be done as soon as possible. Such a regulator does not require a certain type of filtering material. You can use different components and place them in separate baskets or containers for fillers. The efficiency of the external filter has been proven by aquarists for a long time.

    Due to the uniform distribution of water and a large area of ​​filter materials, the cleaning process is of the highest quality. To install it does not need to lift the lid of the tank with fish, it does not spoil the overall look of the aquarium.

    To turn off the system, simply shut off the taps, whereas the internal installation will have to get directly from the tank, which will cause anxiety of its inhabitants.

    Device layout

    Before you install the filter in the aquarium, you need to decide on the scheme of the future regulator. It is better to create a cylindrical cleaner. In a vertical section from top to bottom, the filter looks like this: internal pump, biofilter, foam rubber and a rigid mesh partition.

    An electric pump provides water circulation. It goes through the tube to the bottom of the regulator, passes through the filter elements. Then the water passes the pump and returns to the tank already cleaned.

    Such a filter for the aquarium (200 liters) fits perfectly.

    Tools and equipment

    Even a novice can make an external filter for an aquarium. But this will require certain tools and materials:

    • pump for pumping water
    • Mayevsky's crane in order to lower the rest of the air,
    • outlet valve,
    • nuts
    • plastic sewer pipe (60 cm),
    • rubber cuff for pipe joint, if there is no solid pipe,
    • choke,
    • two plugs on the ends of the pipe (on the upper part of the filter and the bottom),
    • spanners,
    • FUM tape to create sealing threaded connections.

    External filter for aquarium do-it-yourself: assembly

    As a basis, you can use the pump from the old submersible filter. First, make a hole in the bottom of the pipe. Its size should be equal to the diameter of the nozzle. It should be tightly screwed into the hole. Homemade filter for aquarium should be sealed.

    The thread of the nozzle is wrapped with a tape, and with the help of a nut it is screwed on the inside. Some people recommend lubricating silicone connectors for additional sealing. The inlet can be made more free with the help of available tools.

    Homemade cap from a plastic bottle, which make holes, will be a great help in this matter. Some use drilled holes for this.

    A cap with a net is put on the bottom of the filter, a piece of foam rubber is put on top. A biofilter with a ceramic filler is placed on it. It can be purchased at any aquarium store. Above put another layer of foam and refill.

    Due to the fact that the pump is fixed fitting and reinforced with a hose, it sits tight. Threaded connections and pipe outlet must be sealed. At the point of wire break, you can install a switch. Pipe joints and plugs are soldered using an electric burner. You can check the system for tightness. If the seams are leaking, it is better to re-solder them.

    For the intake of water, you can use a glass tube. It must be fixed on the back wall of the aquarium with a suction cup so that the bottom edge rests against the ground. The pipe can be hung on the wall of the tank - there it will almost not be visible.

    Homemade filter for aquarium need to check several times. In case of leakage, defects must be immediately eliminated. It is advisable to observe the installation.

    It is very profitable to assemble the filter for the aquarium yourself - you will pay no more than 600 rubles for all the materials, while in the store such installation costs from 1,500 rubles. Fans of the underwater world and its inhabitants save on this pretty. And really, why spend extra money, then how can anyone who wants to make a filter for an aquarium?

    How to clean the device yourself?

    Homemade filter cleaning will not need for a long time. If the installation has been working for a long time, you can clean it yourself. To do this, turn off the filter from the power supply and flush the system from dirt and mucus. For convenience, it is better to use several types of filter material. Mechanical cleaners should be washed at least once a week.

    Typical mistakes

    It often happens that it is impossible to assemble the filter yourself. If the installation is not tightly installed in the case, then most likely the filtration baskets are overfilled or incorrectly delivered. Sometimes the holes for fluid loss do not fit properly. It so happens that the rubber pads do not fit into their grooves.

    The reasons for filter leakage can be:

    • Loosely closed device head clamps. This may be due to the usual carelessness of the master. The human factor takes place in any field of activity. Solving the problem is easy - just tighten the clips more tightly.
    • Contaminated gasket / sealer. В только что собранном фильтре, конечно, такого не будет, однако это происходит в работающих установках. Уплотнительные резинки нужно очистить от слизи и грязи, желательно смазать вазелином или другим веществом. Чтобы избежать данной проблемы, важно проверять состояние системы раз в месяц.
    • Прокладка вставлена неправильно.

    Советы и рекомендации

    If the external filter does not work, first of all you need to check whether the system is connected to the mains. It often happens that someone accidentally pulled the plug from the outlet. If this does not help, and the filter does not work, you need to check the status of the pump or rotor. Sometimes pebbles or snail shell interferes with the normal functioning of the parts.

