It's no secret that today medicine has a lot of useful information about various oncological diseases. Naturally, this fact will not please anyone, because it indicates a widespread cancer in the community. In addition, often these diseases affect our smaller brothers. A vivid example of this is leukemia in cats (symptoms and treatment, photos of sick animals can be studied in the process of reading the article), often resulting in the death of pets. How and why does the ailment develop, how can a pet be helped and what are the forecasts?
What is leukemia?
White blood - the second name of the disease. It is characterized by a significant increase in the number of still immature leukocytes in the blood. This is how the circulatory system is damaged and the lymphoid and myeloid tissues of a new type are formed, which is malignant. Blood leukemia in cats is caused by an RNA virus (a family of retroviruses).
It is important to note that the incubation period (the time between infection and the appearance of clinical symptoms) in the case of this disease is quite long (from 2 months to 6 years). The insidiousness of the disease lies in the fact that all this time the animal looks perfectly healthy, despite its ability to transmit the leukemia virus to cats to other pets, whose immunity is weakened to the best of any reason.
The disease is usually chronic and is characterized by anemia, ascites and peritonitis, some types of renal and hepatic diseases, as well as lesions of the mammary gland (in cats). It is worth adding that absolutely all breeds can get leukemia (regardless of age or state of health).
Epizootology: patterns of occurrence of the disease
As noted above, the causative agent of FeLV (feline leukemia virus) is an agent from the family of retroviruses. The disease was discovered in 1964 in Scotland (University of Glasgow) by monitoring domestic cats with diseases of the lymphatic system. In the process of numerous studies and experiments, scientists managed to figure out how retroviruses contribute to the appearance of malignant tumors in mammals. By the way, this information has played a significant role in the study of retroviral immunodeficiency - AIDS.
Lymphoma is an oncological disease of pets, which is considered the most common among all malignant tumors. It should be noted that it may have a different etiology. In addition, infected cats have a higher incidence of it than non-infected (an excess of 60-70 times), and it develops in the first 5 years of life. In cats free of this virus, the disease manifests itself at an average of 10 years of age.
Feline leukemia virus and related diseases
It is important that leukemia is considered to be a combination of a number of diseases, in the structure of which there are a great many of their forms: thymus lymphosarcoma, multiple lymphosarcoma, alimentary lymphosarcoma, lymphocytic leukemia and others. They are discussed in detail below.
Nevertheless, absolutely all the elements of the above complex are endowed with a common feature: the appropriateness of uncontrolled cell division of the hematopoietic system. The etiology of the disease is due to viral leukemia in cats, which is relevant when the retrovirus is exposed to the animal organism. Depending on the pathogenesis, this disease is classified into five stages, which have a certain duration. For example, with an adequate response of immunity, the disease can be eliminated at 6-8 weeks, which corresponds to the second or third stage. The constant presence of the virus in the animal body at the fourth or fifth stage, as a rule, is observed after 4-6 weeks after infection. Sometimes this period can be up to twelve weeks.
As noted above, viral leukemia in cats (its symptoms are very diverse) has quite a few elements in its structure, among which is the thymus lymphosarcoma. The most important symptom of the disease are tumors of considerable size in the anterior mediastinum. Lymph nodes become larger, however, the spread of the tumor mass to other nodes is practically excluded. In addition, unhealthy cells can be observed in the blood extremely rarely.
When studying the clinical signs that accompany cats' leukemia (symptoms and pathology treatment are interrelated) of this form, one should single out the enormous size of the tumor within half a month, which causes rapid breathing, as well as shortness of breath and intolerance of physical stress. In addition, there may be difficulties in the process of swallowing due to compression of the esophagus, as well as the relevance of a dull heartbeat. It is important to note that this form of leukemia is most often seen in cats aged two to three years.
Cat leukemia (symptoms discussed above) can also manifest in the form of multiple lymphosarcoma. In this case, it is appropriate to involve the tissues of the whole body in the pathological process. Malignant lymphoid cells are subject to infiltration, due to which lymph nodes are enlarged. Moreover, this oversizing is bilateral. In addition, the spleen increases, and sometimes the liver.
With multiple lymphosarcoma, anemia of a moderate nature occurs (approximately 50 percent of cases). But in the blood of tumor cells can be observed extremely rarely (about 20% of all situations). Treatment of leukemia in cats with multiple lymphosarcoma is carried out only after confirming the diagnosis (through a lymph node biopsy). It is important to note that in 60% of cases this operation has a positive result. The disease usually affects animals under four years of age.
