Feeding kids from the first days of life can be done in a variety of ways. However, it is worth remembering that the interval between the moment of birth and the beginning of feeding with colostrum should be small. The maximum rate of such a period should be 1 hour. The whole point is this. Newborn kids are born with a very weak immunity. As a result, they are subject to the influence of many diseases. Their blood does not contain the necessary antibodies. But thanks to the colostrum, the weak kids are getting stronger. Their body receives a portion of antibodies, which will be aimed at strengthening the body's defenses. In addition, colostrum for kids is an unusually tasty substance.
It should be noted that colostrum is not only a source of vital antibodies. It is also considered a kind of inhibitor of the digestive process. The rapid production of colostrum by the body contributes to the fact that lactic acid bacteria appear in the kid's stomach, which protect against the development of various kinds of infectious diseases. In this case, the harmful bacteria do not gain access to the stomach and intestines. Also useful bacteria improve digestion, accelerate the release of feces.
Feeding kids from the first days of life: description
Feeding kids under the uterus is used in cases where goats have a low milk yield. Then the finding of kids with uterus is extended to 4 months of age. Then they are transferred to another feed (for example, milk replacer). When feeding the kids from the first days of life occurs on the suction, you must carefully check that the udder is clean and healthy, and the milk itself is normally produced. Usually, after childbirth, the kid begins to suck on its own, but it is better to support him by the tummy, since it is still very difficult for him to stand on legs. In some cases, plugs appear in the nipples of the goats, which prevent the kids from getting to the milk. It should be noted that very weak kids are completely unable to get to the milk because of the cork. Therefore, before feeding the kids, it is recommended to milk the first trickle.
The first time a newborn goat is allowed to goat an hour after its birth. She feeds them about 6-8 times a day. From the 11th day of life, kids start feeding on freshly cooked and chilled oatmeal. Every day they put in the feeder fresh hay. Dairy-free feeding is transferred within 10 days.
Feeding pasteurized milk
An artificial milk substitute can find its own alternative. This pasteurized goat milk is of natural origin. Pasteurization is necessary in order to destroy all harmful microorganisms, thus making milk suitable for consumption some time after milking.
Pasteurization can be carried out in two ways - quickly and slowly. Fast pasteurization is that the milk is heated for half a minute to a temperature of 74 degrees Celsius. When using the slow method, the temperature will be slightly lower (64 degrees Celsius), but the exposure time is longer (you need to withstand half an hour). For the purpose of preparing pasteurized milk, you can use an ordinary plate with a thermometer or a household pasteurizer.
After the procedure, you must quickly cool the milk in some sterile dishes. It must be remembered that any item that touches milk should be sterilized to avoid contamination. A slightly different technology is used to heat the colostrum. The colostrum should be heated to a temperature of 56 degrees Celsius, and then kept for an hour. Such a process is capable of destroying all harmful microorganisms, and important for the kid, antibodies, on the contrary, to keep in an active state.
When feeding kids from the first days of life is carried out without a uterus, in most cases, bottles or cups are used to water the animals. The milk container must be clean. It should always be remembered that as the kids grow, they become active, they can butt, striking at the same time a bottle-feeding person. It should be noted that feeding a newborn goat with a bottle with a nipple will take a long time.
Feeding from the pan
Kids can be taught to use their own milk from the very birth. To feed the animal from the pan is an unusual method, but the kids like this way of feeding the most. This is because they can then drink as much milk as they want. Feed the kids from a bowl or pan can be from the moment of use of colostrum. The kid will be happy to drink milk if it is preheated to a temperature of 40 degrees Celsius (that is, a couple of degrees above the usual temperature). When a goat kid sees a pot or a bowl of milk for the first time, it will not work right away. Therefore, it is necessary to dip his face in a container of milk. Most often this will be enough for the kid to understand what to do next. At first, you can use small cups for watering the kid, which can soon be exchanged for a pot or a bowl. A cup or pan is much easier to wash than a plastic bottle. In addition, there will be unexpected costs associated with the purchase of nipples and bottles. But there is also a small minus in feeding from the pan - often kids put their feet in a tank, so they pour it over.
