List and description of the most common mammalian herbivores


Which of us did not ride a horse or did not see an elephant in a circus, did not feed a zebra at the zoo or did not dream of riding a giraffe? Do you know what unites all these animals? They all prefer the same menu for lunch. Such animals are called herbivores or herbivores.

Our huge planet is inhabited by a variety of animals.

And among such a variety of living creatures, a considerable number of animals are herbivores. Below are articles about various herbivores in which you can find a lot of interesting things about them.

European fallow deer - forest deer. Description and photo of an animal doe

09 December7539harabivorous or herbivorous shallow-haired ones

The animal doe is a member of the Deer family. This is a beautiful, medium-sized deer. The European doe is a graceful, fast and graceful animal. In this article, you can see the description and photo of the doe European, learn a lot of new and interesting things about the life of this wonderful animal.

The animal giraffe is the tallest animal. Description and photo of a giraffe

07 July9205Herbivore or herbivorous poultry-hoofed animals big animals

The giraffe is a mammal from a detachment of artiodactyls. Giraffe is the tallest animal on the planet. Giraffe is a clever and peaceful animal that has been familiar to us since childhood. In this article you will find a photo and description of a giraffe, as well as learn a lot of interesting things about this unique and wonderful animal.

World 3 class

Invisible threads in wildlife

Herbivorous - animals that eat plant foods.
Insectivorous - animals that eat insects.
Predators - an animal that gets food, hunting and killing prey.
Omnivores - animals that eat both vegetable and animal food.

Due to the feeding habits of various animals, invisible chains are formed in wildlife. Scientists call them power circuits.

Carefully read the text.

Underline the names of animals of different groups in different colors: green - herbivorous, blue - predators, red - insectivorous, brown - omnivorous.

With the help of the atlas - determinant, give examples of herbivorous and predatory animals (at least three names in each paragraph).
Herbivorous animals: cow, hare, giraffe, zebra, goat, elk, field mouse, butterfly
Predatory animals: wolf, lynx, badger, fox, marten, tiger, owl, eagle

Build models of power circuits.

Make a diagram of the food chains by entering the necessary names of the organisms. Take one example from the textbook, and another one by yourself.

Paint the arrows in the appropriate colors:

Explain how the signs help animals to survive.
The strong shell of a turtle and a snail, sharp needles of a porcupine protect these animals from enemies. The spider weaves its net to catch food, a characteristic sign of the praying mantis — the device of the front pair of legs armed with strong spikes and serving to grab prey. to get yourself a living.

Green plants have the ability to photosynthesis, in which with the help of the radiant energy of the sun simple chemical components of air and water are transformed into more complex compounds. Thus, the plants themselves provide themselves with food. Animals do not know how to do this.

They provide themselves with energy by eating plants or eating plants. Consequently, without plants on earth there simply would not be life. Most animals are herbivorous. Often they eat only certain species or even parts of plants that are better suited to their digestive system. The leaves and stems are mainly composed of a rather coarse substance - fiber, or cellulose. It is difficult to digest, but microscopic bacteria and protozoa that live in the stomachs of many herbivores help digest crushed plant foods.

Manatees, like their dugongs, are mammals that live in water and feed almost exclusively on plant food. Since aquatic vegetation contains a large amount of harmful silica-destroying manatees, the teeth of these animals are constantly updated. Manatees live on the shoal of the sea and in the rivers of the Atlantic coast of West Africa and the tropical regions of America.

The timid Okapi is the only relative of giraffes preserved on earth. Okapi was only opened in 1901. Okapi live in the dense tropical forests of Central Africa. These animals feed on leaves, which they tear off with a long, up to 50 cm, tongue. Their tongues are so long that they can even lick their eyes. Okapis are very picky about food and spend a lot of time looking for their favorite leaves, tender buds, fruits or mushrooms. If the opportunity presents itself, they will gladly enjoy manioc or sweet potatoes from the vegetable garden. With long legs and a sloping back, an Okapi is very similar to a giraffe with a short neck. Dark brown fur and stripes on the legs and back of the body are a good disguise in the forest. Okapi height at withers reaches 160 cm, and weight - up to 230 kg. The males have small horns. Okapis mark their territory of several hectares and fight for females just like giraffes, striking each other with their necks. Males and females stick together only during mating.

Females alone raise their young, who remain with their mother for 12-18 months.

These animals are similar to large rodents, but their close relatives are elephants. Due to the soft soles of their paws and strongly curved claws, they can climb a tree in an instant. Adhesive secreted by special glands on the feet, helps them firmly hold on the trees. These nocturnal, loud cries of mammals inhabit the forests of Africa. They feed on leaves, ferns, fruits, sometimes insects and eggs of birds. Hamans live, as a rule, in pairs.