In the case of lymphosarcoma of the alimentary type, the malignant masses are located in the walls of the digestive system. In addition, they can spread to the lymph nodes of a misenteral nature. The tumor is often localized in the colon, small intestine or caecum. Less commonly, it is located in the stomach or rectum. Detection of diffuse infiltration of a significant part of the intestine is extremely rare.
Among the clinical signs of the progress of the disease under consideration, a significant weight loss should be noted, as a rule, leading to anorexia. If the tumor mass clogs the passage of the small intestine, with a probability of one hundred percent vomiting occurs. But diarrhea occurs when a tumor has developed in the small intestine or in its lower part in a diffuse manner. In addition, with alimentary lymphosarcoma, as a rule, anemia occurs. The disease is relevant for cats aged eight years. The test result for viral leukemia is positive in about 30% of cases.
This type of lymphoma is associated with the effect of the tumor mass on the red bone marrow, after which other tissues are involved in the pathological process by the hematogenous route, which acts much more efficiently than the lymphogenous one. As a result, malignant cells can be observed not only in the circulatory system, but also in the spleen and liver.
Among the relevant clinical signs, it is necessary to single out not quite specific phenomena: intermittent fever, apathy, as well as excessive exhaustion, leading to anorexia. The diagnosis is confirmed by hematological activity. Due to the development of anemia, weakness and a complete loss of appetite are appropriate. As a result of thrombocytopenia, petechial hemorrhages occur in both the epidermis and mucous membranes. In addition, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly are often observed. But the lymph nodes with lymphocytic leukemia increase in size is extremely rare. When conducting a test for a disease of the considered form, a positive result occurs in approximately 60 percent of cases.
Leukemia in cats: is the disease transmitted to a person or not?
The virus under consideration is widespread throughout the world, but no particular tendency of its appearance (for example, depending on seasonality) has been identified. However, the disease is actively progressing in regions where there is a special accumulation of stray animals that are carriers of many diseases.
How does leukemia occur in cats? The virus is transmitted through saliva, feces or urine. In addition, there are cases of infection through the activity of parasites (especially fleas). It is important to note that an adult cat is able to provide a virus through the placenta to unborn offspring. Thus, as a result of the pathogenic element entering the unformed kitten's organism, active reproduction is observed in the tonsils and lymphatic tissues of infected cells, which are subsequently formed in the bone marrow.
Many owners of baleen-striated are worried about the question: "Is viral leukemia in cats transmitted to humans, or is this phenomenon ruled out?" Fortunately, such a transmission is not possible. Therefore, it is possible to drop all doubts and concerns, but at the same time not to stop monitoring the health of your pets.
Treatment of leukemia in cats is a very difficult process, but the saddest thing is that it is often impossible to achieve a successful result. Therefore, it is advisable to carry out a number of activities to prevent the penetration of the virus into the pet.
The most effective method of protection is vaccination. On the territory of Russia, the Leicocel vaccine (Pfizer) is widely distributed. It induces strong immune defenses within three weeks after administration. The effect lasts for one year. In addition, the drug Purevax FeLV (Merial), developed in France, is also used.
Among the traditional measures for the prevention of the disease, it is necessary to highlight the periodic washing of cat litter in hot water, as well as thorough washing of hands after contact with other animals in order to prevent infection of their own pets.
In conclusion, it would be advisable to point out several interesting facts regarding viral leukemia in animals:
- The considered virus is very contagious, especially when it comes to large groups of living beings. This should include not only stray cats, but also representatives of elite breeds, a huge number of which are in nurseries. Thus, not only street animals can become infected, but also those acquired from a breeder (for good money, mind you).
- Virus resistance is low, so serious disinfection of the room helps in combating it. If a cat has already died in the house due to a similar disease, it is worth refraining from acquiring a new pet and thoroughly sanitizing all the “hiding places” of the former pet.
- If only one cat lives in the apartment, it should be noted that even in the event of infection, he can live long enough and not get sick, because some animals are asymptomatic carriers of the virus. At the same time, the cat should not contact with other animals in order to exclude infection of its fellows. Leukemia in cats (symptoms, photos of sick animals are presented in the article) is often a serious barrier to pregnancy, because the virus penetrates the placenta. In addition, kittens can be infected from the mother through milk.
