On earth there are a great many plants and animals. All of them are forced to support their livelihoods, feeding and recycling vital energy. Thus, their interaction always unites creatures into food chains, along whose links nutrients and energy pass from one to another.
Food chains in deciduous forests. Examples
After a few words about the theory, let's move on to the practice of writing. Any food chain for deciduous forests is provided by the rich species diversity of plants and animals living here. Stormy vegetation feeds such herbivorous mammals as small rodents, hares, deer, moose, roe deer. They mainly feed on thick grasses in glades, bark and branches of trees and shrubs, berries, mushrooms, and nuts. All these types of food can be found in abundance - the animals will always be something to profit, even in the cold winter. The predators that serve as links of the food chain in deciduous forests also live here. Their way of life is fundamentally different from herbivores. Foxes and wolves, ermine and affection, lynx and marten, birds of prey. They mainly hunt other animals. Characteristic of the inhabitants of the forest and smaller predators (amphibians, for example), which can also become prey to large carnivores. Accordingly, food chains are formed in deciduous forests. They are sometimes layered and intertwined with each other in the middle links.
Here are some of them:
- Birch bark - hare - fox.
- Tree (bark) - bark beetle - tit - hawk.
- Grass (seeds) - forest mouse - owl.
- Grass - insect - frog - already - a bird of prey.
- Insect - reptile - ferret - lynx.
- Leaves - earthworm - thrush.
- The fruits and seeds of trees - squirrel - owl.
- Leaves - caterpillar - beetle - tit - falcon.
What are food chains?
There are two types: pasture and detritus. The first - more common in nature. In such chains, the first link is always the producers (plants). They are followed by first-order consumers — herbivorous animals. Next - consumers of the second order - small predators. Behind them - the third-order consumers - large predators. Further, there may also be fourth-order consumers; such long food chains are commonly found in the oceans. The last link is the decomposers.
The second type of power circuits - detrital - more common in forests and savannas. They arise due to the fact that most of the plant energy is not consumed by herbivores, but dies away, then being decomposed by decomposers and mineralization.
Food chains of this type start from detritus - organic residues of plant and animal origin. Consumers of the first order in such food chains are insects, for example, dung beetles, or scavenger animals, for example, hyenas, wolves, and vultures. In addition, first-order Consumer in these chains can be bacteria that feed on plant residues.
In biogeocenoses everything is connected in such a way that most species of living organisms can become participants of both types of power circuits.
Food chains in deciduous and mixed forests
Deciduous forests are mostly distributed in the northern hemisphere of the planet. They are found in Western and Central Europe, in Southern Scandinavia, in the Urals, in Western Siberia, East Asia, and North Florida.
Deciduous forests are divided into deciduous and small-leaved. For the former, trees such as oak, linden, ash, maple, and elm are characteristic. For the second - birch, alder, aspen.
Mixed forests are forests in which both coniferous and deciduous trees grow. Mixed forests are characteristic of temperate climatic zones. They are found in the south of Scandinavia, in the Caucasus, In the Carpathians, in the Far East, in Siberia, in California, in the Appalachians, at the Great Lakes.
Mixed forests consist of trees such as spruce, pine, oak, linden, maple, elm, apple, fir, beech, hornbeam.
Deciduous and mixed forests are very common. pasture food chains. The first link of the food chain in forests is usually the numerous types of herbs, berries, such as raspberries, blueberries, and strawberries. elderberry, tree bark, nuts, cones.
The first order will most often be such herbivores as roe deer, moose, deer, rodents, for example, squirrels, mice, shrews, and also hares.
Second-order consumers are predators. Usually it is a fox, a wolf, a weasel, an ermine, a lynx, an owl and others. A striking example of the fact that the same species is involved in pasture and detrital food chains will be a wolf: it can both hunt small mammals and eat carrion.
Second-order consumers may themselves become prey to larger predators, especially for birds: for example, small owls can be eaten by hawks.
The trailing link will be decomposers (rotting bacteria).