Australia's koala marsupial mammal lives all his life among eucalyptus trees, the leaves of which he eats. For most animals, eucalyptus leaves are poisonous. However, a special potent gastric juice is released in the koala's stomach, which neutralizes the eucalyptus poison. Since eucalyptus leaves are not very nutritious, koala, in order to stock up with a sufficient amount of vital energy, is forced to consume them in large quantities every day - about 1.3 kg. Before the adoption of the law on the protection of these animals in Australia, they were very actively hunted for their beautiful fur. At present, first of all, diseases, as well as people who have invaded their habitat, are guilty of the fact that the number of these animals, which previously amounted to several million, has already decreased to several hundred thousand and, unfortunately, continues to decrease.

What herbivores exist, their characteristics and habitats

Herbivores are animals that eat plant foods: fruits, vegetables, leaves, plant shoots, roots. This class includes a lot of animal species: rodents, ungulates, some chiropterans, some reptiles, various species of birds. The list is quite wide.

  • Dangerous herbivores
    • Herbivores
    • Herbivores Reptiles
    • Habitats

A lot of herbivorous animals were cultivated by man in the process of evolution. The most famous of them, domesticated by man, are ungulates - cows, sheep, goats, horses. These animals are actively used in agriculture, both for meat and milk, and for work.

The basis of the diet of domesticated ungulates is vegetable fodder - in summer it is fresh grass, in winter hay and straw, which farmers prepare in advance in summer.

In addition, ungulates are fed with vegetables - beets, carrots, and cereal feeds are added to the ration - grain, cake, specialized granulated feed.

If we talk about small representatives, the most famous domesticated small herbivore is, of course, a rabbit. Their basic diet is also grass and hay.

Given that the rabbits are rodents, they need a solid feed for grinding teeth. To do this, many owners indulge their pets shoots and branches of trees.

Rabbits love and fresh vegetables - carrots, beets and, of course, grain.

Dangerous herbivores

When we talk about herbivorous animals, we immediately imagine harmless rabbits, calm cows, shy goats. But not all herbivores are safe.

Elephant - calm herbivore. But many forget that the elephant has a strong trunk, dangerous tusks and powerful thick legs, with which it can trample the enemy. The hippopotamus is also herbivorous, feeding mainly on terrestrial and near-water grass. Calm, phlegmatic and awkward beast.

Especially - herbivorous - why be afraid? But at the same time, the hippo belongs to one of the most dangerous animals in Africa. The length of the canines of a hippopotamus is more than half a meter. In a fit of rage, a hippopotamus can easily eat a crocodile. Therefore, even a predator trying to stay away from him.

But hippos attack only in case of danger or if their cub is nearby.

If you continue to talk about dangerous herbivores can remember

  • bison - an ungulate weighing up to a ton, which does not purposefully attack a person, but if you enter their territory - the consequences can be dire,
  • the gorilla is the closest relative of a man, the male gorilla will attack as soon as he feels threatened,
  • buffalo - powerful hooves and huge horns that buffalo sets in motion against the enemy.


Herbivorous include not only mammals, but also birds. The food of herbivorous birds is very diverse - it is not only the seeds and fruits of plants and trees, it is both grass and needles, and buds on trees and even flowers. Some tropical species birds feed on nectar.

Wild geese graze in the meadows and fields, so their jaw muscles are well developed, and the jagged beak reliably captures food. Rooks dig up shoots and eat them together with grains.

Bullfinches, azures, lentils and some other species of birds feed on flowers of garden and meadow plants. It is worth noting that even herbivorous birds can sometimes feed on insects - for example, when feeding chicks.

But given that their basic diet is still plant food - they can be called herbivorous.

Herbivores Reptiles

In addition to mammals and birds, there are some species of reptiles that are also herbivorous. These include iguanas and some species of turtles.

They feed on shoots, flowers, leaves and fruits of tropical plants. Iguanas are not able to chew food, so they tear off the pieces of leaves with their small teeth and immediately swallow them.

Main diet tortoises are:

  • vegetables - cucumbers, tomatoes, lettuce, carrots,
  • any plants - sorrel, plantain, lawn grass,
  • dandelion is the favorite delicacy of land turtles,
  • fruits: apples, bananas, peaches, plums.

Herbivores have a special structure of the stomach, because it is more difficult to digest plant foods. Plant food contains cellulose, which is very hard to digest.

For digestion of cellulose, the stomach in herbivores is multi-chamber and contains special bacteria and protozoa.

These organisms live in the stomachs of herbivores and help digest crushed vegetable food.


Herbivores are distributed throughout our planet. On any continent, in any natural zone, you will find herbivores. In the desert, despite the high temperatures and small amount of vegetation and in the tundra, where most of the year the vegetation is hidden under the snow.

Herbivores occupy an important place in the food chain - or predators feed. The absence of herbivores will destroy the whole world of the fauna of our planet, therefore many species of herbivores are protected by man and are listed in the Red Book.

You can find their list on the Internet, here are a few examples: bison, Przhevalsky's horse, bison, bighorn sheep and many other species that are important to preserve.

