Dairy products we eat daily. Even babies know that cows give milk. But how much milk a cow gives per day, and when she starts to do it, not every adult represents.
When a cow starts to give milk
These sedate animals grow and mature rather slowly. For a long time, the owner takes care of the new chick, hoping for a return only in the future. Sexual maturity in cows comes after six months, but such a young animal is not ready to reproduce offspring. Only in one and a half to two years, when the heifer fully develops and reaches a mass of more than 300 kg, it is fertilized. The pregnancy of a cow lasts 9 months, approximately from 240 to 311 days. After the birth of the calf appears milk. At first, the cow produces colostrum, which feeds the calf, it is not eaten. Thus, the owner of the cow will be able to get the first milk only after two and a half to three years.
How many days does a cow give milk?
A cow cannot give milk all year round. Gradually milk yield decreases, the quality of the product decreases. To maximize lactation, cows are inseminated every year. The pregnant cow continues to give milk, but a few months before the birth, they start. This means that the animal gradually ceases to milk, and the milk disappears. It is necessary that the body rested, and all the forces directed to the development of the calf. If this is not done, then both the cow and the newborn will be depleted.
Thus, the lactation period lasts no more than 320 days, and deadwood lasts about one and a half to two months. Cows give the most milk after the second, third and fourth calving.
What determines how much milk a cow gives per day? This indicator can vary greatly in different cows. Let's figure out what depends on how many liters of milk a cow gives per day. First, the breed of the animal is of great importance. There are dairy, meat and dairy and meat breeds. Milk breeds give the most milk, meat in this respect is far behind.
Secondly, genetics, heredity and individual characteristics of the animal matter, because even among the same breed, the milk yields are different for different cows.
Thirdly, the age of the animal has a great influence on how much milk a cow gives per day. After the first calving, she gives a little milk, after the seventh calving, productivity begins to fall.
And, finally, one of the most important parameters - conditions of detention and food. Even the best purebred cow will not give much milk if it is poorly fed.
How much milk do dairy cows give
There are several common dairy breeds. The Dutch is perhaps the oldest dairy. Some experts believe that the genes of this breed in one way or another are present in all dairy breeds. Milk productivity of this breed ranges from 4,000 kg per year.
Holstein breed was bred in the United States and Canada. Today it is the most common dairy breed in the world. Its productivity may be more than 7,000 kg of milk per year. The yield depends on the climatic conditions, and in countries with a milder climate can reach 10,000 kg per year. Based on these data, we can say how much milk a cow gives per day of this breed - the average milk yield in Russian farms is from 20 to 40 liters per day.
Simmental breed is widespread in Russia. It has not only good milk production - about 5,000 kg of milk per year (in some conditions - up to 9,000 kg), but also excellent meat qualities.
Yaroslavl breed is considered one of the best bred from us. These black with a white spot on the head of the cow are well adapted to different climatic conditions and can produce up to 5,000 kg of milk.
On our fields you can often see the Kholmogor breed, which shows itself well in cold climates and gives more than 6000 kg. High yields are shown by the Ayshir breed, also preferring a cool climate. Black-and-white breed can produce up to 6,000 kg of milk per year, besides, these animals have quite good meat qualities.
Meat and dairy breeds give from 3,000 to 5,000 kg of milk per year.
How much a cow gives milk: norms and records
A Burenka who settled for the first time can produce 8-9 liters of milk per day, a pedigreed cow after the second calving - from 15 to 40 liters per day. If a mature individual gives less than 10 liters, this indicates poor care or illness.
But among the cows there are real champions. For example, the American cow of Julian Holstein breed for the year gave 30 805 kg of milk, Linda of the same breed - 28 740 kg.
From the domestic black-motley breed Burenka named Rossiyanka received 19,106 kg of milk per year.
Recorded records and daily milk yield. Cuban Ubre Blanca, a mixture of Holstein breed with a humpback zebu, for one day gave 110.9 kg. Our cows are not lagging behind either - black-and-white and Yaroslavl gave 82 kg each, Kholmogorskaya - 78 kg.
