To get the chicks out at home, you will need to either buy an industrial appliance or make an incubator yourself. The second option is convenient because it is possible to assemble the device of the desired size, and under the required number of eggs. In addition, cheap materials such as foam or plywood are used to create it. All the work of turning the eggs and adjusting the temperature can be fully automated.
What you need to create a homemade incubator
The basis of any type of device for removing chicks is the body. He must keep warm inside himself so that the temperature of the eggs does not change dramatically. Since due to significant jumps the probability of a healthy brood is noticeably reduced. It is possible to make the case of a house incubator from a framework and plywood, polyfoam, the case from the TV or the refrigerator. Eggs are laid in wooden or plastic trays, with the bottom of the rails or mesh. There are automatic trays with motors that turn the eggs themselves. Or rather, reject them in the direction through the time specified on the timer.
To heat the air in the incubator, assembled by hand, most often used incandescent bulbs, with a capacity of from 25 to 100 watts, depending on the size of the apparatus. Temperature control is carried out using an ordinary thermometer or an electronic temperature controller with a sensor. So that there is no air stagnation in the incubator, natural or forced ventilation is required. If the device is of small size, it is enough just to make holes near the bottom and on the lid. For an incubator, made by hand from the refrigerator, you will need to install fans, and, from above and below. Only in this way will the necessary movement of air be ensured, as well as an even distribution of heat.
In order for the incubation process not to be disturbed, it is necessary to correctly calculate the number of trays. The distance between incandescent lamps and the tray should be at least 15 cm.
The same distance must be left between the other trays in the incubator, assembled with his own hands, so that the air movement is free. Also between them and the walls should remain at least 4-5 cm.
Ventilation holes are made in sizes from 12 to 20 mm in the upper and lower parts of the incubator.
Before laying the eggs, be sure to check whether the fans are properly positioned and whether the lamps have enough power to heat the incubator evenly. This indicator should not exceed ± 0.5 ° C in each corner of the apparatus after a full warm-up.
How to make a foam incubator with your own hands
Styrofoam - one of the most popular materials for the creation of an incubator. It is not only affordable, but has excellent thermal insulation properties and low weight. For the manufacture will need the following materials:
- sheets of foam plastic 2 pcs. with a thickness of 50 mm,
- adhesive tape, glue,
- incandescent bulbs 4 pcs. 25 watts and cartridges for them,
- a fan (one that is used to cool the computer),
- trays for eggs and 1 for water.
Before you start assembling an incubator with your own hands, you should make detailed size drawings.
- The sheet of expanded polystyrene is cut into 4 identical parts. They will be used for the side walls of the hull.
- The second sheet of expanded polystyrene is first divided in half, and then one of the halves is divided into 2 parts. The width of one should be 60 cm, and the other 40 cm. Part of a leaf with a size of 40x50 cm will become the bottom, and a 60x50 cm lid, thanks to which the home-made incubator will close tightly.
- A hole is cut in the cover for the viewing window with dimensions 13x13 cm. It is also necessary for ventilation. It is closed with glass or transparent plastic.
- From the cuts of the first sheet for the side walls the frame is glued together. After the glue hardens, the bottom is glued. The edges of the sheet (with a size of 40x50 cm) are lubricated with glue, and the sheet itself is inserted into the frame.
- After that, the box is covered with adhesive tape to improve its rigidity. First, the bottom is covered with an overlap on the walls, and then all the walls.
- For air circulation and uniform heating, the tray with eggs must stand in two bars. They are also cut out of foam. A width of 4 cm is sufficient, and a height of 6 cm. They are glued to the bottom along long walls (50 cm).
- In short walls (40 cm) in 1 cm from the bottom, 3 ventilation holes are drilled at the same distance from each other, with a diameter of 12 mm. Expanded polystyrene badly cut with a knife, because it crumbles, so it is better to burn all the holes with a soldering iron.
- To keep the lid firmly on the incubator, assembled with your own hands at home, foam polystyrene blocks of 2x2 cm (maximum 3x3 cm) are glued to its edge. The distance from the bars to the edge of the sheet should be 5 cm so that they enter the inside of the box and fit snugly to the walls.
- Next, you need to fix the sockets for incandescent bulbs. They can be hung on strips of a grid.
- On the cover of the box is installed outside the thermostat. The sensor is mounted inside, approximately at a height of 1 cm from the eggs. A hole in the lid for it is pierced with a sharp awl.
- When installing the tray, you need to check that the distance between it and the walls is 4-5 cm, otherwise the ventilation will be broken.
1 - water tank, 2 - viewing window, 3 - tray, 4 - temperature controller, 5 - temperature sensor sensor.