Feeding and caring for kids from birth to 30 days next.
Before reaching the age of 30 days, it is recommended to feed the kids at least 4 times a day, that is, every 5 hours. The kid’s breakfast should start at six in the morning and dinner at 9 in the evening.
At the age of 10 days, a small amount of hay or brooms can be added to the trough of a kid. Also begin to include salt in the diet (4-6 g per day will be enough).
At 3 weeks of age, kids are able to cope with various concentrates: bran, flattened oats, crushed oil cake. It is best to add about 10 g of ground chalk or bone meal to these concentrates. Every day, kids cook oatmeal porridge, which must be slightly salted and served warm to animals. All sorts of root vegetables to feed the kids finely chopped.
When the kids are raised, the feeding scheme for kids for up to a month is approximately the following:
- 1-2 days - feed 200 grams of whole milk in one feeding (4 times a day).
- 3-5 days - 225-250 gr are fed (4 times a day).
- 6-10 day - in one feeding give 300 gr.
- From 11th to 20th day, 200 g of oatmeal are fed.
- 21-30 days, except for milk (1200 g per day), 300 g of oatmeal and 300 g of concentrates are given to the goat.
It is worth remembering that since the birth of the kids will need water. Therefore, it is necessary to provide them with a sufficient volume of clean, cold water.
When the kids go on stabling at the age of 8 months, they need to be given one and a half kilograms of hay daily, about 300 grams of concentrates and about one kilogram of different root crops. Such a diet will provide the kid a sufficient amount of nutrients and will promote growth. This scheme of feeding and caring for kids in the first months of life will be able to guarantee a weight gain of up to 4 kg monthly.
The benefits of goat milk
Goat owners are aware that goat milk is more nutritious. In addition, it contains a huge proportion of proteins, fats and dry matter. If you compare it with cow's milk, then it contains essential human amino acids. Goat milk is more fatty. However, it has tremendous anti-infective properties. Many people do not use goat's milk just because of its smell. However, this is not the fault of the animal itself. Milk has a peculiar smell due to the careless attitude of its owners. An animal that is kept clean, the udder is always washed, and the dishes for food are clean will produce unscented milk. The smell of a goat can permeate everything around, including feed, wool, females. It should be noted that goat hair must be scratched once a week so that the pores of the skin do not clog. Otherwise, those substances that must go with the sweat, enter the blood and milk. Experienced breeders know that in order to determine the quality of goat milk, it is only necessary to smell the goat’s head. If the unpleasant smell is absent, then you can be sure that the milk will also be odorless.
Feeding the dairy goat
Goats are often fed food waste (vegetable tops, potato peel). In the hot season, the animals eat pasture, so they do not need extra feeding. The daily ration of goat hay is about 3 kg. For the winter, animals are advised to prepare about half a ton of hay. It should be remembered that fresh grass in summer improves the digestive process of the animal. Although the goats are very unpretentious in the choice of food, but still refuse products spoiled by mold.
Feeding an adult goat
In the summer, goats graze on free grazing or tethered, and only return home in the evening. In winter, they are kept in a shed and only on non-frosty days do goats go for a walk. During the summer day, a goat eats about three kilograms of grass, including branches of shrubs and trees. Despite the abundance of greenery, goats are fed in the morning before grazing and in the evening after.
The question of how to feed a goat does not cause difficulties: the animal eats grain (oats or barley), feed, hay, and vegetables with pleasure.
Green juicy grass nourishes the body of goats with protein, carotene, calcium and other minerals. In the summer, goats get hay after grazing. In winter, hay is one of the main types of food. When harvesting it is better to give preference to bean hay or small grass grass. Useful and shredded carrots with cabbage, beets, potatoes. In the diet, you can add fruits - apples, pears, watermelons and melons.
In winter, along with hay, they are given straw, animals willingly eat the branches of trees with leaves harvested in summer, brush of mountain ash, and fallen leaves, which are stored for a long time in dry places. Calcium and phosphorus necessary for animals are contained in salt - candy, it is constantly kept in the feeder. Special candy can easily be replaced with table salt, chalk and meat and bone meal.