Examples of food chains in a deciduous-coniferous forest:
- birch bark - hare - wolf - decomposers,
- wood - grub beetle larva - woodpecker - hawk - decomposers,
- leaf litter (detritus) - worms - shrews - owl - decomposers.
Features of food chains in coniferous forests
Such forests are located in the north of Eurasia and North America. They consist of such trees as pine, spruce, fir, cedar, larch and others.
Here everything is significantly different from mixed and deciduous forests.
The first link in this case will not be grass, but moss, shrubs or lichens. This is due to the fact that in coniferous forests there is not enough light for thick grass cover to exist.
Accordingly, the animals that will become first-order consumers will be different - they should eat not grass, but moss, lichen, or shrubs. It can be some types of deer.
Despite the fact that shrubs and mosses are more common, herbaceous plants and bushes are still found in coniferous forests. This nettle, celandine, strawberry, elderberry. Hares, elks, squirrels, which can also become first-class consumers, usually feed on such food.
Consumers of the second order will be, like mixed forests, predators. These are mink, bear, wolverine, lynx and others.
Small predators such as the mink can be prey for third order fuzz.
The closing link will be rotting microorganisms.
In addition, coniferous forests are very common. detrital food chains. Here, the first link will most often be the plant humus, which soil bacteria feed on, becoming, in turn, food for single-celled animals that are eaten by mushrooms. Such chains are usually long and may consist of more than five links.
Examples of food chains in coniferous forest:
- pine nuts - squirrel - mink - decomposers,
- humus plants (detritus) - bacteria - protozoa - fungi - bear - decomposers.
Verified by an expert
1. leaf litter - earthworm - shrew - owl - fox,
2. Pine nuts - squirrel - wolverine.
3. plant humus - soil bacteria - protozoa - fungi - - worms.
for mixed forests
1. birch-wolf hare-rotting bacteria
2. wood of wood-larva-woodpecker-bacteria of decay
for deciduous forests
1. insect-reptile-a jerboa (harek) -hear (bear)
you take what is there or grows and you write
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The light location of the plants is due to uneven illumination. The amount of light decreases from tier to tier. The trees of the first tier receive a lot of light and very few mosses and lichens. The bushes do not grow in the fir forest - the branches of the fir trees hold up a lot of light, in such a forest it is always dark.
Roots are located and the roots of forest plants. This allows you to absorb water, mineral substances from different depth layers of the earth.
The second adaptation of forest plants to cohabitation is development at different times. In spring in the forest one can observe the flowering of some species of plants and only the very beginning of the development of others. At the end of summer, on the contrary, the first species were already unnoticed: their leaves and stems dried, the seeds crumbled. And the latter are entering a time of lush flowering. Later, linden blossoms from the trees of our forests.
Heliophilous plant - snowdrops. They develop in the spring due to the supply of nutrients and bloom when leafless branches of trees and shrubs freely pass to them the rays of the sun.
Trees whose crowns are located above all other plants of the forest are pollinated by winds. And most shrubs adapted to insect pollination, since there is almost no wind under the forest canopy. But there are exceptions - hazel. It blooms when tall trees are not yet covered with foliage and the wind carries pollen freely.
Adapting to life under the trees with a lack of light is the color of the petals of grassy plants. In the dark coniferous forest dominates the white color of the corolla, clearly visible to pollinating insects. A plant that blooms before the leaves of trees and shrubs bloom or that grow on forest glades and forest edges have flowers with brightly colored petals.
Interspecific relationships in any community depend on the availability of food and its consumers. Food links are the basis of the nutrient cycle in the forest ecosystem. They unite certain species of animals and plants in a community, and the more diverse the species composition of an ecosystem, the more complex the food chain.
The richness and diversity of plants producing a huge amount of organic matter, attracts species of animals from the simplest forms to the highest - birds and mammals - in oak forests. Herbivorous insects serve as food for predators. In the forest there is a rich fauna of parasitic insects (riders, flies), which live on predators, feed at their expense. Numerous in the forest are superparasites, that is, species that feed on parasites.