When does a cow get milk?
A cow will be able to please you with milk only after it reaches puberty. By half a year, the reproductive system of the heifer is ready for conception. But at such an early age, a cow is not yet able to bear healthy and strong offspring. Therefore, insemination lay up to 1.5-2 years. By this time, the animal was already fully formed and reached the body weight necessary for carrying the calf.
After the cow endures and gives birth to its first cub, she will need to feed him. From this moment begins the lactation period of the female. The calf will sooner or later switch to adult feed, after which the cow will need to be milked regularly. Otherwise, the lactation will die out and will not recover until the next calving.
How long can a cow produce milk without a calf?
On average, the lactation period of a cow lasts about a year. The most valuable and useful animal product in its composition in the first months after calving. The more time passes after delivery, the less nutrients in milk. Therefore, the cow must be inseminated every year. Also, the animal needs time to rest. Deadwood should last about 1.5-2 months. During this time, the cow will gain strength and energy, which she can direct to the carrying of the next offspring.
What does the amount of milk depend on?
On the question of how much a cow gives milk per day, there is no definite answer. Many factors affect milk production:
- Breed. There are "meat" and "dairy" varieties of cows.
- Age. The more years the cow, the more milk it begins to produce.
- Nutrition. Variety in the diet of the animal has a beneficial effect on milk production.
- Health. Lactation begins to fade if the cow is sick. Therefore, you need to systematically show it to the vet.
- Season. If the calving occurred in the autumn-winter period, the milk production is 10% more than in the spring-summer.
The main breed of cows
Dairy breeds of cows give greater volumes than meat. How much does an Ayrshire cow give milk per day? Its volume is incomparable with the performance of the Hereford breed. Cows are of three types:
- Meat and dairy.
There are a lot of dairy breeds of cows. These little girls tirelessly set records for milk production. The most popular ones are:
- Kholmogory breed. The individuals of this species are distinguished by developed muscles and a strong and powerful skeleton. The color of the animal is brown with large black spots, the shape of the skull is narrow. Its weight is about 500 kg. Annual milk production ranges from 4 to 5 tons.
- Holstein breed. This type of cattle comes from the Netherlands. For individuals of this species is characterized by the presence of a large udder, which indicates the development of large volumes of milk. The weight of an adult animal is about 700 kg. This breed is considered to be the record for the annual production of the product. In 1985, a twenty-year-old cow produced 211 tons in a year. 570 liters - that is how much milk a cow gives per day according to record numbers.
- Black-and-white breed. She comes from the USSR. Until now, it is popular in the CIS countries. The weight of an adult cow is 400 kg. The skeleton of the individual is strong enough. The cow feels great in a temperate zone.
- Red steppe cow. Representatives of this breed can be seen on the territory of Ukraine. They are unpretentious and do not require special care. They can produce about 4 tons of milk per year. The weight of an adult individual is 400-500 kg. But their physique is light. And the skeleton can not be called strong.
- Yaroslavl breed. These girls are wildly popular in Russia. Their uniqueness is that they eat poorly. But milk production is more than impressive. One individual gives about 6 tons of milk per year. Most often they are black in color, sometimes with a red tint. The weight of an animal reaches 500 kg.
- Aishirsky breed. She is originally from Scotland. The color of the animal is red-motley, and the average weight is 450 kg. These individuals are distinguished by a thin bone system and flexible joints.
Average daily milk yield of common breeds
Daily milk yield depends on many factors, as noted earlier. But there is a certain period when lactation is at the peak of its capabilities. So how much milk does a cow give per day? You can find the average milk yield (provided that the lactation period is 10 months) in the table below.
Most people think that a cow gives milk almost all year round. In fact, this is not the case, since this process begins only with the birth of the first calf. After that, she begins to feed him, but over time, when he is taken away from her, the process of milk production does not stop. From this period, you can begin to milk it.
Until the next calving, milk yield will gradually decrease all the time, but at a rather low speed. They disappear immediately before birth should occur. Immediately after them, the mechanism returns to its former direction.