The heat inside the incubator, assembled with foam polystyrene, will be kept even better if all the walls, the bottom and the ceiling are covered with foil insulation.
Incubators with automatic or manual egg flipping
For the incubation process to be successful, the eggs must be constantly turned 180 °. But doing it manually takes a lot of time. For this purpose, and used the coup mechanisms.
There are several types of these devices:
- mobile grid,
- roller rotation
- tilt of the tray at 45 °.
The first option is most often used in small incubators, for example, foam. The principle of operation is as follows: the grid slowly moves from one side to the other, as a result, the eggs lying in its cells turn over. This process can be automated or performed manually. To do this, it is enough to attach a piece of wire to the grid and bring it out. The disadvantage of such a mechanism is that the egg can simply be dragged rather than rolled over. Less frequently used in self-made incubators with an automatic egg roll roller rotation, since its creation requires a lot of round parts and sleeves. The device works with the help of rollers, closed mesh (mosquito).
So that the eggs do not roll, they are in the cells of the wooden grid. When the tape starts to move, all the eggs turn over.
A swivel mechanism that tilts the trays is used in large incubators, for example, made from a refrigerator. In addition, this method performs its task better than others, since in any case, each egg leans. There are automatic trays turning eggs. Included with them are the engine and power supply. In one tray there are several smaller ones. Each rotates separately after a user-defined time.
How to make a device for the withdrawal of chicks from the refrigerator or plywood
Before you start to do the incubator with your own hands, it is necessary to draw up a drawing and a scheme for connecting all the elements. All shelves are pulled out of the refrigerator, including the freezer.
- In the ceiling, holes for incandescent bulbs and one through hole for ventilation are drilled from the inside.
- It is recommended to trim the walls of a homemade incubator from the refrigerator with sheets of expanded polystyrene, then it will keep itself longer in heat.
- Old shelf racks can be converted into trays or put new ones on them.
- A thermostat is mounted on the outside on the outside of the refrigerator, and the sensor is installed inside.
- Closer to the bottom, at least 3 holes are drilled for air ventilation, 1.5x1.5 cm in size.
- For better circulation, you can install 1 or 2 fans on top near the lamps and the same down on the floor.
To make it easier to keep track of the temperature and eggs, you need to cut a hole in the door for the viewing window. It is closed with glass or transparent plastic, the slots are carefully smeared, for example, with a sealant.
The video shows an incubator, made by hand from the refrigerator.
If there is no refrigerator, then the frame is made of wooden boards, and the walls are made of plywood. And they should be double-layered, and between them fit insulation. Lamp holders are attached to the ceiling, bars are mounted in the middle of two walls to install a tray. At the bottom is another extra light bulb for better evaporation of water. The distance between it and the tray should be at least 15-17 cm. In the lid is a viewing window with a sliding glass for ventilation. Closer to the floor along the long walls are drilled holes for air circulation.
By the same principle, incubators are often made from the bodies of televisions for a small number of eggs. The process of turning eggs into them is most often carried out manually, since it takes a little time. Trays can be made from rounded strips. Such an incubator does not need any fans, since the ventilation takes place every time the lid is opened to turn the eggs.
At the bottom of any incubator is placed a container with water to create the optimum level of humidity required for eggs.
To output a very small batch of chicks (10 pcs.), You can use 2 inverted coxae. To do this, one of them is turned over to the second and fastened with a furniture shed from one side. The main thing that they could not move out from each other. A lamp holder is attached to the ceiling from the inside. Sand is poured on the bottom, which is covered with foil and hay. Foil should have a plurality of holes with a diameter of 3 mm so that moisture passes through it. To adjust the temperature, use a bar with steps that is inserted between the basins.
In order for hatching in any incubator to occur at the same time, the eggs must be of the same size, and uniform heating of the whole space of the apparatus is also necessary.
Features of creation
Quite a few poultry farmers use factory-made incubators, which, of course, can be purchased, but it will be much more expensive than if you make such a construction yourself. The frame of this installation is made using wooden bars, the lining on the outside can be made of plywood. For insulation it is permissible to use foam. Under the ceiling of the chamber in the center, you need to position the axis on which the tray for the eggs should be firmly fixed. On the axis by means of a steel pin, which should be brought out through the top panel, it will be possible to make turns of the tray with eggs. The following dimensions are recommended for tray dimensions: 25 x 40 cm, while the height should be 5 cm. This element can be manufactured using durable steel mesh, the cells of which have dimensions of 2 x 5 cm, the wire thickness should be equal to two millimeters.