Food chain in the forest
Various types of land are covered with forests of various kinds. It is the lungs and the instrument of purification of our planet.
It is not for nothing that many progressive modern scientists and activists are against mass deforestation today.
The food chain in the forest can be quite diverse, but, as a rule, includes no more than 3-5 links. In order to understand the essence of the issue, we turn to the possible components of this chain.
Producers and consumers
- The first - autotrophic organisms that feed on inorganic food. They take energy and matter to create their own bodies, using gases and salts from their environment. As an example - green plants that are powered by sunlight through photosynthesis. Or numerous types of microorganisms that live everywhere: in the air, in the soil, in the water.
It is the producers that make up the majority of the first link in almost any food chain in the forest (examples will be given below). The second are heterotrophic organisms that feed on organic matter. Among them - the first order are those that directly feed at the expense of plants and bacteria, producers.
Second order - those who eat animal food (predators or carnivores).
With them, as a rule, begins the chain of food in the forest. They are the first link in this cycle. Trees and shrubs, grasses and mosses extract food from inorganic substances using sunlight, gases and minerals. The food chain in the forest, for example, can begin with a birch, the bark of which is eaten by the hare, and, in turn, is killed and eaten by the wolf.
In various forests, animals that feed on plant food are abundant. Of course, tropical forest, for example, is very different in its content from the lands of the middle belt.
Different species of animals live in the jungle, many of which are herbivores, which means that they constitute the second link in the food chain, feeding on plant food. From elephants and rhinos to scarcely visible insects, from amphibians and birds to mammals.
For example, in Brazil, for example, more than 700 species of butterflies are found, almost all of them are herbivorous.
Poor, of course, fauna in the forest belt of the middle part of Russia. Accordingly, the options for the food chain in a mixed forest are much smaller. Squirrels and hares, other rodents, deer and moose, hares are the basis for such chains.
Predators or carnivores
They are so called because they eat the flesh, eating the meat of other animals. In the food chain occupy a dominant position, often being the final link.
In our forests, they are foxes and wolves, owls and eagles, sometimes bears (but generally they refer to omnivores that can eat both plant and animal food). Both one and several predators eating each other can take part in the food chain.
The final link, as a rule, is the largest and most powerful carnivorous. In the forest of the middle lane, for example, a wolf can perform this role. There are not too many such predators, and their population is limited to the nutritional base and energy reserves.
Since, according to the law of conservation of energy, during the transition of nutrients from one link to the next, up to 90% of the resource may be lost. Probably, therefore, the number of links in most food chains can not exceed five.
They feed on the remains of other organisms. Strangely enough, there are also quite a lot of them in nature: from microorganisms and insects to birds and mammals. Many bugs, for example, use corpses of other insects and even vertebrates as food.
And bacteria can decompose dead mammals in a relatively short time. Scavenger organisms play a huge role in nature. They destroy matter, transforming it into inorganic substances, release energy, using it for their vital functions.
If it were not for the scavengers, then, probably, the whole earthly space would have been covered with the bodies of animals and plants that had died in all times.
Examples of food chains in the forest
To make a food chain in the forest, you need to know about those inhabitants who live there. And also about what these animals can eat.
- Birch bark - insect larvae - small birds - birds of prey.
- Hot leaves - bacteria.
- Butterfly caterpillar - mouse - snake - hedgehog - fox.
- The acorn - the mouse - the fox.
- Cereals - Mouse - Owl.
There are more authentic: burnt foliage - bacteria - rain worms - mice - mole - hedgehog - fox - wolf. But, as a rule, the number of links is no more than five. The food chain in the spruce forest is slightly different from similar in deciduous.
- Seeds of cereals - sparrow - wild cat.
- Flowers (nectar) - butterfly - frog - too.
- Fir cone - woodpecker - eagle.
Food chains can sometimes intertwine with each other, forming even more complex, multi-level structures that unite into a single forest ecosystem. For example, a fox does not hesitate to feed on insects and their larvae and mammals, thus, several food chains intersect.