It is believed that per day one cow can produce more than 20 liters of milk. But such indicators occur very rarely. Often they can change from year to year, both increasing and decreasing. This is influenced by many factors. That is why in the same country in different regions, cows can produce milk of various sizes.
Often it happens that after the first calving the average daily amount of milk is in the range from 9 to 10 liters.
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With each subsequent delivery, this indicator may increase by 0.5-2 liters. Often, by the fifth season, it reaches 13-15 liters. These indicators relate mainly to the average breeds. But at the same time, there are also certain types of cows, which differ significantly from their fellows.
Any indicators of the volume of milk per day can somehow be approximately translated into volume in a week, month, or even a year. But it should be understood that the result will not be final. It is impossible to predict how each cow will behave in certain conditions.
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There are the following approximate indicators of how much milk can be obtained from a cow per year:
- Israel - 1702 liters,
- USA - 802 liters,
- Denmark - 726 liters,
- Canada - 726 liters,
- France - 702 liters,
- Great Britain - 675 liters,
- Germany - 592 liters,
- Russian Federation - 410 liters,
- Ukraine - 230 liters.
But what the Ayrshire breed of cows looks like and how it needs to be raised and fed for the best result.
It is believed that the Holstein and Yaroslavl breeds of cows give more significant milk yield - they range from 20 to 40 liters per day.
In addition, each country has its own champions in this regard. For example, in Ukraine in the Donetsk region lives a cow named Martha. Her daily milk yield is from 50 to 60 liters of milk.
In some regions, only certain breeds of cows are raised, as they have in comparison with their best productivity. This concerns not only milk, but also, for example, meat. But what are the breeds of dairy cows and how they look, you can see here.
Why indicators decrease
Problems of loss or reduction of the amount of milk that is produced by a cow per day is officially called agalactia and hapogalactia, respectively. The first term means the milklessness of the animal, and the second - the low milkiness. Both one and the second phenomenon is a serious pathology that must be eliminated by a therapeutic method. The main thing with this is to understand what caused the disease.
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There are the following causes and types of milk loss for a cow:
- Fodder agalactia. There is such a disease due to improper diet of livestock. This applies to starvation, lack of vitamins and nutrients, low protein intake, poor feed quality, low water volume, and the poverty of food consumed. Separately, it is worth noting that this problem occurs against the background of some diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Artificial agalactia. Such a disease manifests itself only against the background of any stressful and nervous situations. This happens when a cow undergoes a change of conditioned reflexes, its habitat, owner, or milking method changes. The schedule and mode also play a role in this process.
- Climatic agalactia. As it becomes clear from the name, the reason for the loss of milk in this case is the poor climatic conditions of the animal. Too damp air, pollution, lack of proper ventilation, poor lighting, etc. For a long time, a cow should not be under the scorching sun or in adverse conditions. But at the same time she should definitely go out and walk.
- Operational agalactia. Such a problem arises only due to the livestock owner’s fault. He can make poor preparation for lactation, exercise too intense stripping, provoke early calving, reduce or increase the number of milks. Often, if you milk a cow in the first few months quite often, this leads to an increase in the amount of milk, and over time - to a sharp reduction.
- Physiological agalactia. In this case, the problem occurs against the background of any disease. The most common among them are mastitis, inflammation of the udder, inflammation of the uterus, as well as food poisoning. It is worth noting that each disease has its own distinctive features, by which you can make a preliminary diagnosis. Full renewal of the body, including the production of the previous volume of milk, occurs only after recovery.
Sticking is considered to be another significant reason that may affect cow performance.
And here is what the Simmental breed of cows looks like and how much milk it can give. indicated here.
This happens only in those animals that most of the time lie, move little and are rather inactive. Some veterinarians attribute this reason to the climate group, but other experts believe that, above all, this behavior of livestock depends on caring for it. Most often this happens during the winter period when farmers do not walk their cows, although this should be done.