Top 10 most dangerous herbivores

When we think of dangerous animals, tigers, lions, bears, etc., most often come to mind. We almost never think of herbivores as killers. The list with the photo below should dispel this misconception. So the most dangerous herbivores in the world.

This kind of unusual monkey is pretty amazing. Their habitat is Ethiopia, where grass is their main food. Despite the fact that the Geladas are quite friendly and peaceful, they have a terrible weapon - a set of teeth. In nature, attacks of this species on humans were rarely seen, but their aggressive behavior in the zoo was alarming.

American bison

The weight of the American bison can reach 1 ton, which makes this animal one of the largest dangerous herbivores in North America. Due to the fact that these animals were fierce hunting, their numbers have fallen dramatically.

But thanks to legislative protection they can be seen in national parks. As a rule, people are not attacked, but if they penetrate their space, the result will be deplorable.

According to statistics, bison kill much more people than wolves or bears.

Despite the fact that the gorilla is the closest relative of humans (after chimpanzees), the difference between this herbivore animal and man is obvious. Males are always leaders.

Their weight varies within 200 kilograms, is, of course, more, but rarely. Their strength is about 10 men.

Mostly they lead a peaceful life, but the male, without hesitation, can attack if he considers that you represent a danger.

It is one of the largest and most dangerous bird species in the world. The habitat for them is the tropical forests of New Guinea and Australia.

Cazuar for communication with other birds of its kind uses a comb on the head, with the help of which it receives very low frequencies, so that the connection between birds can be maintained at a great distance.

They are quite dangerous herbivores and attack not only horses, cows and dogs, but also people. The most dangerous males are protecting chicks.

In the world there are 5 species of rhinos living in Asia and Africa. These animals are very hot-tempered because of what are dangerous. The main and dangerous weapon of the rhino are horns, consisting of protein, and not as many mistakenly believe in bone tissue.

The largest known horn had a length of 1.5 meters. Due to its aggressive nature and great weight, the rhino is able to gore or stomp to death.

The peculiarity of the Indian rhinoceros is that, in addition to the horn, it also uses sharp teeth as a weapon.

Wild boars are vegetarians only partly as small animals (frogs, lizards) are also included in their diet. The weight of males can reach 300 kilograms.

They can easily reveal the predator due to its large sharp canines. If the male is already old enough, he is able to fight off the pack of wolves alone.

The size of the canines in females is smaller and the greatest danger is presented, like many other animals, when protecting their cubs.

African buffalo

African buffalo has a deadly weapon. Their sharp horns and hoofs can kill in a short time. Buffaloes differ from many animals in that they will always return and come to the aid of their own.

There were even several cases when they drove away and killed the lions, protecting their flock. In case of an attack on a herd of buffaloes, everyone can notice their distinctive feature of mutual assistance. A Belgian zoologist recorded the case of two bulls trying to raise the horns of a mortally wounded man to their feet.

After a hopeless attempt, they made a swift attack on a hunter who could barely escape.

Most people are accustomed to considering these animals to be quite peaceful and friendly, but this opinion is erroneous, as they are very dangerous wild animals. Elephants cannot be stopped due to the impressive size and power they possess.

As a rule, they will attack in the following cases: they are in a bad mood, the elephant dangers are in danger or in the event of an encroachment on their space. Able to attack both lions and rhinos, and in general, any other animal is a threat, man is no exception.

Even in circuses and zoos, males are rarely kept, as they represent the greatest danger due to the fact that the level of hormones can rise, turning an elephant into a deadly weapon. It is one of the longest-living animals on earth.

Whitebeard Bakers

In these animals, the mouth can be compared in part with a pair of scissors, since sharp canines find each other when closing the mouth. They live mainly in tropical forests of Mexico, South and Central America.

Живут довольно большими стадами, численность одного может достигать до 1000 особей. В случае нападения или убийства на одного животного из стада, нападение на врага будет совершаться всеми животными.

Хищники не нападают на всё стадо, они предпочитают охотиться на молодых или отбившихся от стада пекари.

Этих территориальных травоядных животных можно считать самыми опасными в Африке, так как ежегодно именно они убивают наибольшее количество людей.

According to statistics, lions, crocodiles and even leopards are far fewer human victims than hippos. Males in weight can exceed three tons. They are capable of attacking not only in the water, overturning various boats, but also act fairly quickly on land.

Their dangerous weapon is the jaw and long canines, capable of easily eating a crocodile in half.

Top 10 Herbivores

Non-carnivores rarely come to mind as dangerous killers. In this list we will consider herbivores, which should be avoided because they are insanely dangerous.

10 Gelada Baboon

Gelada baboons are truly impressive monkeys, with huge manes and heavy flat edges. They are unique - they live in the mountains of Ethiopia, they feed mostly on grass. Usually peaceful, but armed with the most terrible set of natural teeth. Despite the fact that they rarely attack people in the wild, the zoo staff is known for their extremely wild and aggressive disposition.