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How to make a diagram of the food chain characteristic of the forest community?
How to make a diagram of the food chain characteristic of the forest community?
- For the ordinary forestry community, you can come up with a lot of power schemes, the main thing is to connect your imagination to this business and knowledge of biology from primary school. And here are some examples of several schemes:
- Consider examples of food chains for the forest community:
- Bacteria - worms - birds of the corvidae family,
- Earthworms - mole - weasel - lynx,
- Wood nuts - squirrel - a pine marten - an owl,
- Insect larvae - ants - bear.
You can make a lot of chains, knowing the inhabitants of a particular forest. It must be remembered that there should be 3-4 representatives in one food chain, not more.
- perishing - frog - butterfly,
- bark of trees - bark beetle - cuckoo,
- acorns - jay - eagle,
- leaves - caterpillar - woodpecker,
- berry - worm - bird - man.
For the forest zone, you can make a lot of food schemes, as in the forest, in contrast to the steppe or desert, many animals live, many plants grow, there live beetles and insects.
For all schemes you need to turn on the imagination. Rate someone who eats and then you will not go wrong. A hare cannot eat a large animal, such as a wolf.
So the wolf will be on top of the chain. The hare feeds on aspen leaves, so the second link is the hare, and the bottom is the aspen.
This is the shortest version of aspen-wolf.
But the food chain of five components: the caterpillar starts it and the fox finishes. Pretty long chain characteristic of the food community.
Consider the most basic supply chains for the forest.
The hare feeds on the ax, at one time the wolf will eat the hare.
A vole mouse eats grain, and a fox hunts it. A mouse can also become a prey for an owl, a lynx.
Grass-eating herbivores, herbivores, and carnivores in turn.
By drawing it is very easy to make a food chain for forest dwellers.
Since plants form the basis of the forest, the food chain begins with them or insects, then insectivorous or herbivorous animals, and then predators. Depending on the type of forest (coniferous, deciduous, mixed), you can make these chains:
Such food chains usually begin with a plant or an insect. Then there will be birds, then animals.
Here is an example of such a chain:
quot, Oak bark, quot, bark beetle, quot, cuckoo ,.
Many different schemes are presented below:
First you need to see what animals live in the forest and then see who feeds on whom.
Examples of the scheme of the power supply chain of the forest:
And you can make many more of these power circuits.
In order to draw up a nutrition pattern characteristic of the forest community, it is necessary to have certain knowledge about where this forest is located, who lives in nm. It will be easier for the child to cope with the task if he draws representatives of the flora and fauna of one or another forest zone, denoting with arrows the corresponding links between them:
As a hint, you can use the table schema.
Here are examples of schemes for the food chain of the inhabitants of forest zones:
Plants, herbs - deer - tiger,
Plants, grasses - hare - fox (owl, tiger),
Leaves - caterpillar - beetle - spider - f (shrew) - fox (ermine),
Leaves - earthworm - blackbird - falcon (owl), etc.
Features and examples of food chains in animals
Any living creature on our planet for normal development requires nutrition. Nutrition is the process of energy supply and the necessary chemical elements in a living organism.
The food source for some animals are other plants and animals. The process of transfer of energy and nutrients from one living organism to another occurs by eating one another. Some animals and plants serve as food for others.
Thus, energy can be transmitted through several links.
The totality of all the links in this process is called power circuit. An example of a food chain can be seen in the forest, when a bird eats a worm, and then becomes food for the lynx itself.
All kinds of living organisms, depending on what place they occupy, are divided into three types:
Consuments is the next link.. The role of consuments is performed by heterotrophic organisms, that is, those that do not produce organic substances themselves, but are used in food by other organisms.
Consumer can be divided into several levels. For example, the first level includes all herbivores, some species of microorganisms, and also plankton.
Rodents, hares, moose, boars, antelopes and even hippos - all belong to the first level.