Bottom tray must be covered with a fine mesh on the basis of nylon. Laying eggs should be done vertically, with a blunt end up. A monitoring thermometer should be installed above the tray intended for eggs, which will prevent contact between objects and the heating element during rotation. The temperature scale should be brought out through the top panel.
Second stage of work
A homemade incubator at the bottom of the body should have four lamps, the power of which is 25 watts each. Each pair of lamps can be protected with a steel sheet, the thickness of which is 1 millimeter. Their installation needs to be made on two bricks of red color. In order to provide the necessary level of humidity, a water bath must be installed, its size is 10 x 20 x 5 cm. Steel can be used as its basis. U-shaped ribbons made of copper wire should be strengthened to the bath, the fabric should be hung on them, which will significantly increase the evaporation surface. At the next stage, you can start working on the ceiling of the chamber, in which about ten holes are drilled, the diameter of each should be equal to 30 mm. Making a homemade incubator, in the bottom of it you need to make the same holes in the amount of twelve pieces. This system will provide access to fresh air.
Features of the manufacture of the incubator housing
At the heart of the case may be an old refrigerator. Such a chamber is already insulated, which eliminates the need to perform work on its compaction. It will be necessary to supplement the structure with legs, in order to provide it with more impressive rigidity, two boards need to be strengthened on the body, in the lower part they should be connected with bars, screws can be used as a fastening element.
It is recommended to make a recess in the board intended for flanges. The bearing is installed in the central part. To prevent the axis from moving, you need to install a threaded sleeve. Fastening is done with long screws to the axis. The frames should consist of two elements, each of which has protrusions necessary to hold the trays in the position in which they were installed.
When the homemade incubator is made, in the upper hole you need to fill the cable, which is fixed on the engine. Inside the case should be sheathed with insulation, which can be used as fiberglass. In all the ventilation holes need to install pieces of plastic tubes. In refrigerators there is a chute for water flow, in the manufacture of this design, it must be mounted in the opposite direction.
Features of the seal
Self-made incubators, self-made, are often made using wooden bars, outside they have to be sheathed with sheet steel, while inside the structure should be insulated with foam, you can use another insulating material.
It is important to arrange the heating elements in the design correctly. If the installation is made independently, then these works can be done in different ways: from the side, from above, under the egg, above it, or around the perimeter. The distance from the heating element will depend on the type of heater. If bulbs are used, the distance to the eggs should be 25 centimeters, but not less. If nichrome wire is used, ten centimeters will be enough. It is necessary to exclude the occurrence of drafts, otherwise the brood will die.
Homemade incubators do it yourself with the provision of a certain temperature, which must be maintained within half a degree. It is possible to use bimetallic plates, barometric sensors, as well as electrical contactors as a heat regulator.
Comparison of homemade thermostats
An electrical contactor is a mercury thermometer with an electrode installed in its tube. The second electrode is the mercury column. At the stage of heating, mercury begins to move through the glass tube, reaching the electrode, which closes the electrical circuit. This becomes a signal to turn off the heating. If we talk about a metal plate, then it is considered the cheapest, but also the most unreliable way. Its principal action is that when the plate is heated, the plate begins to bend and touches the second electrode, thereby closing the circuit.
The homemade thermostat for an incubator can be a barometric sensor, which is made in the form of a cylinder of elastic steel, its height is less than the diameter, and it is also filled with ether. The cylinder acts as one of the electrodes, while the other cylinder is a screw fixed near the bottom. The pairs of ether in the process of heating increase the pressure, and the bottom begins to bend. This closes the circuit and turns off the heating element. Thermostat can be purchased in the store.
A homemade incubator from the refrigerator must be equipped with a humidity controller; for this, it is recommended to use a psychrometer, which can be purchased at a veterinary pharmacy or a hardware store. As an alternative solution, you can apply the manufacture of a humidity controller using two thermometers, which must be mounted on one board. The nose of one thermometer should be wrapped in a sterile medical bandage, which is fixed in three layers, the other end should be dipped in a container that is filled with distilled water. The second thermometer must remain dry. By the difference in the readings of these thermometers, you can determine the level of humidity inside, thus, the self-made automatic incubator can even be compared with what was purchased in the store.
Непосредственно перед тем как будет начата инкубация, в течение трех дней нужно анализировать систему на надежность, в процессе этого необходимо попробовать установить требуемую температуру. Особенно важно проследить, чтобы не осуществлялось перегрева, это обусловлено тем, что зародыш гибнет, если в течение десяти минут на него будет воздействовать температура в 41 градус. It should be noted that the industrial incubator works on the principle of turning eggs every two hours, but it will be enough to carry out such a procedure about three times a day.