Deadly fight with a python

9 American Bison

With a weight of up to one ton, the American bison is one of two truly gigantic herbivores remaining in North America after the Ice Age. Most people do not know that bison killed tourists more than bears and wolves! Adults with calves are especially dangerous.

The legendary Yacumama: the largest snake

Evil Gorilla. After chimpanzees, gorillas are our closest relatives, but there is a big difference between them and us. The leader of a group of gorillas can weigh up to 200 kg, sometimes even more, and has the strength of at least 10 adult males.

They are usually peaceful vegetarians, but do not hesitate to attack if they consider that you represent a threat to their family. Armed with huge and very long sharp canines, the gorillas act twice as fast as humans.

An angry gorilla can be worse than any large predator.

Cassowary is one of the largest birds in the world, they live in the rainforests of Australia and New Guinea, and are amazing in many ways. For example, the bird uses the crest on their heads to call at very low frequencies to communicate with other cassowary over long distances.

Cazuar is on this list because it is the deadliest bird in the world, it feeds mainly on fruit, but if it is oppressed, it jumps into the air in kung-fu style and strikes its opponent with a claw.

He can easily gut a person, and are known for the occasion that cassowals attack not only people, but also wild dogs and even horses and cows!

There are five species of rhinos in Africa and Asia, and they are all huge, cruel, hot-tempered and potentially lethal. Their horns are extremely dangerous weapons that can kill any enemy. The Indian rhino also has sharp teeth. And, of course, they can easily trample you with their weight (up to three tons). This is a living tank that can tack at incredible speed.

People are guilty of the disappearance of giant birds

Boars are not completely vegetarians, they are known to eat small animals, lizards and frogs on occasion, and do not reject carrion. However, like all other pigs, they feed mainly on plants.

Males can weigh up to 300 kilograms (although rarely more than 1 ton) and have huge sharp canines with which the predator's belly is easily ripped.

Adult males of wild boars are known to fend off packs of wolves alone! Females have smaller canines, but are also very dangerous, especially when they have piglets.

4 Buffalo Buffalo

African buffaloes may look like a giant cow, but they are in fact the most terrible herbivores in Africa. Extremely quick-tempered, living on the ground among such powerful predators as lions and spotted hyenas, they had no choice but to become very cruel creatures.

Their huge, sharp horns and heavy hooves are deadly weapons, and they are among the few animals that help a fallen "friend." If one of the buffaloes grapples with a lion or is injured by a hunter, there is a high probability that the rest of the herd will attack the attacker to help his partner.

The same applies to Asian buffaloes, gaurams.

We are used to seeing elephants as peaceful animals, even friendly animals, but they are in fact one of the most dangerous wild creatures. Elephants killed zoology lovers more than any other animal.

Because of their size and formidable power, they are very difficult to stop. Elephants can attack for several reasons, protecting their children, their space, or just when they are in a bad mood.

For this reason, zoos and circuses often avoid holding elephants.

2 Whitebeard Bakers

Compared to collar bakers (better known in the United States as Javelin), Whitebeard bakers live in the tropical forests of Mexico, Central and South America. He has extremely sharp fangs, like a pair of scissors. They roam very large herds, up to 500 or even 1000 individuals. Just like a buffalo, if one of the group members is attacked, the whole herd will attack the attacker.

The only thing that can be done when a baker herd attacks is to climb a tree as fast as possible. In South America, many hunters lost their body parts or were even torn to shreds when they could not get up quickly enough.

Wild predators such as jaguars and cougars are clever - they avoid encounters with the herds of peccary, they attack only young and weak peccaries, who are behind the rest.

Photos of the day: July 29, 2015

The hippopotamus is the most dangerous of all herbivores; it kills people every year more than lions, leopards and crocodiles.

Extremely territorial animals, hippos, especially males, can weigh three tons or more, and attack like on water (even overturn boats, canoes) and on land. Act very quickly, despite its hulking appearance.

It has the largest and most powerful jaws and long fangs - dangerous for any mammal, and can bite through an adult crocodile in half. Imagine what he can do with a man.

Mammals - animal class

Mammals are all animals that feed their young with milk. Among them there are predators, and herbivores, there are both small and large animals. This is a huge class of animals with so many interesting, unusual representatives.

We will try to tell in this section about the most-most interesting representatives of mammals. And also about the disappeared and listed in the Red Book.

What kind of problems did this amazing animal have to face in surviving and how does a person help them survive.

13:24, October 23, 2017

Roe deer, or wild goat (Capreolus), is a genus of wild goats, distinguished by horns with three processes. The representative of the genus, roe deer (Capreolus sargea), is one of the most famous European deer. Let's go into detail ...

18:01, 09 August 2017

It’s hard to think that nature only didn’t prepare to admire it forever. Here are amazing goat animals, capable of doing such a thing that surprises. They are faint goats, fainting called them because ...

0:16, 09 August 2016

For the Arctic coastal-oceanic animals, to the fauna of the Arctic Ocean and its shores belongs a large mammal from the order of carnivores belonging to the genus of real bears polar bear. The description ...