The second level includes small predators such as: wild cats, minks, ferrets, plankton-eating fish, owls, snakes. These animals serve as food for the third level consumers, larger predators.
These are animals such as: fox, lynx, lion, hawk, pike, etc. Such predators are also called higher. Top predators do not necessarily eat only those who are at the previous level.
For example, a small fox can become a prey of a hawk, and a lynx can hunt both rodents and owls.
These are organisms that process the waste products of animals and their dead flesh into inorganic compounds. These include some types of fungi, rotting bacteria. The role of decomposers is to close the circulation of substances in nature.
They return to the soil and air water and the simplest inorganic compounds that producers use for their vital functions. Reducers recycle not only dead animals, but also for example, fallen leaves, which begin to rot in the forest or dry grass in the steppe.
All food chains exist in constant relationship with each other. The combination of several food chains is a food chain.. This is a kind of pyramid consisting of several levels. Each level is formed by certain links of the food chain. For example, in chains:
- a fly - a frog - a heron,
- grasshopper - snake - falcon,
A fly and a grasshopper will belong to the first trophic level, a snake and a frog to the second, and a heron and a falcon to the third.
Types of food chains: examples in nature
They are divided into pasture and detritus. Pasture supply chains common in the steppes and in the world ocean. The beginning of these chains are producers. For example, grass or seaweed. Next come first-order consumers, for example, herbivores or babies and small crustaceans that feed on algae.
Next in the chain are small predators, such as foxes, minks, ferrets, perches, owls. The superhistammers, such as lions, bears, crocodiles, close the chain. Superfoods are not prey for other animals, but after their death they serve as food material for decomposers. Reducers are involved in the decomposition of the remains of these animals.
Detritic power circuits originate from rotting organic matter. For example, from decaying foliage and leftover grass or from fallen berries. Such chains are common in deciduous and mixed forests. Fallen rotting leaves - woodlouse - raven. Here is an example of such a food chain.
Most animals and microorganisms can simultaneously be links of both types of food chains. An example of this is the woodpecker, feeding on bugs that decompose a dead tree. These are representatives of the detrital food chain. And the woodpecker itself can become prey for a small predator, for example, for a lynx.
The lynx can also hunt rodents - representatives of the pasture food chain.
Any food chain can not be very long. This is due to the fact that only 10% of the energy of the previous level is transferred to each subsequent level. Most of them are from 3 to 6 links.
This video will help you understand the food chain of animal nutrition.
Energy conservation and loss
The creatures of the previous link of the food chain in deciduous forests serve as food base for the subsequent link.
Thus, energy is transferred from one organism to another and the circulation of substances in nature. But at the same time a huge part of this energy is lost (up to 90%).
Perhaps that is why the number of food chain links in deciduous forests, as a rule, is no more than five or six to the maximum.
Food Chains in Biology
All living beings of our planet are interconnected by one of the strongest bonds - food. That is, someone for someone is food or speaking a scientific language - food supply. Herbivores eat plants, herbivores themselves are eaten by predators, which in turn can also be eaten by other, larger and stronger predators.
These peculiar food links in biology are called food chains.
Understanding how the ecosystem of the food chain works gives scientists biologists an idea of the various nuances of the evolution of living organisms, helps to explain the behavior of some animals, to understand where the legs of these or other habits of our four-legged friends grow from.
In general, there are two main types of food chains: the eating chain (also known as the pasture food chain) and the detrital food chain, which is also called the decomposition chain.
Pasture supply chain
The pasture food chain as a whole is simple and clear, its essence is briefly described at the beginning of the article: plants serve as food for herbivores and are called producers in scientific terminology. Herbivorous, eating plants are called consumers (from Latin this word is translated as "consumers") of the first order.
Small predators are second-order consumers, while larger ones are third order.
In nature, there are also longer food chains, numbering five or more links, such are found mainly in the oceans, where the larger (and voracious) fish eat smaller ones, they in turn eat even smaller ones, and so on up to algae.