How to increase productivity
The moderate type of climate almost always has a positive effect on the yield of cows. Most often, significant frosts as well as low air temperature can significantly reduce the level of productivity. That is why it is best to organize farms not in northern latitudes, but in southern ones. This will allow you to receive large financial income from milk yields.
It is also very important in accordance with the established schedule to constantly feed the cows. It is necessary to focus on the type of rock and its features. It is believed that the most dense diet should be among the recorders. This is due to the fact that their body uses a lot more resources than other animals.
Veterinarians also pay attention to the importance of the implementation of the breast massage. Exercises to improve lactation should also be done periodically. All these actions are aimed at ensuring that the milk in the udder quickly withdraws, which will prevent stagnation.
It is believed that it is possible to significantly increase productivity by regularly issuing milk. The more strict the schedule of this process is, the better the results will be.
Cows, which will soon need to give birth to a calf, about a month before the calving should "run", stopping milking.
А вот как выглядит Голштинская порода коров и как осуществляется увеличение надоев, поможет понять данная информация.
Связанно это с тем, что в этот период молоко будет не очень хорошего качества. К тому же его объем будет маленьким. Оно обретет высокую степень жирности, вследствие чего человек его не сможет использовать в домашних целях.
Новотельные коровы способны давать довольно хорошие удои. That is why it is important to ensure adequate living conditions for animals. In the barn should always be as warm and comfortable as possible. First of all it concerns the winter period of time.
Udoi, when the room temperature is quite cold, can fall by 15 percent. If we talk about the body weight of the animal, it will also decrease, due to the fact that the body will spend too much energy and nutrients to maintain a normal level of its functioning.
Juicy and nutritious food can also affect the amount of milk. In addition, certain features of this food product depend on food. First of all, it concerns the fat content and utility. That is why during dry periods, as well as severe frosts, you should additionally give the cows nutritious food, plenty of fluids and fresh hay.
The lactation-oriented feeding can also make an excellent correction to milk yield: before pregnancy, in the process of carrying a calf, before calving, and also after it. The most important point in this rule is proper nutrition after childbirth. At this time, the cow is able to give significant milk yield, which can not be spoiled by poor nutrition.
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To improve performance, it is necessary 21 days before calving to increase the concentration in the diet of the animal succulent feed and nutritional concentrates. After delivery, it is worth using the advance payment method. It involves the feeding process with a certain supply of food. This is necessary so that the cattle does not disrupt the metabolism, as well as the milk yield. It is believed that feed concentrates in this period should be 150 grams per liter of milk yield.
Separately, it is worth noting that you can increase productivity with the help of activity, that is, the movement of cows. If possible, cattle should walk every day. No less important than all the others is the method of stimulating milk production through proper handling of livestock.
Animals tend to feel both mood and human emotions.
That is why you should not shout at the cows, and also treat them badly. If possible, if there are not very many of them, it is worthwhile to handle the cows as carefully and tenderly as possible. The more friendly a person is, the greater the chance that in the end the yield will be greater.
The beginning of lactation in cows
The cow starts giving milk and milking within a few hours after the first calving. Usually, the calf is taken away from the cow immediately after birth. This practice is widespread not only on large farms, but also on private farms. This helps to get the cow right, and get a good daily milk yield. With the beginning of lactation, cows are transferred to an enhanced diet, and water should be constantly in the water bowl. The amount of fresh drinking water directly affects milk production. Normal lactation continues for nine months in a cow. Three months before the calving, the cow is no longer milked. This period is called the launch, and is necessary in order for the animal to rest and gain strength. After a new calving lactation resumes.
For the first five to seven days, cow's milk is not suitable for human consumption. It is too fat and is intended for watering a calf. But despite this, the udder must be given out completely.
Daytime milk from cows
Good conditions allow the Burenki live for up to thirty years. But usually the average life of a cow is about 20 years. During this time they bring up to 15 calves. At the age of 16-18, cows lose their ability to reproduce and stop giving milk. Old animals are usually cut or handed over to the meat factory, referring to the non-profitability of the content.