    If the system does not pump water, perhaps it simply does not exist. Without liquid, the external filter cannot work. Before filling with water, the installation must be disconnected from the power supply network. If the filter has low output, the pipes and hoses of the system may be dirty. We need to check their appearance, to see if they are not twisted.

    Also effective work can prevent the contamination of filter materials.

    These tips and tricks will help you understand how to build a filter for the aquarium with your own hands, as well as keep it clean.

    Types of external filters for home aquariums: how to do it yourself

    A couple of decades ago, having acquired an aquarium, amateurs installed a minimum of equipment in it: a lamp and a compressor. It was believed that for the purification of water enough plants. However, the volumes in those days rarely exceeded 30 liters, and the fish were quite unpretentious: guppies, swordtails, gourami. Since then, much has changed.

    Aquariums 150-200 liters have become commonplace, and their population is now more exotic and fastidious. For a comfortable and healthy life, many fish require certain water parameters. And some species, such as cichlids, do not accept any vegetation. However, the water for them must be thoroughly cleaned. So without filters can not do.

    Types of filters

    Filters are divided by the method of placement:

    The first work, being directly in the aquarium, and the external output and purify the water outside.

    External filters also vary depending on the type of construction, filling and capacity. There are small hanging filters, backpacks for small aquariums, phyto filters, canisters and quite impressive filtration systems in size - sampas.

    The advantages of external filters are obvious:

    • do not occupy the internal volume of the aquarium,
    • Do not spoil aqua design with your look,
    • suitable for large volumes
    • As a rule, more powerful and more efficient internal filters.

    They also have their disadvantages:

    • require a separate place
    • much more expensive than domestic.

    However, even in a small apartment, you can mask the filtering system, and in some cases even make it beautiful. As for the cost, it is possible to make a filter with your own hands and thus save a decent amount. In addition, you can customize a homemade system for the particular features of your aquarium and its inhabitants.

    What is required

    To make such a filter will need:

    • small plastic container for bulk products,
    • air compressor,
    • filler for the filter (expanded clay, foam rubber),
    • silicone tube,
    • syringe 20 ml,
    • hose,
    • silicone sealant.

    How does it work

    The assembled filter is placed next to the aquarium. After turning on the compressor water under air pressure will rise through the tube. Getting into the container, it passes first through expanded clay (mechanical cleaning) and then through a sponge (biofilter). Under its own pressure, it flows through the hose at the bottom of the container, returning to the aquarium already cleaned.

    Must be taken into accountthat the silicone tube should not reach the ground at the bottom of 5-6 cm. The hose that returns water back is laid behind the back wall of the aquarium and should rise smoothly. The container itself must be installed so that its middle is just above the water level.

    This homemade filter has a low cost and is suitable for aquariums up to 50 liters.

    Phytofilter

    This is also a kind of external filter. It’s really easy to make with your own hands. This method of water purification appeared relatively recently. Its meaning is that plant roots are involved. Thus, nitrogen compounds are neutralized.

    This filtering method is especially good for cichlid aquariums where there is no underwater vegetation. The disadvantages include the fact that such a filter must be placed above the aquarium.

    The undoubted advantage of the phytofilter is that this method of water purification forms a practically closed, interdependent ecosystem, combining two hobbies into one.

    How to make

    To make such a filter need a rectangular container. You can take a plastic box for flowers. Some craftsmen glue the glass parallelepiped by themselves or order it to aquarists-professionals. In the glass box it is necessary to make partitions with holes for water circulation.

    In a plastic flower container, you can put the wall, carved from a five-liter tank for water. Partitions should be below the sides of the box. They are needed to ensure that the flow of water was scattered and does not erode the soil. Holes for the supply and discharge hoses are made from different ends of the box. You will need a pump.

    In the box, in the first and last compartment (they should be slightly smaller than the others) they put a sponge or synthetic winterizer. The rest of the volume is filled with expanded clay or aquarium soil. Planted plants that are suitable hydroponic method of growing:

    • spathiphyllium
    • anthurium,
    • Tradescantia,
    • violets, etc.

    Under the action of the pump water will rise in the box.

    In the first compartment, a mechanical cleaning takes place with the help of a sponge, then water passes through the ground, gets rid of nitrogen compoundswhich are so necessary for plants, and is saturated with oxygen.

    In the last compartment, thanks to foam rubber or synthetic winterizer, small particles of soil will be retained. Further along the hose, purified water flows back to the aquarium.

    According to these principles you can make a lot of different filters for aquariums with your own hands. The main thing - to show ingenuity, patience and perseverance! Self-made equipment is an opportunity to save money, to get what is necessary for a specific aquarium and to spend time interestingly and profitably.

    Accessories

    To build the filter, we take the following components:

    Pump (fountain pump) RESUN: 30 W, 2000 l / h, the level of water rise - 2 m.