In order to increase the percentage of hatchability, it is necessary to ensure proper storage of eggs. This should be done in a horizontal position, while they will need to be turned over periodically, the external conditions should be special, so the temperature should not be higher than twelve degrees, while the humidity should not exceed 80 percent. Do not use an egg if it is damaged, its surface is uneven or rough, and the shape is irregular. Using an ovoscope, it is necessary to exclude the use of eggs that have two yolks, in addition, eggs that have a large air chamber should not be used.
Self-made incubators, the drawings of which must be studied before starting work, should be used correctly. Before laying the egg in the incubator, it should not be washed, as this will damage the outer shell, which has certain properties. Too large eggs should not be used for incubation. To control the process you need to start after five days finding the eggs inside the cubature, to use for this you need all the same ovoskop.
Different temperatures for different types of birds
Homemade foam incubator should work in different temperature conditions for different species of birds. For example, chicken eggs should be kept for two days at a temperature of 39 degrees, from the 3rd to the 18th day the temperature should be maintained at 38.5 degrees, from the 19th to the 21st day the temperature should be maintained at 37.5 degrees. As for the duck eggs, from the 1st to the 12th day the temperature should be maintained within 37.7 degrees, from the 13th to the 24th day - 37.4 degrees, but from the 25th to the 28th Day This figure should be at around 37.2 degrees.
Additional recommendations for the manufacture of incubators
Before you make a homemade incubator, you need to prepare materials and select the best ones. To produce work, you can use not only the camera, but also a box, and a suitable box. The basis of the product can be not only wood, but also plastic, as well as cardboard. The covering can be made not only plywood, but also rather dense paper.
In order to eliminate heat loss, all the gaps need to be sealed with a sealant. Trays can be made of planed boards, the height of the sides of which should be equal to seventy millimeters. The whole construction should resemble a bookcase. In order to heat the installation, you can use five light bulbs, one of which can be installed at the bottom, which will ensure even heat distribution.
The thermometer is by no means worth getting out of the installation, it will allow you to monitor the condition of the conditions in the incubator. In the upper part must be provided for the viewing window, it is necessary in order to further control the egg. In the process of work will be needed scheme incubators. The homemade incubator will be made using the drawing correctly. Successes!
The advantages of homemade incubators
Merits Handmade incubators include the following characteristics:
- reliable in use
- consume Little electricity,
- hold laying from 50 to 300 eggs,
- provide survival young stock up to 90%
- allow you to get chicks in certain deadlines after laying eggs
- allow dilution different birds: chickens, ducks, turkeys, geese, quails, even exotic parrots and ostriches.
Preparation for work
Incubator Sizes are determined independently and are calculated from the need for number of young animals and conditions for the placement of the incubator.
Quail the incubator may be smaller sizes, or you can put in trays more quantity eggs
Special tool or special materials, standards for manufacturing is not required, it is possible to do with traditional assistants materials that exist in any household.
It is necessary to take into account that options temperature, humidity, tilt angle of trays with eggs for right embryo development of different bird species are different.Are common requirements for conditions for normal development embryos are to provide:
- permanent heat
- regular turning over eggs
The simplest incubators for school experiments can be done from a regular bucket or basin and tabletop lamps.
But although primitive options and give a certain effect, not all chickens survive To receive brood out of 50 and more eggs, it is recommended to focus on options for creating an incubator with body, homemade or from the old fridge.
Anyway main components The incubator is as follows:
- body (box, drawer, fridge) with insulation,
- heating system incubator,
- trays for eggs
- control devices humidity and temperature.
Incubator housing can to make from sheets plywood using wooden beams, chipboard sheets or cardboard boxes.
Fantasy tells some craftsmen base old hives or corps broken TVs.
Internal walls it is better to finish the incubator plastic or other moisture resistant material convenient for washing up. It is important to prevent the growth of the fungus, mold or other microbes.
Warming and ventilation of the case
After the construction of the hull begins its warming You can use different materials for this:
- synthetic insulation,
- foam rubber.
Plywood walls desirable to do double heat insulation will be it is better.
In the upper wall of the incubator you need to do viewing window to observe the maturation of eggs. For the influx of fresh of air at the top and bottom of the case make from 4 to 8 holes with a diameter of up to 30 mm and one for the room temperature sensor.
Bottom shells can be made from construction mesh, cover it with plastic mesh - so ventilation will also be provided. Consideration must be given gap between the floor and the bottom of the case for inflow of air.