To maintain high milk yield in the cold season, farmers give their wards Trivit and Tetravit.
Compound feed - one of the most popular types of a forage for goats. There are two main ready-made types of feed:
- Polnoratsionny, not demanding top dressings.
- Concentrated, it is given along with hay and straw.
Compound feed is produced in loose form, in the form of granules and briquettes. Together with the compound feed, additives for the treatment and prevention of diseases, urea concentrate, feed mixtures and protein supplements with vitamins for the preparation of compound feed are released.
Compound feed can be prepared independently. The basis is barley with oats (43-45%), wheat and wheat bran (30%), with additives in the form of sunflower and soybean meal, grass meal, salt, dry yeast and premix.
Animal owners need to remember that feed is used as an additive to the main menu, and not as the only type of feeding.
In the summer, the goats enjoy drinking well water, in the winter, the goats should be given only warm water. Water goats after daytime and evening feeding. Each animal needs eight to ten liters of water per day. To protect uterus, young and goat makers from avitaminosis, animals are watered with vitamin decoction of medicinal herbs. For decoctions suitable raspberry, cherry, strawberry leaves, berries of viburnum, mountain ash.
Instead of pure water, animals can drink steamed feed in large quantities of water once a day.
At home, use two types of feeders: for hay with straw, tree branches and for dry food, or put universal feeders for goats. Goat feeders are located in the corners of the shed or come to the wall, they are set at a meter height so that the goat or goat will not climb into them. The number of feeders is determined depending on the number of the herd, since all animals must have free access to feed. For hay, a feeder is used, resembling a fence, since wooden slats allow animals to freely eat food. For dry fodder in the room they put tanks like tanks, half of a barrel.
There are three ways of feeding the kids - on the suction or feeding by the uterus, artificially, in a combined way. The easiest way to raise healthy animals is to trust the goat to feed the kids from the first days of life.
After lambing, a goat is delivered to the mother for an hour, after it is pre-sedated, the goat has some colostrum.
When applying the suction method, the farmer must monitor the condition of the goat's udder, and if necessary, decant the colostrum or milk.
Kids learn from their mothers, imitating everything. After five days, the goatling tastes hay, in ten days begins to chew soft hay, branches of trees with leaves, drink warm water. After another five days, he can be given feed. In three weeks, chopped carrots, cabbage and pumpkin are injected into the diet, as well as top dressing - five grams of salt with bone meal, and a little chalk. The amount of top dressing is gradually increased so that in three months it will double.
If a goat has two to three babies, young animals at a monthly age include twenty to thirty grams of concentrated feed in the daily diet, and increase its amount to two hundred to three hundred grams over two months.
Starting from three months, kids start to take away from the uterus: first for the night, then for the day, for two days and transfer to independent maintenance.
After weaning the youngsters, instead of milk, milk porridges and mixes can be given, so during the week the youngsters are completely transferred to adult food.
In this case, immediately after the birth of the kids, they are transferred to a warm room. Within an hour they are watered with warm, filtered colostrum from bottles with nipples. While the goat gives colostrum, it is decanted and given to the kids in a pair condition, if there is no colostrum, they are watered with milk for a decade five times a day.
If goat milk is not, give a cow or purchased, pasteurized.
The first feeding occurs in the early morning - 5 or 6 hours, the last at 9 pm. Water the goats out of bottles with nipples, from bowls or pour milk into a saucepan. After eating, wash the dishes with boiling water, then dry.
In the first four days, they are given 200 grams of milk, two days later they increase the dose by fifty grams, bringing to three hundred grams at a time. At the eleventh comes the turn of the question than to feed the kids. From this day together with milk the youngsters can receive liquid porridge. The table shows the approximate amount of milk received by kids at one time, and feed.
At two weeks of age, they begin to give hay, fresh grass (if available), and concentrated feed with the addition of chalk and bone meal is introduced into the diet from three weeks. Then the youngsters are taught to chopped root vegetables, ranging from twenty to thirty grams.