    PVC sewer coupling with a diameter of 200 mm with two plugs.

    PVC pipe with a diameter of 20 mm and a length of 4 m.

    Fillers for the filter.

    Flask from household filter.

    Cranes, corners, sgony.

    We use such fittings.

    The filter will be on the floor. Therefore, a pump was chosen that provides a water rise of 2 m.

    Filter assembly process

    Drill holes in both plugs. Install fittings using rubber gaskets and silicone sealant.

    Since the plugs with seals fit into the coupling too tightly, cut off a little of the edge of the coupling. Now, if necessary, the structure can be easily disassembled by removing the pre-sealing gum. At the bottom of the coupling we make a seat for the inlet fitting.

    Subsequently, we will install the trim edge of the clutch inside, it will hold the grid.

    Cut a suitable mesh from a plastic box for vegetables. Install it in the bottom cap above the nozzle.

    Now install the assembled bottom cap into the clutch. Over the entire area we coat with silicone. After installation, once again we coat all joints with sealant.

    We drill a hole in the lid for the power cable and air vent. The pump turned out to be securely fastened with a power cord and a length of hose.

    The network wire is sealed with a fitting similar to that used in street lighting. In the wire break set the switch.

    To mount the bulb set under the inlet bracket. The flask will be involved in the prefilter. As a result, we do not have to rinse the canister monthly - it will be enough to do this once every six months.

    We take the sewer PVC pipe with a diameter of 32 mm and drill a lot of holes in it. We also use foam sponge for the filter.

    Now you need to consistently fill the filter with fillers.

    1 layer. As the material for coarse filtration is convenient to use coarse foam. In the absence of such, material similar to a bundle of fishing line was used.

    2 layer. We pour ceramic rings. They will ramify the flow of water, evenly distributing its current over the cross-sectional area.

    3 layer. We lay fine-celled foam rubber. In this case, was taken sintepon.

    4 layer. We pour special "bio-balls". This is the habitat of bacteria (nitrification, heterotrophs, etc.). This layer is the most voluminous; it should be about 4/5 of the entire capacity of the biofilter. As a filler, you can use crushed expanded clay having a porous structure.

    5 layer. This is not a required layer. The used substrate of FLUVAL looks externally like ceramic rings, but differs in porous structure.

    6 layer. In the last layer in front of the outlet (in front of the pump) we have a synthetic winterizer. It will protect the rotor from dirt.

    Everything, it remains only to assemble the entire structure together. Due to too tight fixation of the rubber seal, the top cover was not fully installed - if you close it all the way, then there will be difficulties with opening.

    Filter operation

    As it gets dirty, you need to clean the pre-filter (about once a month). The main canister is opened and washed every six months. Rinse should only ceramics and foam, and the aquarium water. Wash substrate as needed.

    Initially, the filter will only work as mechanical, since it has not yet been colonized by bacteria. As you work, the filter will gradually fill with dirt, which is a breeding ground for bacteria. They will colonize the tank, process the organic residues into nitrates and thereby perform biological self-cleaning of the filter.

    In about 2-4 weeks, the beneficial bacteria will colonize the substrate completely. Further 2 options are possible: either the filter will self-clean successfully or the pollution will increase. Here you need to focus on performance: if it falls below 30% of the maximum level, the canister needs to be cleaned. If productivity began to increase (recover), then the self-cleaning process prevails over pollution.

    Metal parts should not be lubricated - the oil is poisonous to the inhabitants of the aquarium. It is better to use plastic components.

    Hoses it is more expedient to replace with corrugated. The cover must be pulled off with pins so that it does not vomit in the event of a power outage.

    Making a filter

    Make holes for water inlet by cutting out the semicircular holes in the bottom cap to fix the one-way inlet valve.

    Then make a hole to release water from the filter on the top cover, where with the help of seals and sealants shrink the outlet valve.

    We glue the PVC parts, after cleaning and sanding a little.

    Make a hole for the canister filter compression

    For fixing the filter materials, we use PVC grid. Cut off 3 pieces of pipe 6 cm each, reduce the pipe in diameter and glue in PVC grid. It is necessary to reduce it in order to fit the case of an external canister filter.

    Attach the pump to the top cover and connect to the valve.

    In previously glued baskets, we lay and attach filtering fillers.

    We put homemade fillers inside the filter. First we put the sponge, then the fiber and bioceramics. You can use any other filter media that the aquarium requires.

    Connect the hoses with valves. The water supply valve is one-way and prevents water from returning to the aquarium.

    We fill the homemade filter with water and leave it for 24 hours to test the tightness.

    We connect our homemade external filter to the aquarium. Two weeks later: normal flight.

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