- As noted above, the disease is extremely dangerous only for cats. Infection of people with the virus of the considered category is completely excluded, which allows you to discard all fears and continue to effectively care for your pet.
Types of disease
In cats, leukemia is called leukemia, and many immature leukocytes are collected in the vessels. The causative agent of the disease is a virus (retrovirus), penetrating from the outside and residing inside cats constantly. As soon as the immune system becomes weaker, the virus is activated, the disease progresses, after which it penetrates the DNA structure, changing the basic values. Based on the fact that the pathology affects the blood, the viral cells are rapidly spread throughout the body of cats, and the leukemia itself is developing rapidly.
The virus can enter the body through the environment, in which case it can be understood that the pet has become infected somewhere. The second variant of the disease is the appearance of pathogens in the internal organs. They are formed with adverse factors that veterinarians and scientists can not fully determine.
In the body of cats contains a large number of copies of the virus, which are quite safe until certain moments. If their production becomes spontaneous, fast and in large quantities, then this leads to chronic leukemia.
Often, infection of cats occurs from the external environment, usually through blood. The virus itself has a unique structure, as it can be combined with other pathologies, resulting in a hybrid, dangerous form of the disease.
Blood leukemia in cats is very dangerous not only because of the rapid progression. In practice, there are cases when small cats did not live with the disease for more than 2 years after birth. Leukemia in cats can be transmitted, so there is a risk of infection of surrounding animals. Breeders of cats can not worry about their health, because a person is not able to get infected, this means that infected cats will be safe for people.
The course of the disease is severe, and the main provocative factors are not fully found. When diagnosing in the early stages of the disease, the results are often erroneous and it is not always possible to save the cat from death.
There are 3 types of leukemia in cats:
- Chest cavity. A liquid is collected in the chest area, as a result of which the esophagus and trachea become clogged. All this provokes choking, difficulty breathing.
- Abdominal cavity. Visually, this look is similar to the usual upset stomach, cats lose their appetite, jaundice, general dehydration, and delayed stools appear. Cats lose weight very quickly.
- Multifocal. Dangerous species, affecting several internal organs. The treatment is very difficult, but it will not be completely cured. The cat just add a little time for life, but death is inevitable.
In addition to the types of leukemia, there are three forms of the pathology:
- Persistent - when infected, viral forms affect the immune system, suppress it, the cat is unable to cope with the disease on its own. With this form, the pathology quickly develops, after which a lethal outcome occurs.
- Transient - appears in the normal general condition of the cat, the pet can overcome the disease itself. The virus appears in the urine and saliva of cats for 2-3 months, after which it disappears.
- Latent - the disease affects the vital organs, after a while it penetrates the bloodstream, which knocks down the blood circulation.
Apparently leukemia is a terrible and dangerous pathology, often resulting in death. You can save a pet if you know the main symptoms and treatment of leukemia in cats.
Leukemia in cats of viral origin occurs when infected from the external environment. People can not worry about their condition, because the disease is not tolerated by people. The virus itself lives in different places, in water, on grass, trees, then all cats that move freely are at risk. In addition, the possibility of infection increases in nurseries, temporary housing for cats.
Some insects that feed on blood can also carry the virus. Infection occurs at the time of bites.
In pregnancy, leukemia affects not only the female, but also the fruits. In this case, the cat gives birth more often dead kittens or very weak, which can not survive in the external world. Infection of a nursing cat causes milk spoilage, in which case the virus enters the milk.
After infection with leukemia, in animals, viral organisms are secreted through urine, tears and other secretions.
Among the possible causes of veterinarians are the following:
- The disease is transmitted during cat fights, when shelter appears.
- If there are several cats in the house, the infection is carried out through saliva, in the case of food from one plate.
- During courtship of different animals, when they begin to lick each other.
- It is possible that the infection of small cats from the mother itself, but this is rarely seen, since in patients with females milk is often not affected.
Infection most often occurs in cats that walk and live in packs. For example, if a breeder loves cats very much, 3-5 or more cats live in the house at once, then maybe some of them are already affected by the virus. The infection can be transmitted even during normal walks on the street, when cat owners let them go for a walk. Опасность может быть в любом месте, важно следить, дабы домашние коты не «общались» с дворовыми, ведь те зачастую грязные, не имеют прививок, могут передавать вирус лейкоза кошек другим питомцам.
