In the article I will consider ways of determining the age of a dog and its relationship with human standards using the example of a table. I will tell you how many dogs of various breeds live on average and poochs at home and how long they grow. I will consider what methodology to use to find out and calculate what is the ratio of the age of the Bologna, German Shepherd Dog and other breeds to the human being.
The ratio of the age of the dog and man
Dog life expectancy is inferior to the time allotted to the owners, so the interpretation of the age of the four-legged friend in the human always aroused the interest of breeders.
The indicator depends on:
A one-year-old pet can be compared with a 15-year-old adolescent, and when a human transitional age is reached, it is equal to a respectable old man.
How to determine the age of the dog
If the pet is taken from the street or a shelter, especially if it is an adult mongrel, then to determine and count the number of years lived, examine the condition of the teeth. In 10 years - a large size of dental stones, lack of part of the teeth.
Depending on the way of life, the state of the tooth may differ both for the better and for the worse, therefore for a more accurate result, analyze:
- Eye condition. Over the years, the white of the eye becomes cloudy, and vision loses sharpness.
- The appearance of wool and skin. The young animal has elastic skin and shiny hair with good growth, while the elderly have laxity and gray hair.
- The state of the internal organs. Here you can not do without ultrasound and X-rays, giving the most accurate data.
Widespread method, using as a coefficient number 7.
Despite the popularity among the owners, the technique is decried as a one-year-old pet is 2 times as high as the level of a seven-year-old child.
Among the advantages can be identified simplicity, but the unreliability of the result indicates the inappropriateness of such calculations.
Most often for the calculation of age apply the multiplication system by 7, but it is incorrect
The technique developed by the French scientist LeBo made it possible to use and read more accurate calculations. To calculate the coefficient were taken into account:
- average life expectancy,
- achievement of mature age.
According to the theory, a one-year-old dog is equal to a 15-year-old adolescent, and when two are reached, the level of development of the animal corresponds to 24 humans. Further, with each subsequent difference is reduced to 48 months.
The decrease in age difference is explained by the rapid maturation of puppies compared to human children.
The minus of the theory is that it does not take into account the size of animals (the average lifespan of small breeds exceeds the large ones).
Metabolic Law 3/4 (Klayber's Law)
Using the interrelation of the speed of the main processes and body mass, the Swiss scientist M. Kleiber explained the greater life expectancy in large mammals.
Dogs as a kind of law correspond, but when considering individual breeds, an inverse relationship can be traced.
A modified version of the technique took into account the delayed cell death in representatives of small breeds.
According to the new version, the calculation of compliance is carried out according to the maximum lifespan of a certain breed:
- gigantic 45kg (Mastiffs, wolfhounds, Great Danes) - 10,
- large, weighing 25-45kg (Dobermans, greyhounds, sheep-dogs) - 12,
- middleweight, weighing 10-25kg (bulldogs, bassets, spaniels) - 14,
- small, weigh 10kg (terriers, dachshunds, oranges) - 16.
At the beginning of life, the age ratio practically does not depend on the breed characteristics, and after 5 years the aging of the representatives of large breeds is accelerated, which explains the difference in the final coefficients.
In fact, this is not just a simplified, but an erroneous approach. For example, you can try to compare the level of development of a child one year old and one year old dog. Obviously, the child still has little that can at that age and is completely dependent on the parents. A one-year-old dog is a completely different matter: it is a young, strong animal that has reached puberty. A dog at this age is already ready to perform the work assigned to it, to carry out guard service. By human standards - it is a teenager about 16-17 years old.
Such disproportions are explained by the fact that in animal and human development processes proceed with different intensity and in different periods of life. The most active maturation of the dog falls on the first one and a half years.
Of course, all species go through the same periods of maturation, maturity and old age. And it is quite possible to relate a certain age of a dog and a person. Another thing is that the dependence will not be linear, but more complex.
To compile a more accurate relationship should also consider the breed of the dog. So, larger breeds develop faster than smaller ones. This is not surprising, given that the lifespan of large dogs such as a shepherd dog is significantly shorter than that of small breed dogs such as Pekingese or lapdog. Well, the century of such giants as St. Bernard is generally short.
In general, the more different correction factors are taken into account, the more accurate the calculation will be.
Averaging, we can say that for young dogs that have not reached the age of three, the following relationship between dog and human age will be true:
- for small breeds - 12: 1,
- for medium sized dogs - 10: 1,
- for giants - 9: 1.
Now you understand the age of dogs by human standards. Calculate yourself how old your pet is.