Closes the links of the food chain is a special happy link that no longer serves food to anyone. This is usually a man, of course, provided that he is careful and does not try to swim with sharks or walk with lions)). But seriously, such a locking link power in biology is called a decomposer.
Detrital supply chain
But here everything happens a little bit the other way around, namely the energy supply chain energy flows in the opposite direction: large animals, be they predators or herbivores die and decompose, smaller animals, various scavengers (for example, hyenas) feed on their remains the queue also dies and decomposes, and their mortal remains are similarly served as food, or, for even smaller lovers of dead body (for example, some species of ants), or for various special microorganisms. Microorganisms, processing the remains, secrete a special substance called detritus, hence the name of this food chain.
A more visual scheme of the food chain is shown in the picture.
The study of the length of the food chain provides scientists with answers to many questions, for example, about how favorable the habitat of animals is. The more favorable the habitat, the longer the natural food chain will be due to the abundance of various animals that serve each other’s food. But the longest food chain in fish, and other inhabitants of the ocean depths.
At the heart of any food chain are food bonds and energy, which is transmitted from eating one representative of the fauna (or flora) to another. Thanks to the energy received, consumers can continue their livelihoods, but in turn also become dependent on their food (food supply).
For example, when the famous migration of lemmings, serving as food for various arctic predators: foxes, foxes, owls, occurs, there is a reduction in the population not only of the lemmings themselves (massively dying during these very migrations), but also of the predators that feed on lemmings, and some of them even migrate with them.
And in addition we offer you an educational video about the value of food chains in biology.
“Circuit and Power Network” lesson Objectives: Educational: to give the concepts of “power chain”, “power network”
- give the concept of "power circuit", "power network",
- consider the classification of power circuits,
- find out the role of various power circuits.
- continue to develop skills to work with handouts,
- develop intellectual abilities and creative thinking of students.
- to continue the formation of a scientific worldview for understanding the unity of living nature.
Equipment: handouts with the names of animals and plants that form certain food chains, drawings and photographs of plants, birds, mammals, insects and other animals used in the construction of food chains, a projector, a computer, a multimedia presentation. Lesson plan
- Actualization of knowledge.
- Presentation of the new material:
- The concept of the food chain.
- Types of power circuits with their characteristics.
- Power network.
During the classes. Oral class survey on the topics covered: - What is the community of living organisms? Give examples of natural communities. - Which groups of organisms belong to communities? - Explain why plants in communities are called producers. - Which group do animals belong to and why? - what is the significance of bacteria and fungi in the community?
- Presentation of new material.
Introductory word of the teacher: in any community of living organisms all organisms - both producers, consumers, and destroyers are interconnected and dependent on each other. What do you think are the most important connections between living organisms and why?
Indeed, among environmental links, the most important are usually called food links, or power circuit, because through them from one organism to another substances and energy are transmitted. What are the food chains and how they differ, with this material we will get acquainted in today's lesson (recording the lesson theme).
1. The concept of the food chain.
All living organisms need energy throughout their lives. Most of the necessary energy goes into living organisms with food, which is formed by light energy.
That's right, manufacturers. What then happens to organic substances created by plants?
Indeed, they are eaten by herbivores, then carnivores and predators. This is how food chains, or food chains, are formed. ^
Power circuit - a chain through which substances and energy are transferred from one organism to another.
Any supply chain consists of links. Moreover, the number of links, as a rule, does not exceed 5-6. ^
The fact is that during the transition from one organism to another, most of the substances and energy are lost, dissipated in the form of heat. Each subsequent link receives only a small part of the energy (usually 10%).
The first link in different food chains can be represented either by living plants, or dead organisms or animal droppings, or by other living organisms.
Depending on this, there are 3 types of power supply: discharge chains, decomposition chains and parasitic chains.
2. Types of power circuits with their characteristics.
Pupil on the board charts the types of food chains.
PARASITIC DISCUSSIONS CHAIRS: Teacher's word: you and I will characterize the power supply according to the following plan:
- initial link in the chain
- sequence of all chain links,
- explanation of the name of the food chain,
- examples of food chains of this type,
- role in the ecosystem.