Лейкоз обладает некоторыми характерными симптомами, что позволяют распознать заболевание. Зная их, владельцы могут своевременно провести диагностику питомца и начинать лечение. Signs of leukemia in a cat are:
- At the beginning of the development of pathology, the symptoms do not appear visually, perhaps only a large number of white cells in the blood, lymphocytes appear. The incubation period is from 1 month to six months.
- At the stage of progression, the symptoms become apparent. In cats, appetite worsens or disappears altogether, the body is depleted. All animals with leukemia become lethargic, quickly tired, drowsiness appears.
- Further, malfunctions of the digestive system occur, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, stool begin.
- Cats may have difficult breathing, a kind of cough that is different from a cold.
- The body temperature rises.
- The cat is more irritable or depressed. The behavior changes dramatically.
- On palpation, enlarged lymph nodes are defined.
- There may be discharge from the nose and eyes.
In general, leukemia, viral immunodeficiency can be determined by knowing the symptoms in advance. If you suspect a disease, you should immediately contact a doctor who can determine leukemia and prescribe the necessary treatment.
Before treatment, you need to undergo a thorough diagnosis. It is worth noting that even with certain symptoms, it is impossible to determine leukemia itself. Even experienced doctors in the early development of the disease can not determine the exact cause. If symptoms appear, the following measures are used for diagnosis.:
- Carry out blood sampling for analysis and detailed study.
- The level of leukocytes, anemia is determined.
- Additionally examines the cat's immunity, giving the opportunity to show markers of the virus.
- Used ultrasound and radiography.
- A biopsy, gastroscopy and other methods of examination.
- From different internal organs of the cat, tissue is taken, where the virus is supposedly concentrated.
Despite the symptoms and a number of diagnostic techniques, leukemia is not always possible to determine. There may be no test results, tests are negative, the pet will feel the symptoms as before. In this case, you need to re-diagnose after a few days or weeks.
Animal leukemia is a very dangerous disease, in some cases with subtle symptoms. It is very difficult to treat pathology, it is often fatal. Animal owners can only alleviate the condition, relieve negative symptoms, and slightly increase the lifespan.
Treatment and prognosis
Special treatment of leukemia in fluffy animals today is not. FeLV-therapy relieves symptoms, includes supportive treatment. It includes:
- Vaccination - The best remedy for the treatment of viral leukemia, which is today, but 100% positive results will not. The vaccine is administered twice. For the first time, drugs are administered when they reach 4-6 weeks of age, a month later they are given a second vaccination against leukemia. For adult pets, injections are used every year.
- Immunostimulating Treatment, secondary infection therapy - is characterized by a lifelong treatment regimen, symptoms of the disease indicate the need for the use of certain medications.
- Diet food - plays an important role in leukemia. It is important to exclude raw foods that can harm the body and overall health.
- Leukemia Preventionwhich includes regular standard visits to the doctor 2-3 times a year. At the same time, conduct standard types of diagnosis, determining secondary diseases. Veterinarians prescribe medications to strengthen the immune system. In the treatment of viral leukemia, it is important to rid the pet of worms, fleas and other parasitic organisms.
- When FeLV-infected animal must be kept separately from other pets, to create individual conditions that will allow to exclude the spread of the virus.
- The presence of leukemia in the body may indicate the need for blood transfusions, with the use of certain drugs that correct anemia.
- Chemotherapy - used for the treatment of pathology that is associated with lymphosarcoma, symptoms and x-rays confirm the malignant course of the disease. Regardless of the severity of the condition, treatment can have a positive effect on the health of cats.
Some medications can reduce the activity of the virus, normalize the condition of patients. To do this, use:
- Interferon - recombinant medicine available in different countries. According to studies, the drug has a positive effect in the treatment of leukemia.
- Azidothymidine - An antiviral medication used to treat HIV-infected people, but may be effective in cat leukemia.
- Raltegravir - medication used to treat HIV-related diseases in humans. According to the experiments conducted on the affected cats, there are some improvements. The drug is normally tolerated by the animal body, inhibits the activity of the virus.
Symptoms may change during the treatment of leukemia, it all depends on the animal's immune system and other pathologies. According to statistics, FeLV-infected can live about 2.5 after the virus is diagnosed. The maximum period of life is 4 years, even with proper, effective treatment.