Periods of a dog's life
Each month of a puppy’s life less than one year old is correlated with several years of human life. The first year of canine life is a period of accelerated physical development.
After the dog is 1 year old, the animal continues to grow rapidly, but for the most part not physically, but mentally. By two years old, a dog can be safely compared with a young human individual about 25 years old. The animal is independently and very active, but has already experienced a period of childhood diseases.
A further period of canine life is characterized by a gradual slowdown in development. Starting from the third year, every 12 months, lived by the dog, correlate with 6-7 years of human life.
table of correspondence
To understand more in detail with the figures will help the age of dogs.
The average life expectancy of a dog is from 8 to 12 years. Regardless of the breed, food, few of the dogs overcome the bar in 12 years. A 15-year-olds reach only a few. Every owner should know the appropriate age of the dog and man. This will allow you to properly treat your pet.
How to determine the age of the dog
When a dog lives with its owner since childhood, the problem of determining age is not worth it. Many owners even arrange their pets annual holidays in honor of their birthdays.
Another thing is when an animal is picked up on the street or taken from a shelter. The exact age, of course, will not be able to be calculated, but it is quite possible to determine how many years the dog is approximately by indirect signs. There are several ways to do this, the simplest of which is to show the dog to the vet. But you can try to determine the age and independently.
Other signs of growing up
The second indicator, which will indicate the age of the dog, is the state of its muscles. If the muscles are in good shape and well developed, this indicates that the animal is very active and runs a lot, which means that it is full of strength and is still young. Older dogs are not as active, their musculature is felt worse. Older individuals cherish strength and move little, so they often become overgrown with fat. Sick animals of old age can look very bad: the hollow sides and atrophy of muscle tissue will tell about it. In this case, the years of life of dogs can be set especially accurately.
Wool also tells a lot about the age of the animal. Soft, clean and shiny hair clearly indicates that the animal is still very young. As the dog matures, the coat becomes stiff and begins to resemble bristles. The hair of the adult individual due to the active work of the sebaceous glands begins to shine. And an elderly dog is not difficult to calculate by wool, since dogs older than 5 years of age actively lose their coloring pigment, in other words, turn gray, just like humans. Gray hair spreads gradually and unevenly. It is best to look at the face: there gray hair is usually most noticeable. If we consider the age of dogs by human standards, the gray hair in pets become more noticeable much earlier than their owners.
The approximate age of the dog immediately give out her eyes. In young individuals, the eyes are clear and shiny. At the same time the eyes are clean, there is no selection. In older animals, the eyes lose their luster, become dull and faded.
But, no matter how old the animal is, it should be remembered that a good attitude towards pets and caring for them prolong their life. Now you know how the age of dogs is measured by human standards. Depending on this, pets are picked up food and even regulate the time of the walk. Do not forget that over the years dogs become less active and playful. Treat the animal with love, and it will respond with loyalty and affection.
How to count is not necessary, and where did the wrong formula come from
In the last century, the opinion was formed, according to which one year of a dog's life was equal to seven human ones. There is a version that a simple but incorrect formula, which has become a global delusion, is no more than A successful marketing move by British vets. He was intended to explain to the owners the need for regular medical examinations of pets. The ratio of 1: 7 is based on data on the average life expectancy of a person (70 years) and a dog (10 years). At first glance, everything is logical. But in order to be counted correctly, it is necessary to take into account not only the peculiarities of growing up, but also the breed of the animal.
Creche (early childhood)
The puffy stage of puppies lasts from 3 weeks to 3 months and is equal to the interval from 1 year to 3 years on the human calendar.. By the month of the tail of the child ends the formation of the main sensory systems and motor skills. The puppy is actively acquainted with the outside world, learns the behavioral characteristics of the dog. Earlier childhood is considered one of the fundamental stages in the life of a young dog. It is also called the "period of sealing fears." The level of susceptibility necessary for the formation of social connections is very high, therefore the risk of psychological trauma is increased. For example, if at this age the baby faces a rough treatment from the person, then the mistrustful or cowardly attitude towards the two-legs will remain with him until the end of his life. Try as gently as possible to direct the actions of fluffy fidget, avoid harsh shouts and punishments.
Kindergarten (late childhood)
Usually lasts from 3 months to six months. During this time, the puppy goes through stages of development, similar to the development of a human child from 3 to 9 years. The ability to learn is fully developed, the need for communication and various contacts is increasing. Keeping the puppy's susceptibility, the four-footed kindergartener in games finds out the status of others (“the ranking period”). The puppy at this stage needs a loving teacher and friend, is happy to master the basic commands. But do not overdo it with workouts: they must be dosed and interspersed with games and recreation. We recently wrote about how to teach a dog a command "voice" and "give a paw".