23:04 July 12, 2016

The giraffe (Giraffa Camelopardalis) or giraffe is the only representative of a separate genus and family of antelopes and is distinguished by a long neck, long legs, a high, short and strongly sloping back body,

11:02, 10 July 2016

Considering the funny photos of badgers in RuNet or glossy magazines, it seems that the badger is an ordinary cute hand animal, practically a cat. However, those who met him in the wild or went on a hunt for ...

12:02, June 20, 2016

The largest representative of the suborder of toothy whales is, of course, the widespread real sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus). It belongs to both the Atlantic and Indian and Pacific oceans, being ...

23:41, 04 June 2016

Chimpanzees - the most common representative of the great apes in Africa, the chimpanzee (Anthropopithecus niger), has long been known in Europe, even suggested that all those so-called gorillas, which ...

10:35, 05 February 2016

The wolf is one of the most common large animals of central Russia. Large individuals are able to reach lengths up to one and a half meters in height, reaching the belt of an adult male. What to do if a wolf attacked a man ...

20:14, 22 January 2016

The Indian elephant, also called the Asian elephant, belongs to one of the endangered species of elephants that are listed in the Red Book. This is one of the largest animals of our planet, which is somehow similar to the ancient ...

17:43, 22 January 2016

The breeding of elephants is not at all associated with any particular season, but most calving is associated with the arrival of the rains. In crowded conditions or in times of drought, the sexual activity of these animals is significant ...

Mammals are all animals that feed their young with milk. Among them there are predators, and herbivores, there are both small and large animals. This is a huge class of animals with so many interesting, unusual representatives.

We will try to tell in this section about the most-most interesting representatives of mammals. And also about the disappeared and listed in the Red Book.

What kind of problems did this amazing animal have to face in surviving and how does a person help them survive.

19:15, 14 January 2016

As we have written, elephants are of various kinds. There are, for example, African elephants and we already wrote about the representative of this species - the forest elephant. And there are also Asian elephants. Asian elephantsSumatransky elephants are ...

15:53, 14 January 2016

There was a time, and there were lions near Moscow! True, no one had built Moscow itself yet, and indeed there were no cities. How great was the lion's habitat in the past millennia, says Professor A. G ...

18:32, 12 January 2016

A wolf (canis lupus), also called a gray wolf or an ordinary wolf, is a predator, a mammal, and belongs to the canine family (canidae). The wolf belongs to the genus of wolves, which also includes coyote and jackal. In the family ...

19:46, 06 January 2016

White tigers are unusual and very beautiful, so they are very popular among animal lovers. In zoos, they become a favorite object to visit, and photos of white tigers adorn many houses. Who are these - ...

Wild animals: list, habitat, type of food:

The list of wild and domestic animals presents a general picture of biological qualification in accordance with the following criteria:

Wild animals live in the natural environment in various ecological niches. Some species, tamed by man, moved into the category of domestic even in primitive society, and as a result of breeding work, new breeds appeared that changed the original appearance beyond recognition.

Habitat classification

Weather conditions, food sources, terrain features determine the habitat of certain animal species. For example, the territory of the Russian Federation is inhabited by a variety of wild animals, a list of which is represented by 300 species of mammals. By habitat, they are conventionally combined into the following groups:

  • reservoirs (representatives: muskrat, beaver, desman, manatee),
  • desert, semi-desert (for example, hare, shrew, gerbil, ground squirrel, jerboa, vole, corsac, hedgehog) - the organism of animals is adapted to daily and annual temperature jumps,
  • steppe, forest-steppe (representatives: baihak, jerboa, vole, steppe pied, saiga, polecat, hare),
  • deciduous, deciduous, mixed forests (wolf, wild boar, deer, lynx, badger, etc.),
  • taiga - among the inhabitants a large group consists of predators (bear, lynx, wolverine), fur (hare, ermine, squirrel), ungulates (deer, roe deer, elk, deer),
  • tundra, forest-tundra - most animals are covered with thick light-colored fur,
  • The Far North, the Arctic - land animals are represented by ten species, cetaceans - 14, pinnipeds - 9, among them: polar bear, harp seal, ringed seal, walrus, arctic fox, reindeer, bearded seal.


Carnivores are combined into 7 groups:

  • bear - 8 species
  • canine - 35 species,
  • cat - 41 species,
  • civet (nocturnal and living on trees) - 35 species,
  • hyena - 4 species,
  • kunyi - 56 species
  • raccoons.

The source of energy for them is the food of animal origin: insects, vertebrates and invertebrates. Distinctive signs of carnivorous: sharp claws and teeth (sometimes fangs), endurance in running, acute vision, excellent hearing, developed sense of smell.

Herbivorous animals

A special group consists of herbivorous wild animals. The list of sources of their food are roots, grass, fruits, vegetables, bark and tree branches.

Into a separate group, artiodactyls are distinguished, among them: deer, roe deer, bison, zebra, llama, elk and others.