If you want to find out how many eggs a quail carries per day, we recommend reading the article: //6sotok-dom.com/uchastok/ferma/skolko-yaits-neset-perepelka.html
Fabrication and installation of trays
To make egg trays it is possible from metal rods in the form of large mesh and cover them with nylon cloth, can be made from plywood or a tree with a side height of 6-8 cm.
Between by walls hulls and laid eggs need to keep free space for air ventilation.
Under the trays put the bath filled water to create high humidity. It can be soldered to the holders of the fabric to increase the surface evaporation.
Trays can install:
- on special mounts on the principle of pull-out furniture drawers front incubator walls,
- on axis, which serves as a support for trays. The incubator can be opened on top of lifting the lid.
Installation of an incubator heating system
The incubator is heated by conventional light bulbs power from 25 to 40 watts connected parallel. Note that it is better to use 4 lamps of 25 W each, than 2 lamps of 40 W each.
To to avoid overheating germ distance from lamps to eggs should be not less than 20 cm
It is possible to apply heating spirals from old iron (on metal sheet covered asbestos). It is recommended to lower heating elements from above or perimeter enclosures.
Use thermostat power of 300 watts to control the temperature mode. It is installed outside, and its sensor is inside incubator. The operation of the thermostat should be around the clock.
Before laying eggs try incubator temperature during the day to make sure the ability to change the temperature at each stage of incubation. So for chickens in the first two days is needed temperature 38 ºС, then until the 10th day 37.8 ºС, from 11 to 16 day - 37.5 ºС, from 17 to 19 day - 37.2 ºС, from 20 to 21 day - 37 ºС
We also suggest that you read about the cultivation of Indo-ducks in the following article: //6sotok-dom.com/uchastok/ferma/razvedenie-indoutok.html
Making the incubator from the refrigerator
Application old refrigerator of any model recommendations poultry farmers, - optimal option for the manufacture of an incubator for three reasons:
- the smallest expenses,
- excellent finished thermal insulation
- possibility of use a few cameras.
Scheme The arrangement is the same, only the insulation of the refrigerator is not required. Recall need ventilating openings, installation of thermostat, lamps incandescent.
To enhance distribution light can be installed light reflectors under each lamp - simple tin covers from cans. Do not forget trays with water and fan.
You can improve the product - to make an incubator with an automatic egg flipping. This is significant complicate design, but your work will certainly pay off and bring satisfaction and joy.
For details on how to make an incubator at home, see video:
How to make your own hands incubator out of a cardboard box?
The easiest incubator for breeding chickens at home, which you can do with your own hands, is the design of a cardboard box. It is done this way:
- cut a small window in the side of the cardboard box,
- inside the box, skip the three bullets intended for incandescent bulbs. To this end, you need at equal and a short distance make three holes at the top of the box
- incubator lamps must have a power of 25 W and be approximately 15 centimeters from the eggs,
- in the front part of the structure, you should make a door of your own hands, and they must comply with the parameters 40 by 40 centimeters. Door should fit as closely as possible to the body the incubator, so that the design does not release heat to the outside,
- take small plates of thickness and make one a special tray in the form of a wooden frame,
- put on board such a thermometer, and under the tray itself, place a container with water measuring 12 by 22 centimeters,
- About 60 eggs will be placed in such a tray, and from the first day of using the incubator for their intended purpose do not forget they turn them.
So, we considered the simplest version of the incubator with our own hands. If it is necessary to grow chickens in the minimum amount at home, such a construction would be quite enough.
Incubator of high complexity
Now let's look at how to make a more complex incubator with your own hands. But for this you need to comply with the following formalities:
- if the openings of the ventilation chamber are closed, the chamber must be completely sealed,
- when opening the ventilation holes, the air should be mixed evenly, otherwise the temperature inside the chamber will not be even and this is very bad for chickens,
- It is advisable to equip the incubator with forced ventilation.
You can also equip a home incubator with a special device that can automatically turn the tray along with the eggs and save you from this work. So, Turn the eggs once an hour do it yourself In the absence of a special device, the eggs turn over no less than every three hours. Such devices should not come into contact with the eggs.
The first half-day temperature in the incubator should be up to 41 degrees, then it is gradually reduced to 37.5, respectively. The required level of relative humidity is about 53 percent. Before chicks are taken out, the temperature will need to be further lowered, and the importance should be raised to 80 percent.
How to make an electronically controlled incubator?