The productivity of a cow depends on the breed and conditions of detention.
A non-bred animal for lactation gives no more than 5,000 liters of milk. From this indicator you can easily calculate how many liters of milk a cow gives per day - about 16.
High-milk breeds have other indicators. On average, for the year, cows give from 9,000 to 14,000 liters. In terms of daily milk yield, this is about 30 liters. In our country, the most popular dairy breeds are:
- Black speckled
The productivity of the cow also affects the time of year. In the warm months of spring and summer, when there is a lot of fresh grass containing vitamins and essential trace elements, milk yield is always higher. The difference between daytime and winter days is between 5 and 7 liters.
Another important factor is the age of the cows. Regardless of the breed, new hens usually give about ten liters per day. How much milk a cow gives per day also depends on health and proper feeding.
With underfeeding and during illness, even high-fed cows reduce milkiness by more than a third.
The maximum records in the daily milk yield belong to the cows from Israel, Denmark and the USA, and the absolute record - the daily milk yield of fifty six liters belongs to the cow from Israel.
In addition to these factors, the condition of the cow and the observance of the basic rules of milking also affect how much milk a cow gives per day. An important role is played by regular veterinary inspection, and routine vaccination, and care for the hoof.
How much milk a cow gives per day also depends on proper feeding. Feed the cow during lactation should be advanced, that is, to give a greater amount of feed. Especially important in the daily diet are juicy food and water. It is advisable that the automatic drinking bowl be installed in the stall. This would provide the animal free access to water.
Records of yields
High-milk cows come across in all breeds. In the dairy industry, not only daily, but also annual counting of milk yield from cows is mandatory. The absolute record of the annual milk yield belongs to the cow from Cuba, Ubre Blanca. In 1981, she produced 41,673 liters of milk. The cleaning of Blanke was not purebred, but a mixture of a hunchbacked local zebu and a holste cow. Russian Burenka also set two records, and are located on the third and fifth place in the world table. In 1941 Vienna of the Yaroslavl breed gave 30,869 liters of milk, and in 1973 the Russian woman of the black-and-white breed produced 19,670 liters.
Choosing a cow with good fun
For farmers, the milkiness of the cow plays a key role, but the purchase of new hen, even from a high-performing uterus, does not always end with the production of a dairy buren. Determination of milkiness by external signs is important and not only when buying a new hen. If the cow is in the dry period or the section has just begun, the udder will be much smaller, which means that the determination of its productivity should be carried out according to other criteria.
The high-milk burenka has a slightly barrel-shaped and elongated body, with thick bones and good muscles. An animal must have straight and strong legs, with a wide stasis. The thorax of a high-milk cow is wide and deep. This form of the sternum means the proper development of the lungs and heart. The intercostal space should also be wide, and the ribs relative to the spine should be overlapped. It also speaks of developed lungs and a well-formed digestive system.
Another important point - a wide and smooth, not hanging down ass. A well-developed sacrum facilitates the process of calving.
Individual attention should be paid to the udder of the cow. The high size of the udder speaks about high productivity (you should not confuse it with the hanging udder. If the udder is sagging - this is a minus, since the cow will step on it and injure). Udder is divided by form on:
Goat udder - saggy, poorly developed, with thick and closely spaced nipples. A cow with such an udder will not have good performance. A good udder is an udder with evenly developed quarters, between which there are no deep furrows. The optimal length of the nipples is about seven centimeters. Shorter nipples are not comfortable during milking, and longer nipples indicate the tightness of the cows.
Breeders for many years struggled with the creation of dairy and meat breeds of animals. Brought one, mixed with others. As a result, today cows are known and popular, which can produce many liters of milk per day. Each breed has its own milk record.
It should be noted that this species of cattle has common signs. They are typical for most dairy breeds:
- development of a round smooth udder as opposed to a weaker muscle mass,
- head small, body long,
- short stature, rough skeleton,
- belly does not hang below the knees,
- strong digestive system, heart and lungs for digesting up to hundreds of kilograms of herbs per day,
- the ability to stay in one place for a long time and eat the grass around,
- reluctance to take long walks.