In order to exclude infection, the appearance of leukemia and its symptoms will need to be applied glad measures:
- Ideally, make a pet vaccine against leukemia. Among the drugs used veterinarians recommend Leykotsel that works in the body for a year. Animal health is maintained, the symptoms of the disease simply can not appear.
- Be sure to limit the cat from communication with other animals, especially on the street.
- It is necessary to constantly carry out hygiene, promptly wash and clean a place of rest, trays and plates, it is useful to wash clothes. In this case, the leukemia for the animal is not terrible.
- For small kittens, control of the immune system is important. To do this, it is better to use a balanced diet, additionally put vitamin complexes. Ensure that the baby is warm, to protect him from colds.
- Treatment of any disease to the end and in a timely manner. It is better to start treatment at the first suspicious symptoms, but with the help of veterinarians.
It is worth remembering that the treatment of viral leukemia in cats is impossible on their own, for example, vodka and other folk remedies. It will not give any result, the symptoms of the disease will only worsen. It is almost impossible to cure leukemia, therefore it is better to engage in the prevention of the disease in order to exclude the possibility of infection.
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What is feline leukemia
The second, popular, name of the disease - leukemia. When it is in the blood there is a huge number of immature leukocytes. In this way, the circulatory system is affected and malignant neoplasms are formed.
Leukemia - a viral disease that can be transmitted, in particular, by contact, has an incubation period of several days to several years. Before the first symptoms appear, the cat is carrying the virus when visually absolutely feeling well.
The virus infects the bone marrow; as a result, new, but already diseased blood cells form in the body, and the virus is carried by the bloodstream to all organs.
The disease is dangerous for all cats, regardless of age and breed.
Ways of Leukemia Infection
Viral leukemia in cats is transmitted through saliva, urine, feces, blood, bites. There are cases when the cause of infection was a sucked tick, on the body of which was a virus. Kittens are infected from the cat through the placenta. In this case, the fetus either stops, or the born kittens quickly die after birth.
Symptoms of viral leukemia, or leukemia in cats
Viral leukemia of cats affects the work of the whole organism. The cat becomes sluggish, gets tired very quickly, immunity suffers, the heart and kidneys work is difficult, the cat is exhausted due to improper digestion, fluid may form in the lungs, lymph nodes are enlarged, tumors appear, the liver increases in size, the spleen inflames and also changes in size.
There is currently no specific treatment for leukemia; all therapy is aimed at treating secondary diseases. Drugs that increase immunity, in this case are powerless, because the virus is parasitic in young cells. Sometimes the cat's body does not respond to treatment at all, and a blood transfusion gives an improvement of two days. In this case, the only adequate measure - sleep.
Feline leukemia virus and diseases it provokes
- Anemia occurs
- The risk of developing cancer, lymphoma and lymphosarcoma is critically increasing. Very often occurs lymphosarcoma of the thymus (thymus gland). It is characteristic that this type of cancer occurs in young animals up to three years old. The gland is located between the trachea and the heart, whose function is to produce cells for strong immunity and the destruction of foreign agents. Lymphosarcoma is expressed by extremely large tumors. As a result, the work of the heart deteriorates, because the tumor builds up on him.
- Runs a pathological change in the tissues of the whole organism. The disease is called "multiple lymphosarcoma." Statistics state that the operation to remove tumors of this nature is successful in 60% of cases.
- Possible development of alimentary lymphosarcoma. The disease is localized in the digestive organs, most often affects the stomach and intestines. Vomiting and sudden weight loss are clear signs of illness.
- Likely lymphocytic leukemia - cancer of the bone marrow. The cat becomes apathetic, anorexic, with a completely absent appetite, weak. Various hemorrhages are possible.
The causative agent and the mechanism of the disease
Feline leukemia causes an RNA-containing oncogenic retrovirus Feline leukemia virus, (FeLV). The disease is transmitted by direct contact with a sick animal, as well as by airborne droplets, through urine or saliva.
Important! Feline leukemia virus is not dangerous for humans. In humans, leukemia most often develops as a result of exposure to radioactive radiation or chemicals, and its infectious form is caused by the T-lymphotropic Deltaretrovirus virus, which affects only primates.
When the FeLV virus enters the body of a healthy animal, there are three possible pathogenesis (developmental mechanisms) of leukemia, significantly differing in the degree of danger and life prediction:
- The cat will become a lifelong carrier of the infection, but the disease will not develop due to the lack of favorable conditions for the reproduction of the virus. According to statistics, the invaded virus is inactivated in 60% of the animals.