A more advanced model is an electronically controlled incubator. It can be done like this:
- the framework for the incubator is made on the basis of wooden bars, then it is sheathed with plywood on all sides,
- the axis is fixed in the upper part of the chamber, then a tray is fixed on it at the rate of 50 eggs maximum,
- tray dimensions are 250 by 400 mm, its height is 50 mm,
- the tray is made on the basis of the grid of metal by 2 mm,
- inside the tray is covered with a nylon mesh. Eggs laid out so that their sharp end was at the bottom,
- for heating, take incandescent bulbs (4 pieces) with a power of 25 W,
- to create the desired level of humidity in the chamber need tin white bath Size 100 to 200 and 50 mm, filled with water. Three copper arches of wire in the shape of the letter P with a height of 80 mm are soldered to the bath
- on the wire you need to attach a cloth that can increase the surface of the evaporation of water,
- To get air inside the chamber in the ceiling, you need to make 8 holes with a diameter of about 20 mm each. In the bottom panel should be made 10 holes of the same size. Thus, the air will enter the chamber from the bottom, it will be heated by incandescent bulbs, and when it goes out through the upper holes, it will heat the eggs,
- set in an incubation chamber special temperature sensorwhich will adjust the temperature level.
During the first six days of operation, the temperature inside the incubator should be kept at 38 degrees. BUT then it can be gradually reduced half a degree a day. In addition, you will need to turn the tray with eggs.
Every three days you will need to pour water into a special bath and wash the fabric in soapy water in order to remove salt deposits.
Self-assembly multi-tier incubator
An incubator of this type is heated by electricity automatically, it must operate from a normal 220V network. In order to heat the air, six spirals are required, which taken from tile insulation of iron and are connected in series with each other.
To maintain a comfortable temperature in the chamber of this type, you need to take a relay equipped with an automatic contact measuring device.
This incubator has the following parameters:
- height is 80 centimeters,
- depth is 52 centimeters,
- width 83 centimeters, respectively.
The fabrication of the structure is as follows:
- the frame is made on the basis of pine bars 40 mm long,
- from all sides, the bars are poured with plywood with a thickness of 3 mm,
- free space between bar and plywood filled with dry shavings or sawdust, it is possible to take foam plastic to insulate the structure,
- the door in the form of a separate panel is attached to the rear wall of the incubator frame,
- as fasteners use canopies of the hinge type.
Inside the incubator is divided into three compartments by installing three partitions. Side compartments should be wider than the middle compartment. Their width should be 2700 mm, and the width of the middle compartment - 190 mm, respectively. Partitions are made of 4 mm plywood. There should be a gap of about 60 mm between them and the ceiling of the structure. Then, to the ceiling parallel to the partitions, you should attach the corners of 35 by 35 mm of duralumin.
In the lower and upper parts of the chamber, slits are made that will serve as ventilation, due to which the temperature in all parts of the incubator will be the same.
In the side parts there are three trays for the incubation period, and one will be needed for output. To the rear wall of the central part of the incubator contact type thermometer is installed, which is attached to the front of the psychrometer.
In the middle compartment, a device is installed for heating approximately at a distance of 30 centimeters up from the bottom. In each compartment must lead separately installed door.
For better tightness of the construction, a three-layer flannelette is covered under the cover.
Each compartment should have a separate handle, thanks to which each tray can be rotated from side to side. To maintain the required temperature in the incubator, you need a relay operating on 220 V mains or a TPK thermometer.
Now you are convinced that the incubator for breeding chickens at home can be done with your own hands. Of course, different designs have different complexity of implementation. The complexity depends on the number of eggs and on the degree of automation of the incubator. If you do not make high demands, then a simple cardboard box will be enough for you as an incubator for raising chickens.
How to make the very incubator for chicken eggs
Breeding poultry is quite a profitable occupation, but for uninterrupted production of productive young animals, you need to buy or make an instrument with your own hands, in which the young will hatch.
How to make an incubator for chicken eggs or quail with your own hands, using the available materials, you will learn from the sections below.
What you need to pay attention
For the full breeding of young poultry, you should follow certain recommendations and requirements regarding the use of the device and its production:
- Temperature range at a distance of two centimeters from eggs should not exceed 38.6 degrees, and the minimum temperature is 37.3 degrees,
- Only fresh eggs that should not be stored for more than ten days are suitable for incubation.
- The chamber must maintain an optimum level of humidity. Before nakleva it is 40-60%, and after the start of nakleva - 80%.Humidity should be reduced before sampling chicks.
Breeding young poultry depends on the location of the eggs. They need to be placed vertically (pointed end down) or horizontally. If they are arranged vertically, they should be tilted 45 degrees to the right or left (when laying goose or duck eggs, the degree of inclination is up to 90 degrees).