All these qualities allow milk cows to produce more milk per day. The following are indicators of milk yield for the lactation period:
- in the first place you can put the Black-and-White breed, a record of eight tons,
- Golshinsky Burenka can water seven tons,
- Red steppe breed brings at least four tons,
- Kholmogory breed can produce about four tons,
- Simmental cows can produce approximately 3.7 tons of milk,
- Yaroslavl breed will give about three and a half tons. The same Tagil.
Based on the above data, how much does a cow give milk per day? The figures in the table indicate indicators from fifteen to thirty liters (most likely a record). In general, these are average rates, but they are very high and also depend on the length of dead wood.
Age after first calving
The first calf can appear in a cow aged one and a half to two years. At this age, she is able to bear and give birth to healthy offspring. First heifers show the lowest yields.
Their udder is just starting to get used to the milking process. It is necessary to approach the female section carefully and thoughtfully. It should be given within a few days to develop a calf udder. After that, it can be taken away from the mother, but the milking needs to be continued every day. Do not leave milk in the udder, otherwise it will lead to a decrease in fluid volumes.
If, after the first calving, the animal is not properly divided, then you will have to wait for the next birth and repeat the complex after the second. Productivity will increase every year. Already by the fifth calving, a cow gives three times or four times more milk in a day of milk.
So, the Golshtinsky fucker can give only about six liters per day. After four or five calving, productivity increases to six tons. By the way, this breed distinguished itself by a record more than thirty years ago. During the lactation period, she gave twenty-five tons of product.
The Black-and-White Cow has a maximum volume of six tons less.
Zebu humpbacked cow showed a record for daily milking - more than a hundred kilograms.
It should be added that approximately from the tenth or twelfth calving, depending on the conditions of detention and health, milk yield decreases. An old cow cannot give as much milk per day as a young one.
Winter and summer
The above figures are the exception rather than the rule. On average, an ordinary Russian cow gives ten or twelve liters per day.
But milk yield depends on the season:
- in summer, cows can produce milk in large volumes due to the abundance of feed, fresh and juicy grass, regular walks. A good fodder base serves as the key to the daily flow of the product,
- in winter, the Burenka begins to milk worse. This is primarily due to the upcoming birth. If the breeder tracked the insemination of the female in time and calving falls in the winter period, the launch will happen in late autumn or early winter. It turns out that in winter the cow gives little milk per day. But if the timing of calving is different, it should be good to feed the cow in the cold and water, and also walk for three hours daily. It should receive hay, concentrates, succulent feed, root crops, silage and other feed.
Care and high yields
The owner of the cattle must provide the cow with proper care and then count the liters of milk per day. Care for the individual should be before birth. To do this, gradually prepare the udder for future milkings.
The time after calving is the most important for the farmer. From his competent actions depends on how much milk a cow gives the entire lactation period. After all, the first three months are the most productive for milk. In this Burenka gives almost half of the total volume for the year. Then indicators slowly fall.
It is believed that for productivity the cow should become pregnant within the next one to two months.
If successful mating has not happened, then the cow becomes juvenile and every day will reduce milk yield. Soon the milk will disappear altogether.
But if a cow has a sudden decrease in the amount of milk, attention should be paid to its health. This is necessary if the rates fell below ten liters per day. Many diseases, including inflammation of the udder, lead to a drop in daily milk yields and the disappearance of milk.
Some of them can be identified by external signs:
- during mastitis, the udder of the animal heats up, sometimes it turns red, clots appear in the milk,
- for foot and mouth disease on the nipples, ulcers may form, from which pus flows into the bucket with the product,
- in case of cracks in the nipples, the milk yield decreases rapidly due to severe pain,
- with udder edema, it becomes larger, but there is no milk in the tanks.
In most cases, timely treatment helps to restore the productivity of the animal. In any case, a worthy daily milk yield is shown by a well-fed, healthy and newly-recruited cow, which is properly addressed by the skilled hands of the milkkeeper.