At the same time they offer their own home-made feed, which includes bran, rolled oats, bone meal and chalk. In warm weather, kids are released into the street at the age of one month.
By the end of the first month the kids are transferred to four meals a day, by the end of the second to three meals a day. On milk-free food kids are gradually transferred to the fourth month of life.
The table shows the scheme of feeding the kids:
Regardless of the availability of milk, kids are watered with warm water. At seven months, the young are transferred to an adult diet, hay with silage and concentrates, and root vegetables are given. With a balanced diet, the goat in the first six months of the month gains three to five kilograms of weight.
The combined method of cultivation is that newborns are left with a goat for three to four days, then grown artificially.
This method of feeding allows newborns to strengthen the immune system, receiving curative colostrum from the mother, and the owners maintain high yields from the goat.
After the kid was born, his nostrils rubbed with mucus. This important process should not be missed as mucus becomes a source of infection for the baby’s lungs. As long as the skin of a goat cannot regulate heat transfer normally, it should be wrapped in a warm blanket. This is especially true of the cold season. Goat immediately after lambing should be cut the umbilical cord and wash the udder. Part of the milk is decanted, since there are a lot of bacteria in it.
Already after an hour you can start feeding the newborn. During this period, his immunity is very weak, so the body cannot cope with bacteria and viruses. It is very important that the first feeding he received from the mother. After all, it is in breast milk that there are all the necessary nutrients to strengthen the protective properties of the organism in its most natural form.
Чаще всего из-за слабости новорождённые не могут сами вставать на ноги и искать вымя. Хозяину следует помочь козлёнку и его матери в первые дни. Сцедите молозиво и дайте ему сами, с помощью пальца или соски. After all первое кормление для него очень важно, именно оно задаёт около 10% массы козлёнка.
Уход за козлятами в первый год жизни
Если они родились от молочной козы, то их забирают и держат отдельно от взрослых. Usually, if a goat is not very milking, then a goat can be left for it to feed.
Kids eat in the first days every two hours. Give them the necessary fresh colostrum from the bowl. In order for the kid to drink, it should be taught. To do this, dip a finger in the milk and give the goat to lick, then dip the muzzle in a bowl. It is important that the fingers and the bowl are clean.
Do not replace the colostrum with anything else. Thanks to him, the animal's stomach begins to function and is cleared of feces. Already starting from the third week, pets begin to put hay in the feeder. Be sure to add salt to the feed. Thus, gradually, the goatling is accustomed to feeding adults.
Feeding is done during the winter months. from six in the morning until eight in the evening, and in the summer from five in the morning and also to eight.
Since the age of seven months, the kids already give five kilograms of hay, 0.3 kg of feed and a kilogram of vegetable root crops. If the food is organized properly, the kid will add five kilograms per month in weight.
Vegetables before giving to an animal, wash and cut. Be sure to give the mixture from bone meal, bran and oatmeal.
Natural feeding of kids
Natural way The most convenient and optimal for the kid. The principle of this method is that the baby stays with the mother for up to four months and has as much maternal milk as it wants in the public domain.
After each feeding the goat kids check the udder at the goat and decant the milk residues. Kids can not eat all the colostrum in the first days.
Top dressing in the form of bone meal, salt and chalk begin to enter on the twentieth day after their birth.
A week later, they add to the diet cake and bran.
In four months already wean children from their mother. This process usually takes a week. Wean from milk gradually, after a day, giving a drink from the udder.
One of the minuses of natural feeding is that babies are very sensitive to weaning. In the first days, they refuse to eat anything and constantly bleat.
Two weeks after the termination of natural feeding, the kids continue to give milk formulas from the bottle. This is mainly talkers with bran and flour. Gradually, milk is replaced by oatmeal.
Advantages and disadvantages of this method:
- Mother's milk is a natural product that strengthens the baby’s immune system. Fully replace it very hard.
- It is noticed that kids raised on human milk develop faster and do not get sick. They have a lot more weight.
- Goat perfectly teaches their kids to adult food. Thanks to her example, kids start eating hay and other foods.