A distinctive feature of ungulates are:

  • well developed jaws, able to grind hard stems and leaves of plants,
  • strong muscular legs saving from predators,
  • hooves, providing protection to the feet when traveling on hard (including rocky) terrain and helping to defend against the enemy.

The elephant is considered the largest herbivore; among the smallest is the vole mouse, the hamster. Of particular interest is the kangaroo - marsupial herbivore with strongly developed hind legs and short front legs.


A separate group are wild omnivores. The list unites such representatives of the fauna as a bear (with the exception of the polar bear, eating only meat), hedgehog, raccoon, mouse, squirrel, pig (boar), chipmunk and others.

All these animals are capable of receiving nutrients and vital energy from products of both animal and vegetable origin.

The ability to easily change their diet gives them the ability to adapt to different nutritional conditions, to adapt to different ecological niches.

Enviroment protection

To attract public attention to nature conservation, Wildlife Day was established, which is celebrated on March 3.

In Russia there are special programs for the preservation of certain species of wild animals: the snow leopard, polar bear, snow leopard, Amur tiger, bison.

In the Red Book of the Russian Federation inscribed carnivorous wild animals, a list of which is extensive. Among them:

  • Amur tiger - 90% of the population is located in the Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories, about 500 individuals have survived,
  • the polar bear is the largest land-based predator that lives on the territory of Russia from Novaya Zemlya to Chukotka, there are no more than 25 thousand individuals in the world, in Russia - about 7 thousand,
  • Leopard is a representative of the North Caucasus (single individuals live here) and Primorsky Territory, where the Land of the Leopard National Park is located (about 80 individuals live here), the general population in the world's wilderness has a thousand
  • snow leopard (snow leopard) is a representative of the cat family, the weight of an adult male reaches 50 kg, body length is 1.3 m, tail length is 1.06 m, lives in the mountains of Central Asia, in Russia - in the territory of the Altai Republic, Buryatia, Tuva , Krasnoyarsk region has no more than 100 individuals.

Wild ungulates, which are listed in the Red Book, require special attention. Among them:

  • Bison is a land mammal whose weight can reach one ton, the total population of the world is 5 thousand individuals, 500 of them are located on the territory of Russia in the Oryol, Bryansk, Kaluga regions.
  • Arkhar is the largest species of mountain sheep, the weight of males reaches 200 kg, the length of horns is 1.5 m. In Russia, there are just over 1000 individuals in the territory of the Altai Republic.
  • Saiga - in Russia there are about 3000 thousand animals in the Astrakhan region and Kalmykia.

The reduction in the number of wild animals occurs for a number of reasons, among which there are 2 main ones: poaching and destruction of the habitat area (including deforestation).


Pets are classified according to the same characteristics as their wild relatives. In a separate group, farm animals are distinguished, which bring great benefit to a person as a source of food (meat, fat, milk, eggs), raw materials for making shoes and clothes. They help to transport weights and carry out agricultural work.

Among the most common domestic farm animals are:

In the northern areas, the most common is reindeer, in the mountainous areas - alpaca, in arid areas - the camel.

As a result of selection, many species of animals at the level of genetics have undergone significant changes in comparison with their ancient ancestors. The greatest changes in behavior occurred in dogs, physical - in sheep, pigs, goats, cows.

Companion animals living next to humans are traditionally dogs and cats. The circle of pets is gradually expanding and, along with tame rats, mice, hamsters, guinea pigs, hedgehogs and decorative rabbits, domesticated weasels, ferrets, raccoons, and foxes are increasingly common.

The list of wild and domestic animals for children is of particular interest, since it makes it possible to expand the understanding of the world around us, laying the foundation for a careful attitude to nature.

Млекопитающие — это… Отряды млекопитающих. Виды млекопитающих

Звери или млекопитающие — это наиболее высокоорганизованные позвоночные животные. Развитая нервная система, вскармливание молоком детенышей, живорождение, теплокровность позволили им широко распространиться по всей планете и занять самые разнообразные места обитания.

Mammals are animals that live in forests (wild boars, elks, hares, foxes, wolves), mountains (sheep, ibex), steppes and semi-deserts (jerboa, hamsters, gophers, saigas), in the soil (blind and moles), oceans and seas (dolphins, whales).

Some of them (for example, bats) spend a significant part of their active life in the air. Today it is known about the existence of more than 4 thousand species of animals.

The groups of mammals, as well as the characteristics inherent in the beasts - we will tell about all this in this article. Let's start with a description of their structure.

The body of these animals is covered with wool (even whale remains). Distinguish between hair coarse straight (awn) and thin winding (undercoat). From contamination and stalling undercoat protects the awn.

Mammalian fur can only consist of spines (for example, in deer) or from undercoat (as in moles). These animals periodically molt. In mammals, this changes the density of the fur, and sometimes the color.

In the skin of animals there are hair follicles, sweat and sebaceous glands and their modifications (milky and odorous glands), horny scales (as on the tail of beavers and in rats), as well as other horn formations found on the skin (horns, hooves, nails, claws).