To build examples of power circuits, handouts are used, which lies with each student on the desk. Draw up the result of the work will be in the form of a table. In the fourth column, the guys contribute examples of the power circuits that they have obtained when working with handouts.
^ (write in the first column of the table).
What do you think organisms will form the first link in these food chains. That's right, living plants (entry in the second column of the table). Name the sequence of links in a given food chain, that is, which organisms will be in second place, which will be in third, etc.
Учитель на доске записывает последовательность звеньев, а ученики вносят информацию в третью колонку таблицы. Производитель (продуцент) – травоядный потребитель (консумент I) – плотоядный потребитель (консумент II) – хищник (консумент III).
^ . Найдите информацию в учебнике «Экология, 5 класс» на стр. 89. Зачитайте:
«…Называются эти цепи питания так потому, что растения образуют органических веществ значительно больше, чем того требуется для их жизни. "Surplus" created by plants of organic substances used by animals…»
The word of the teacher: the following pattern is characteristic of the chains of departure: the body size of animals leaving this chain increases with distance from the first link.
^ . Remove the handout from the file. Spread out on the desk.
A small hint: each of you should have two examples of a chain of eating. One chain of forest community, and another field.
Choose the names of the organisms that you think should make up the chain of consumption (independent work - 5 minutes).
^ . Checked composed chains. The indicated groups of organisms are shown in drawings and photographs, as well as in the form of a multimedia presentation. Pupils contribute two examples, obtained in the course of working with handouts, in column 4 of the table.
^ ? Pupils make assumptions. The correct answer is read from the textbook: “Preorganization of organic matter formed in plants". Enter read in the fifth column of the table.
acorns - jay - goshawk acorns - acorn weevil - song thrush - sparrowing hawk cereal seeds - forest mouse - owl - fox bark and oak wood - bark beetle - spotted woodpecker - sparrow hawk grass - hare - fox - eagle oak leaves - leaf cutter - Slavic monkeyhead - sparrow hawk oak juice - oak barbel - nightingale - common buzzard nuts - squirrel - buzzard ordinary acorns - squirrel - forest marten
Grasses - vole - meadow harrier Grasses - ground squirrel - fox - eagle Grasses - field mouse - steppe ferret - saker Grass - vole - weasel Grasses - vole - ermine - kestrel
2. ^ (write to the first column of the table).
What do you think organisms will form the first link in these food chains. Correctly, dead organic residues, both plant and animal (entry in the second column of the table). Name the sequence of links in a given food chain.
The teacher records the sequence of links on the blackboard, and the students enter the information in the third column of the table. Dead matter (detritus) - an organism that feeds on detritus (detritus, scavenger) - carnivorous consumer (consumer II) - predator (consumer III).
^ . Find the information in the textbook “Ecology, Grade 5” on page 90. Read:
Let's build a decomposition chain. Hint: each of you will get an example of a single decomposition chain. Choose the names of the organisms that you think should make up the decomposition chain (independent work - 3 minutes).
^ . The decomposition chains are checked. The indicated groups of organisms are shown in drawings and photographs, as well as in the form of a multimedia presentation. Pupils bring the example obtained in the course of working with handouts into 4 columns of the table.
^ ? Pupils make assumptions. The correct answer is read from the textbook: "Decomposition of dead organic residues to simpler compounds". Enter read in the fifth column of the table.
fallen leaves - earthworm - blackbird - sparrowing hawk fallen leaves - earthworm - mole dung - beetle beetle - fry - sparrowing hawk - fallen leaves - earthworm - robin - common buzzard
3. ^ (write to the first column of the table).
What do you think organisms will form the first link in these food chains. That's right, living organisms, and plants, and animals, and fungi (entry in the second column of the table). Name the sequence of links in a given food chain.
The teacher records the sequence of links on the blackboard, and the students enter the information in the third column of the table. A living host organism - parasite - parasite - parasite.