If the eggs are placed horizontally, they need to be turned at least three times a day by 180 degrees. However, it is best to carry out a coup every hour. A few days before nakleva turns stop.
If you are interested in how to make a homemade incubator, you should know that this device is made according to certain rules.
For making you will need:
- Material body, well preserving heat (wood or foam). This is necessary so that the temperature inside the device does not change in the process of hatching. As the case, you can use the old refrigerator, microwave or even TV.
- For heating they use ordinary lamps (from 25 to 100 W, depending on the size of the chamber), and in order to control the temperature, a conventional thermometer is placed inside the device.
- To keep the fresh air insideneed to equip the ventilation. For small appliances, it is enough to drill holes in the side walls and bottom, and for large incubators (for example, made from a refrigerator), several fans are installed (under and above the grill for).
Trays or gratings can be bought or made from metal mesh. It is important that there is space between the trays for free air circulation.
There are several options for arranging auto rotation. For small devices, you can simply equip a mobile grid, which is driven by a small roller. As a result, the eggs slowly move and gradually turn over.
Note: The disadvantage of this method is that you still have to control the coup, because the eggs can simply move, but not roll over.
Roller rotation is considered more modern, for arranging of which special rotating rollers are installed under the grate. To prevent damage to the shell, all rollers are covered with a mosquito net. However, this method has a significant drawback: for the manufacture of the auto-rotation system, you will have to occupy free space in the chamber, installing the rollers.
Figure 2. Scheme of automatic egg rotation
The best is considered a method of coup, in which at once the whole tray is tilted at 45 degrees. The rotation is driven by a special mechanism located outside, and all the eggs are warmed up guaranteed.
How to lay eggs in the incubator
Incubation of poultry should be carried out taking into account certain peculiarities and maintain an optimal regime of hatching. The table in Figure 3 shows the basic requirements for the breeding of chickens, ducks and geese.
First of all, the correct temperature should be maintained (minimum 37.5 - maximum 37.8 degrees). It is also necessary to regularly check the humidity, determining it by the temperature difference on a "wet" and "dry" thermometer. If a “wet” thermometer shows temperatures up to 29 degrees, then humidity is about 60 percent.
Figure 3. Optimum incubation regimes.
The mode of hatching should also meet the following requirements.:
- Turning should be done at least 8 times a day,
- When breeding young geese and ducks, the eggs must be periodically cooled in a combined way: the first half of incubation is air cooled for half an hour, and then irrigated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate,
- During the hatching of young stock, the air temperature on the "dry" thermometer should not exceed 34 degrees, and the humidity - within 78-90 degrees.
It is important that insufficient warming, regardless of the stage, can slow down the growth and development of embryos, since the chicks learn less and use protein. As a result of insufficient warming up, most of the chicks die before hatching, and the surviving chicks later hatch, their umbilical cord does not heal and the belly increases.
Underheating depending on the stage may cause some disturbances. In the first stage, they include:
- The intestine is filled with fluid with blood,
- The kidneys grow and the liver becomes unevenly colored.
- Swelling appears on the neck.
During the second stage, underheating may provoke:
- Puffiness of the umbilical ring,
- The gut fills with bile,
- An enlarged heart with underheating in the last few days of incubation.
Overheating can cause external deformities (eyes, jaws and heads), and hatching begins prematurely. If the temperature has been elevated in the past few days, the chicks may have deformed internal organs (heart, liver, and stomach) and the walls of the abdominal cavity will not grow together.
Strong and short overheating can cause the embryo to dry to the inside of the shell, the chick will have swelling and hemorrhage on the skin, and the embryo will be located in the yolk head, which is not normal.
Figure 4. Normal development of the embryo (left) and possible defects in violation of the moisture regime (right)
Prolonged exposure to high temperatures in the second half of incubation leads to early movement of the embryo in the air chamber, and unused protein can be seen under the shell. In addition, there are many chicks in the brood that have bred the shells, but died without drawing the yolk.
Violations of the moisture regime can also cause serious disturbances. (Figure 4):
- Increased humidity causes slow development of embryos, embryos poorly use protein and often die in the middle and end of incubation,
- If the humidity was increased during souring, the chick may begin to adhere to the beak to the shell, goiter develops, and excess fluid is observed in the intestine and stomach. Edema and hemorrhage may develop in the neck,
- Increased humidity often causes late hatching and hatching of sluggish young with a swollen belly and too light down,
- If the humidity was low, the naklev begins in the middle part, and the hype shell is dry and too strong,
- At low humidity, small and dry young hatch.
It is especially important to maintain optimum humidity (80-82%) during the naklev period. It should be noted that during all periods of elimination should strive to maintain a regime of temperature and humidity, which exists during natural incubation.