Considering the structure of mammals, we note that their legs are located under the body and provide these animals with more perfect movement.

In the skull they have a highly developed brain box. In mammals, the teeth are located in the cells of the jaws. Usually they are divided into root, canines and incisors. The cervical spine consists of almost all animals from seven vertebrae. They are interconnected movably, except for the sacral and two caudal ones, which, growing together, form the sacrum - a single bone.

The ribs are articulated with the thoracic vertebrae, which are usually from 12 to 15. In most mammals, the front limb girdle is paired shoulder blades and clavicle. Only an insignificant part of the animals kept the bones of ravens. The pelvis consists of two pelvic bones, fused with the sacrum.

The skeleton of the extremities is from the same bones and divisions as those of other representatives of the four-legged vertebrates.

What are the senses in mammals?

Mammals are animals that have auricles that help them catch odors and determine their direction. Their eyes have eyelids and eyelashes. Vibrissae are located on the limbs, belly, and head - long, hard hair. Animals with their help feel even the slightest touch to objects.

The origin of mammals

Like birds, mammals are descendants of ancient reptiles. This is evidenced by the similarity of modern animals with modern reptiles. In particular, it manifests itself in the early stages of embryo development. Even more signs of similarity were found in them with the animal-toothed lizards, extinct many years ago.

Also related to reptiles, is the fact that there are animals that lay eggs that contain many nutrients. Some of these animals have cloaces, developed crow bones and other signs indicating low organization. We are talking about the first animal (egg-laying). We will tell about them in more detail.


This is a subclass of the most primitive mammals living today. Together with the symptoms already mentioned, it should be noted that they do not have a constant body temperature. The milky glands of the first animal have no nipples. Cubs, hatched from eggs, lick milk from mother's fur.

In this subclass there is one squad - Single Pass. It includes 2 types: echidna and platypus. These animals today can be found in Australia, as well as on the islands adjacent to it. The platypus is a small animal. He prefers to settle along the banks of rivers and leads a semi-aquatic lifestyle here. He spends most of his time in the burrow he dug in the steep bank.

In the spring, the female platypus lays eggs (usually two) in a special hole equipped with a nesting chamber. Echidnas are burrowing beasts. Their body is covered with stiff hair and needles. The females of these animals lay one egg, which they place in a bag — a fold of skin on the belly. The cub hatching from it, until it is in the bag, until needles appear on its body.

The group of Marsupials includes animals that give birth to underdeveloped young, and then wear them in a special bag. They have little or no placenta. Marsupials are common mainly in Australia, as well as on the islands adjacent to it. The most famous of them are the marsupial bear (koala) and the giant kangaroo.


Insectivorous - a detachment that unites the ancient placental primitive animals: hedgehogs, shrews, moles, muskrats. Their muzzle is elongated, there is an elongated proboscis. Insectivorous small teeth, and their legs are five-fingered. Many of them have odorous glands near the root of the tail or on the sides of the body.

Shrews are the smallest representatives of insectivores. They live in meadows, shrubs, dense forests. These animals are gluttonous and attack small animals. In the winter time, they build passages under the snow and find insects.

Moles are animals that lead the underground way of life. They dig their burrows with their front legs. In the mole, the eyes are poorly developed and are black dots. In the embryonic state are auricles. Short thick hair has no definite direction and fits snugly when moving to the body. Moles are active all year round.


Squad Bats or Bats include small and medium-sized animals that are capable of long flight. In the subtropics and the tropics, they are especially numerous.

The teeth of these animals are of the insectivorous type. The most common in our country are Ushan, leather, and evening wear. Representatives of bats settle in the attics of houses, in tree hollows, in caves.

During the day, they prefer to sleep in their shelters, and at dusk they go out to catch insects.

This unit brings together a third of the mammal species that inhabit our planet today. Proteins, squirrels, rats, mice and other animals of medium and small size belong to them. Rodents are mostly herbivorous animals.

They have strongly developed incisors (two in each jaw), molars having a flat chewing surface. No rodent incisor roots. They are constantly growing, self-sharpening and grinding off when eating food.

Most rodents have a long intestine with a caecum. Rodents are arboreal (sony, flying squirrels, squirrels), as well as semi-aquatic (muskrats, nutria, beavers) and semi-underground (gophers, rats, mice). These are fertile animals.

Most of them have babies born blind and naked. This usually occurs in nests, hollows and holes.


This squad unites different types of hares, rabbits, and also pikas - animals, similar in many respects to rodents. The main hallmark of lagomorphs is a specific dental system. They have 2 small cutters behind the 2 large upper ones.

Hares (hare, hare) feed on the bark of shrubs and young trees, grass. They go out to feed at dusk and at night. Cubs they are born sighted, with thick hair. Unlike hares, rabbits dig deep holes.

The female before the birth of naked and blind young makes a nest of fluff, which she pulls from her breast, as well as from dry grass.