School (early adolescence)
At the age of 6 - 10 months in terms of puppy development can be compared with a schoolboy from 12 years old. The growth rate of the animal slows down, the dog changes greatly both physically and psychologically. With the onset of puberty (the exact dates depend on the breed) the animal begins to take part in the “schooling relationship” (the system of interaction between adult dogs). The dog becomes more enduring in training, but retains children's curiosity and psychological dependence on the owner, which makes this period the most fruitful for the training. Early adolescence is a turning point that determines the future status of the dog and owner.
Institute (late adolescence)
How old is a dog by human standards, if she is one and a half years old? Starting from 10 months to 1.5 years, it becomes more difficult to give a reliable answer, as the dogs grow up differently depending on the size. If you focus on an average-sized animal, then this figure is approximately equal to the age segment from 14 to 23 years. The dog begins to believe in his own strength, with normal upbringing, he realizes his mission, the “breed idea” in hunting, in sports disciplines, work. Late adolescence - the age of building a successful canine career. At this stage, it is important to keep the pet's interest in the owner - then it will be rather difficult to restore contact and control.
Work (early growing up)
From 1.5 to 2 years - the time of active maturation of the dog. Conflicts with equal members of the pack begin, attempts to subjugate the weak. The owner should not panic, if his previously absolutely obedient dog begins to “swing the law”, to question the owner’s status as a leader. Remember that the psyche of a two-year-old dog is still very plastic: the animal is ready to make concessions. Showing confidence, seeking fulfillment of your requirements, you will finally confirm the position of the leader.
Starting at 3 years old The dog enters its heyday. He is healthy, full of strength, is in better physical shape. Providing a dog daily care, do not forget about preventive measures. During this period, it is determined how the life of the four-legged friend will develop in the future. Vaccination, timely consultations with a veterinarian, antiparasitic measures, full-fledged feeding and proportional loads to the pet will allow the pet to live a long and happy life.
The owner needs to be especially careful when the dog enters the age of maturity. The temporary wounds of the arrival of old age are individual for each animal. Process of decrepitude in giant dogs it begins at about 5–6 years of age (55 human years), 8–9 years old in average dogs (63 years), and 10 years in small breeds (55–60 years). An older dog requires special care and attention. Often old people suffer from increased irritability and vulnerability. You can read more about the features of keeping older dogs here.
To make it easier for you to estimate the age of a pet in human years, we have given a table of average translation rates. But keep in mind that they are listed without taking into account pedigree features, which will be discussed below.
The age of dogs according to human standards is determined by the level of physiological and intellectual development. On average, the year of a pet's life equates to seven years for its owner. However, veterinarians emphasize that a child at 7 years old and a dog at 1 year old have completely different levels of development. An animal at the age of one year is an independent, adult creature that is able to fully control its actions, which cannot be said about a child.
That is why at the age of two years, scientists propose the following coefficients:
- 1 to 12 for small breeds,
- 1 to 10 for medium breeds,
- 1 to 9 for large dogs.
Thus, when an animal turns 1 year old, by human standards this equates to a teenage age of 10-13 years. This explains the adult behavior and abundance of pet skills.
However, it is important not only to know the age of the dog by human standards, but also to do everything possible to extend the life of the animal. According to veterinary statistics, the average life expectancy of a dog is 12 years. However, there are records. For example, a shepherd dog from the United States named Blue lived for 29.5 years, which is considered an absolute record. Cynologists say that by the age of 20 the animal reaches the level of development of a century-old man. Of course, not all pets are subordinate to such old age.
What can a caring owner do to maximize the life of his pet?
- Choose for him only high-quality food with a high content of vitamins and minerals.
- In time to do all vaccinations for dogs by age. The table, which is usually handed over to all owners when buying a puppy, states that vaccinations should be done every year, as well as at 3 and 6 months to maintain the immune system.
- An animal at the age of 7-9 years should always be in motion, because physical exertion ensures the development of all muscles, keeping bones in shape.
- Also, veterinarians are advised to adhere to the correct nutritional model. Ideally, the animal should be fed 2-3 times a day, not overfeeding it, but also not the sea with hunger.
Such basic tips will help extend the life of your pet. However, the main thing that is required by a dog is love. Эти животные невероятно привязаны к человеку, и если питомец живет в семье, которая о нем безупречно заботится, то и продолжительность жизни домашнего любимца окажется высокой.