- The virus will exist in the cat's body in a latent (hidden) form, until an increase in its activity provokes some kind of disease, stress, or medication that weakens the immune system. With a sufficiently strong immune system and adequate treatment, the animal will recover from a mild form of leukemia, after which it will acquire immunity against this virus.
- After an incubation period (it can be from several days to 6-8 months), the cat becomes ill with leukemia in a severe form. The disease is chronic, manifested by the development of anemia (leukemia), severe renal and hepatic pathologies, the formation of tumors. Against the background of a weakened immune system, diseases of the digestive, respiratory, reproductive or urinary system, skin often join. Pathology that can quickly be fatal can result from leukemia: for example, infectious peritonitis. In the acute form of leukemia, the cat may die within 2 to 4 years, even with symptomatic therapy.
There are no specific, typical exclusively for viral leukemia cats. Symptoms that indicate its development can be frequent, at first glance, unreasonable diseases. The animal becomes apathetic, loses weight, it can disrupt the work of the digestive tract, mucous throats pale.
With further development, when leukemia develops into a tumor form, the clinic becomes more pronounced:
- a cat often has vomiting, diarrhea,
- there are phenomena of fever, the temperature is kept at the level of subfebrile,
- breathing is difficult
- analyzes show a sharp drop in white blood cell levels
- Ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity) can be detected during the examination.
Important! Feline leukemia and infectious immunodeficiency of cats (it is caused by the FIV lentivirus) often give a similar clinical picture, the main difference between them is that leukemia can cause the formation of malignant tumors. Therefore, it is important to timely conduct a differential diagnosis.
For the diagnosis of feline leukemia, modern methods of hematological, histological and hardware studies are used. Blood tests are performed:
- Clinical. With leukemia in the blood of a cat, hemoglobin is low, the ESR level is elevated, and a large number of immature or modified leukocytes is detected, the immunoenzyme enzyme (ELISA). Detects waste products of the virus,
- Immunofluorescent. Allows you to detect antibodies to the virus and identify its type,
- Using the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The method allows to determine the presence of an RNA-containing virus even with its minimum content in the blood.
In addition to laboratory techniques, if necessary, apply ultrasound, MRI, x-rays, laparoscopy, gastroscopy. They allow you to detect tumors or organic changes in the structure of organs.
Attention! Laboratory tests of ELISA and PCR for FeLV retrovirus should be performed twice, with an interval of 3 months. If both analyzes give a negative result, the cat is healthy. If the result of the first test was positive, the animal should be isolated before re-analysis.
In case of cat disease with viral leukemia, the healing process is aimed at stopping its symptomatic manifestations and strengthening the immune system. Such measures will not make the animal healthy, but will prolong its life and improve its quality.
The standard treatment regimen includes the use of antiviral agents (Azidothymidine), broad-spectrum antibiotics (usually drugs of the penicillin group), immunomodulators (Interferon, Feliferon, Raltegravil), as well as vitamin and mineral complexes.
Severe forms of hemoblastosis are treated permanently, using chemotherapeutic drugs (Vincristine) in combination with maintenance therapy. A good, but short-lasting effect is blood transfusion. For a sustainable result, the procedure must be repeated every 2 weeks. In some cases, in an extremely serious condition of the cat and a clearly negative prognosis, veterinarians recommend putting the animal to sleep.
The best means of preventing feline leukemia is vaccination. The cat is injected with a dose of killed FeLV virus. The drug begins to act after 3 weeks and protects against the disease throughout the year.
Kittens are vaccinated at the age of 6 to 12 months, and again in 2-3 weeks. Up to this age, antibodies derived from mother’s milk protect them from the retrovirus. Before vaccination, the kittens must be diagnosed with an overhead laser. The most commonly used vaccine for feline leukemia is the Leucotsel vaccine produced in Russia.
Preventive measures that can and should be taken at home are hygiene. FeLV, like all viruses, is unstable to adverse external influences: temperature extremes, ultraviolet radiation, disinfectants. Therefore, the room where the pet lives, the bedding on which he sleeps, the dishes from which he eats - everything should be kept clean and, if possible, periodically treated with special means. Hands after contact with other animals, the owner of a cat or cat must be washed or treated with an alcohol-containing solution.