- Farmer does not need much effort. It can be said, thanks to natural feeding, he gets rid of unnecessary trouble.
- Natural feeding low-cost compared to artificial.
- The disadvantages include the fact that babies born in summer or autumn literally deplete the goat.
- Sometimes a goat has damage to the nipples caused by kids.
This type of feeding is suitable only for small farms or private owners. When in the yard one or two goats of unproductive breed, for example, Russian or zaanenskaya. If the goat gives good milk yield, then this method of feeding is most often refused.
Artificial feeding kids
Apply this method in that case if goats are highly productive. The method of artificial feeding itself lies in the fact that a baby is taken from a goat immediately after birth and fed exclusively with mixtures. At first, it is milk heated to thirty-eight degrees. Give it through a bottle with a rubber teat or through a bowl.
It is imperative to give the goat to the colostrum of the mother, without admitting to the udder. It is colostrum that can perfectly clean the stomach of the newborn from the stool. In addition, there are nutrients in colostrum that it is difficult to find them in an artificial form. As noted, those babies who did not receive colostrum in the first days were often sick and did not gain much weight.
Often it is necessary to translate the goat to artificial food because of mastitis in a goat. You can replace mother's milk with the following composition: vitamins, vegetable fats, emulsifiers and flavoring agents are added to low-fat cow's milk.
Advantages and disadvantages
- Already from the first days of life, you can adjust the process of feeding and the menu of the kid.
- Goat's milk goes to the farmer. Udoi increase.
- Of the minuses of artificial feeding, it is possible to distinguish the cost for the farmer, both financially and in the amount of time spent on caring for a kid.
- The development of kids can significantly slow down if there is a failure in feeding and caring for them.
- Often such pets are subject to various diseases.
Drug for feeding
In the first days of the newborn is fed by rubber nipple bottles. Giving milk from bowls is not possible. Kids for this are still very small and swallow liquids more than required. A cheesy mass forms in the stomach, and babies become emaciated due to constant diarrhea. For them, you can buy the usual infant formula for children up to one year.
With the choice of products for feeding is easy to understand, kids fit all the mixtures intended for children, you can prepare their own milk and other components. It is much more difficult to organize feeding several goatlings at once. This will require some effort.
Farmers advise to do special water from the bucket and attached to it through the nipple holes. Thanks to this design, kids can not swallow more than measures.
At large farms, special feeding machines are installed. Such a device looks like a tank in which the mixture is prepared. In it, it is heated to a certain temperature. Animals do not even need to approach the apparatus, since tubes are brought from it to the cages. This device is able to regulate the feed and the number of feedings. Thus, the kids are constantly fed and most importantly, the food is rationed, which means that the food system of goats remains healthy.
Mixtures for newborn kids and their advantages:
- Goat's milk is best suited. It has 3.6% fat and as much protein.
- Cow's milk is absorbed somewhat worse than goat milk, but in terms of protein and fat content it is almost identical.
- Milk powder for kids is inferior. The amount of protein and fat in it is disproportionately less than that of whole milk - twenty five percent and 25.5%, respectively.
- Felutsen. In its composition contains vegetable fats Protein in it as much as in dry milk - 25.5%.
- A feature of the infant formula is poor profitability. It has a very small amount of protein, only 12% and fat - 4.5%.
As for the priceit is cheaper to feed cows with cow's milk, and feeding the infant formula will cost the most. Absolutely all milk substitutes for goatlings contain in their composition vegetable fats and other components. Thus, manufacturers reduce the price of their products. And, therefore, it is imperative to feed him milk at least in the first two weeks.
When an animal is transferred to a mixture, this should be done gradually, replacing 25% of the milk with a mixture within five days. Add to the mix probiotic Vit or any other.
Starting from one month of age liquid porridges are added to milk. It can be semolina, wheat, oatmeal or corn. Be sure to add bran to the mix. You can continue to feed and milk for some time. Youngsters at that age learn to eat hay, so that later on it would become its main dish on the menu. And upon reaching four months, the goat is transferred to full adult nutrition. He can already be kept with the rest of the adult animals, where he eats from the common feeder.