^ . Find the information in the textbook “Ecology, Grade 5” on page 91. Read:
«Parasitic chains form organisms that live at the expense of other organisms. They use them as a habitat and food source. These organisms are called parasites, and the living organism, due to which they live, is called the host. ”
The word of the teacher: the following pattern is characteristic of parasitic chains: the body size of animals leaving this chain decreases with distance from the first link.
^ . Hint: each of you will get an example of one parasitic chain. Choose the names of the organisms that you think should make up a parasitic chain (independent work - 3 minutes).
^ . The parasitic chains are checked. The indicated groups of organisms are shown in drawings and photographs, as well as in the form of a multimedia presentation. Pupils bring the example obtained in the course of working with handouts into 4 columns of the table.
^ ? Pupils make assumptions. The correct answer is read from the textbook.: “Transformation of organic matter". Enter read in the fifth column of the table.
dog - flea - protozoa - bacteria man - ascaris - bacteria cow - liver fluke - bacteriaDuring the work on the lesson, the students in notebooks will make a table
Animal Feed Examples
We offer you to get acquainted with examples illustrating nutritional chains in animals. Before proceeding directly to the examples themselves, it should be briefly noted that these chains are in general of themselves.
This concept in biologyis the so-called food web, consisting of various types of plants, microorganisms,
mushrooms, insects, animals, birds, interconnected by one rule:food is a consumer. In food chains there is a transfer of energy and substances from food to the consumer. Usually, the supply chain consists of 4-5 links, it all depends on the flora and fauna of the selected area. The longest supply chain refers to the ocean.
- Fallen leaves - earthworm - Medvedka - hedgehog - owl,
- Grass - grasshopper - frog - snake - hedgehog - fox,
- Fallen leaves - bacteria - protozoa - fish - nutria - reed cat,
- Algae - crustaceans - fish - bird - man.
- Phytoplankton - zooplankton - fish - predatory fish - dolphin.
For a variety of topics and examples, you can also familiarize yourself with the chains in other areas of the Earth:
In the forest, the Desert (there is material in the pictures)
Freshwater, Swamp, In the meadow, Pond,
In the steppe (This includes the field), Earth or Soil
In the water, the Tundra (There is a picture).
Go to these articles and use. They are excellent help students 2, 3, 4, 5 classes.
On some pages there are both models and charts. Looking at the presented long chains you can draw them in your notebook much easier. Many of them begin with plants and end with large animals or humans. Also, you can choose the ones that are most suitable for your region. The main thing is to carefully read the submitted material.
Many of our users ask for an example of one of the chains suitable for a river. Here, please, characteristic of the river:
seaweed → small crustaceans of such species as Cyclops or Daphnia → Crucian or Roach → Pike - and of course Man
There is still interest in the taiga. In the taiga also living creatures a lot is found, and therefore there will be something to say about this habitat. So, for taiga the following sequence will be most characteristic:
Pine seeds → Belochka → Marten → Hawk
Surely many have cottages and villages. There in the summer you can watch the blooming gardenwhich gives a variety of fruits. For this reason, teachers have an interest in the topic of the garden. They can ask you to create one of the multiple food chains in the garden.
The most successful in this regard is such:
Apple → Caterpillar → Bird → and the closing link is Cat or Cat
Sasha VinokurMy example consists of 3 links: Acorns → Mouse → Owl
Savely Petrov bluegrass caterpillar crake
Alexey Kulik help with the presence of lynx in the chain?
Zhenya Saenko Still Mosquito - frog - catfish (maybe a snake) - man - And thanks
Roma Boyko Ummm ... by biology there won't be exactly 5, the chains are not correct, and there are no lions in the desert - guys Answer: Roma, we checked your remark and it turned out that you are just not attentive! On the Desert Food Chains page is clearly written in front of them - Characteristic for savanna ... So there are presented not only for the desert, but also for Savannah. So be careful!
Guys, do not flood the comments! Imagine better known connections - you will greatly help your peers with this!
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