Figure 5. Possible defects in the x-ray examination
The duration of incubation depends on the type of poultry. For example, for hens of meat breeds, it is 21 days and 8 hours. If the normal mode was maintained, the beginning of the naklev starts at 19 days and 12 hours after laying, the chicks begin to hatch already at 20 days, and after 12 hours most of the young. During incubation, it is necessary to periodically check the ovoscope to detect damage in time (Figure 5).
What you need to do
To properly lay the eggs, you need to warm up the device in advance and prepare the eggs.
For hatching any poultry, only eggs that have been stored for no longer than a week in a dark room with good ventilation at room temperature are suitable. Before laying, they must necessarily be translucent with an ovoscope and take copies without damage, cracks and growths on the shell.
How to make a homemade incubator from the refrigerator
Very often, home incubators are made from old refrigerators, since the housing of this household appliance is quite roomy and allows you to simultaneously remove large quantities of young poultry.
See how to make an incubator out of the refrigerator with your own hands with detailed instructions, you can in the video.
How to make foam incubator step by step
The case of a homemade device can be made from an old box from under the TV or a box of foam, reinforcing it with a frame made of wooden slats. In the frame you need to fix four porcelain cartridges for light bulbs. Light bulbs for heating are screwed into three bullets, and the fourth light bulb is used to heat the water in the bath. The power of all bulbs should not exceed 25 watts. Examples and drawings for the manufacture of simple models are shown in Figure 7.
Note: The average lamp is often included only at a certain time: from 17 to 23-00. Tray with water to maintain humidity can also be made from scrap materials. For example, using a jar of herring, cutting off part of the lid from her. From this capacity, the water will evaporate better, and the lid will prevent local overheating.
Inside the homemade incubator set grid. The surface of the eggs on the grid should be at least 17 centimeters from the bulb, and for eggs under the grid - at least 15 centimeters apart.
To measure the temperature inside the chamber using an ordinary thermometer. To make it convenient to use the device, its front wall must be made removable and wrapped with cardboard or other dense material. For fastening use spins. Such a removable wall allows you to put trays inside the incubator, put a bath and change the water in it, as well as carry out all other manipulations.
Figure 7. Production schemes for simple incubators from the refrigerator and box
In the lid you need to make a window that will serve for ventilation and temperature control. The length of the window is 12 centimeters, and width - 8 centimeters. It is better to cover it with glass, leaving a small gap in width.
For additional ventilation along the long wall near the floor should also be made three small square holes (each side - 1.5 cm). They should be open all the time for a constant supply of fresh air.
How to make an incubator out of a microwave
Microwave incubators are made on the same principle as the appliance from the refrigerator. But it should be borne in mind that in such a device will not fit a lot of eggs, so at home it is used mainly for breeding quail.
In the manufacture of an incubator from a microwave, you need to consider some of the features (Figure 8):
- Outside the body must be sheathed with thin sheets of foam to stabilize the temperature inside
- Air vents are left in the upper part, and the door is not insulated or sealed for additional fresh air intake,
- A tray is installed inside, but since there is not enough space in the chamber for cans of water, a container with moistening liquid is placed directly under the tray.
It is also necessary to provide protection against overheating by installing barriers on incandescent lamps.
How to make ventilation in the incubator do it yourself
The self-made incubator also does not have a special egg cooling system, as they are cooled for several minutes during the turning process. During the entire incubation, the temperature should be maintained at 39 degrees.
For ease of use, the device can attach legs. And since this equipment is very compact, and the incubation process is not accompanied by the release of unpleasant odors, young poultry can be removed even in a city apartment (Figure 9). The procedure for making a simple homemade incubator is given in the video.
How to make a humidifier in an incubator
For normal operation, a homemade incubator should be poured into the bath for half a glass of water per day. If you want to increase the level of humidity in the bath, you can put a rag that is washed every two days.
For laying eggs place special slats with gaps between them. Reiki should be rounded on the sides. To make it easier to carry out a coup, you need to leave in the tray free space corresponding to one egg.
Note: Eggs in a homemade incubator turned manually 180 degrees. It is better if the coup will be carried out up to 6 times a day with an equal time interval (in 2-4 hours). Figure 9. Drawings for making simple incubators with their own hands
To maintain the humidity of any devices in a homemade incubator is not provided, and this mode is maintained approximately. It is recommended to install 25 or 15 watt light bulbs to evaporate the liquid. Prior to the start, the evaporator is not turned on, and if it is turned off too early, then the eggs will form a too hard shell that the chicks cannot break.