Kids born in the summer, starting from one month of age, are already grazing on pasture. So babies will be enough to give milk in the morning and evening.
A month later, properly grown strong kids become immune to various changes in the diet and in the menu itself, the stomach does not respond so acutely disorders.
Up to three months, it is advised to give a goat to three glasses of milk a day, and in the third it is enough 1.5–2.
Eating cubs under the uterus
In the first days of life, kids need close presence of the mother. From her kids get the lion's share of healthy and nutritious food - milk. If the owners do not take the kids from the mother's udder, this approach is called natural. It is relevant for small farms, where obtaining high yields is not an end in itself.
Council The scheme is used in the cultivation of downy, wool and meat breeds. The offspring grows healthier, care for him at first easier.
Feeding control begins immediately after the goat lambing. Make sure that after the birth of the kids received maternal colostrum. In addition to nutrition, there is a set of measures to regulate the respiratory, musculoskeletal and cardiac systems. The baby is sometimes so reflexively weak that it cannot find and suck the udder. In this case, milk the colostrum yourself and give it to the kids through the nipple (the approximate amount of fluid is 10% of the mass of the newborn). After a few days, the babies gain strength and begin to suck the mother on their own.
Natural way of feeding
Measures for the care of a goat and its offspring with a natural scheme:
- After feeding the kids, the queens need to be finished. Kids probably will not suck all the milk. If you ignore this, the productivity of the goat will decrease.
- Maintaining dairy performance at a normal level will help overnight stay of young animals with their mother. Kids will suck milk overnight. The measure is convenient for small farms.
- From the 4th week of life, liquid portions are gradually introduced into the diet of the offspring: bran or oatmeal on milk or water. For kids, equip individual troughs with narrower poles and make sure that adults do not take food from the young.
- From the age of one month begin to lure with fresh greens. Add to the daily diet kids feed and processed grain. Start with 50 g per individual and increase the rate every 10 days for the same amount.
In any case, mother's milk should be kids up to 3-4 months. Daily consumption reaches a peak at 5-6 week. Then it is artificially reduced. Compensation of useful substances is carried out at the expense of kasha and talkers.
The principle of nutrition of children with early weaning
In the case of breeding productive dairy varieties such as Zaanen or White Russian, the owners try to immediately take away the newborn goat from the mother. Postnatal manipulations are performed on crumbs, given with colostrum, and immediately sent to a separate pen for young stock. All these procedures must be done in 30 minutes. The biggest is in an hour. If you even tighten a little, the livestock will lag behind in development and get problems with digestion or breathing.
Attention! Colostrum (previously milk) should be taken from a dying goat immediately. Only in this way you will receive a complete set of trace elements, vitamins and organic substances for young animals.
In this approach, the following periodization of feeding of kids is distinguished:
- colostrum - up to 10 days,
- Milk - up to one month
- mixed transition - up to 2-3 months.
Colostrum is given 4-6 times a day, exclusively from the nipple. This is the most valuable product in the first two days. Milk him too much and freeze. Milk is inferior to colostrum in nutritional value, but it forms the immunity of the animal. They are watered babies from the nipples or from bowls.
Nuances of feeding with early weaning
At about 10 months of age, masters or milk porridge are slowly driving into the diet of the stiffened kids. They are poured into ordinary feeders or bowls. If the goat is still not used to this method of feeding, do the following:
- Take the animal in your arms and hold the tank to its face,
- dip your finger and let suck
- Repeat several times, gently lowering your finger closer to the bowl.
The scheme will help to understand the age-related changes in feeding the kids. Consider the following nuances:
- the nipple in the initial stages of each animal must be individual,
- replacement of one type of feed to another occurs gradually: 1/3 for 3 days,
- The first adult meal is talkers of wheat and oat bran,
- from 4 weeks youngsters begin to feed with hay and concentrates, up to 5-6 weeks. The daily rate of this product is 50 g (distributed evenly throughout the day).
Without knowledge of all dietary norms, it is impossible to grow a healthy livestock. In the issue of feeding kids, listen to the advice of experts.