Representatives of this order (bears, ermines, martens, lynxes, arctic foxes, foxes, wolves) usually feed on birds and other animals. A predatory mammal is actively pursuing its prey.

The teeth of these animals are divided into incisors, molars and canines. The most developed are canines, as well as 4 molars. Representatives of this order have short intestines.

This is due to the fact that the predatory mammal eats easily digestible and high-calorie foods.


Let us proceed to the consideration of the pinnipeds. Their representatives (walruses, seals) are large predatory marine mammals. Rare coarse hair covered the body of most of them. The extremities of these animals are modified into flippers. A thick layer of fat is deposited under their skin. The nostrils open only for the time of inhalation and exhalation. When diving, the ear holes close.

Antelope ground squirrel

This group includes rodents, rabbits and hares. Basically, they all eat plants, although some of them will supplement their diet with insects and carrion. Such a diet satisfies both food and water needs. In the desert areas such small herbivores as antelope gophers, kangaroo jumpers, forest hamsters, black-tailed hares and steppe rabbits live. Although most mammals in this group are nocturnal, antelope gophers are not afraid of the scorching desert sun. In order to cool down, these rodents may pass underground. Antelope gopher can lose up to 13% of moisture per day. Therefore, to compensate for this loss of water, he eats green leaves and drinks dew early in the morning.

Kangaroo jumper

Kangaroo jumpers got their name because of the jumping habit. Its only source of moisture is metabolic water, which is obtained through the digestion of plant foods. However, this method of obtaining moisture gives very little water, so kangaroo jumpers must keep every drop. The temperature in his nasal passages is much lower than the internal temperature of the body. Therefore, the air that passes through these nasal passages cools down and condenses on the mucous membrane, where it is absorbed.


Unlike rodents, rabbits and hares have two pairs of upper incisors. Rabbits differ from hares by the fact that their babies are born naked and blind, while young hares are born pubescent and sighted. Black-tailed hares hide during the day near the base of the plants, where the soil and the air temperature are colder. They feed on herbs and green parts of plants, as well as branches and bark of trees, cacti. At the same time, the animals eat non-stop, as they have a very large need for vegetable feed.

Steppe rabbits prefer to wait out the heat in the holes that other animals threw. Basically, their diet consists of cereals, but if necessary, they are able to eat many other plants, herbs, vegetables, and even cacti.


Hippopotamus, or the usual hippo is the only modern species of the hippo genus. In his diet is ground grass, which he bites his horny lips to the very root. Hippos lead a semi-aquatic lifestyle, most of the daytime spent in the water. And at nightfall they go to feed. They have an amazing ability to eat and assimilate the coarse dried grass that other animals refuse.


The giraffe family includes okapi and giraffes, which also belong to the herbivorous animals. Giraffes feed on the leaves of trees, mainly acacias, capturing them with the help of a long tongue and lips that are not afraid of thorns. Okapi, like giraffe, eats the leaves of trees. This forest dweller is significantly less than its relative: weight is about 250 kg, body length is 2.1 m, height at withers is 150-170 cm.

Herbivores occupy a special and unique place in the fauna world. Since vegetable food is very difficult to digest, they have a complex structure of the stomach, which helps to cope with digestion. They also differ in the special structure of the teeth, mostly they have a flat crown and a large gap in the jaws. Herbivorous animals have very powerful chewing muscles, responsible for grinding the hard food of plant origin.


Real marine mammals - whales and dolphins - are included in this squad. Their body is fish-like. Most of these marine mammals do not have hair on their bodies - they are only preserved near the mouth. The forelimbs were transformed into flippers, while the hind ones were missing.

In the movement of cetaceans, a powerful tail, which ends in a tail fin, is of great importance. It is not true that marine mammals are fish. These are animals, although outwardly they resemble fish. Cetaceans are the largest mammals.

The blue whale is 30 meters long.


This unit includes medium-sized and large omnivorous and herbivorous animals. Their legs have 2 or 4 fingers, most covered with hooves.

According to the features of the structure of the stomach and methods of feeding, they are divided into non-ruminants and ruminants. The latter (sheep, goats, deer) have incisors only on the lower jaw, and the molars have a wide chewing surface.

Non-ruminants have a single-chamber stomach, and the teeth are divided into molars, canines and incisors.


We continue to describe the orders of mammals. Stuffed animals are animals such as horses, zebras, donkeys, tapirs, rhinos. On the legs, most of them have a developed toe, on which there are massive hooves. Today, only Przewalski's horse has survived from wild horses.

These are the most highly developed mammals. Detachment includes monkeys and monkeys. They have grasping five-fingered limbs, while the thumb of the hand is opposed to the rest. Almost all primates have a tail. The vast majority of them inhabit the subtropics and the tropics. They inhabit mostly forests where they live in small family groups or herds.

Mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians - all of them can be described for a very long time. We only briefly described the animals, described the existing teams. The family of mammals is diverse and numerous, as you have just seen. Getting to know him, we hope, was useful for you.