Birds are a class of animals whose body is covered with feathers. They have a constant and high body temperature and are active at any time of the year. The ability to fly is peculiar to most of the representatives of this class. The external and internal structure of birds is subordinated to this feature.
Birds can easily change their place of residence depending on the conditions. Thanks to the ability to fly class is widely distributed, is found in a wide variety of conditions throughout the planet. There are about 9000 species of birds.
Birds are also characterized by a pronounced concern for their own offspring. Reproduction occurs with the help of large, lime-coated eggs.
External structure of birds
The body of the bird consists of the head, the mobile neck, the drop-shaped body and the extremities. The skin is thin and dry due to the absence of skin glands. Most birds have iron, which serves to lubricate feathers - the coccygeal. It is especially well developed in waterfowl. The secret secreted by the gland serves to preserve the elasticity of the feathers and prevents them from getting wet. In some species (ostriches, parrots, pigeons, bustards), the function of lubrication is carried out by special powder feathers, which form a powder when breaking off.
In birds, various growths on the beak, legs, head can be present. In some species of birds (for example, carnivores and parrots), the base of the beak is covered with soft wax. On the legs can be plates, fringes, membranes.
The external and internal structure of the birds directly depends on the lifestyle. The shape of the body, head, paws and tail, wings can be very diverse. It all depends on the habitat and the way you get food.
Features of the internal structure of birds are associated with a characteristic inherent only feathered - the ability to fly. The bird's skeleton is light, but it has great strength, consists of thin hollow bones. It includes the skull, spine, girdle and limb bones. The skeleton protects the internal organs.
The internal structure of the birds involves a large volume of the skull. The orbits are enlarged, the jaws form a beak, the teeth are missing. The spine is divided into 5 sections: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, caudal. The vertebrae of the cervical spine have a special structure, thanks to which the bird can turn its head 180 degrees.
The thoracic vertebrae grow together and form a single bone to which the ribs are attached. Flying bird species on the sternum has a keel. This is a large outgrowth on which the powerful muscles of the wing are attached. The lumbar and sacral vertebrae also grow together to serve as a reliable support for the pelvis, and the caudal parts grow together into a single coccygeal bone to support the steering feathers.
The shoulder girdle consists of three pairs of bones: the clavicle, the scapula, and the crow bones. The wing consists of the humerus, forearm and bones of the hand. The pelvic bones fuse with the vertebrae and serve as a support for the lower extremities. The leg consists of the thigh, tibia, bobbin (several coalescent foot bones) and toes.
Muscles of the bird, located from the keel to the shoulder, ensure the operation of the wings. In flying feathered muscles in this part is particularly well developed. The muscles of the neck provide head movement. Interesting is the internal structure of birds in the structure of the muscles and tendons of the lower extremities. Through the joints of the legs tendons that end in the fingers stretch. When a bird sits on a tree and bends its legs, the tendons tighten and the fingers clasp the branch. Due to this feature, birds can sleep on the branches, their fingers do not unclench.
We continue to study the internal structure of birds. General characteristics begin with the first section of the digestive system - the beak. It is a jaw bone, covered with horny covers. The shape of the beak depends on the method of obtaining food. Birds do not have teeth. Food is swallowed whole, the bird can tear off suitable pieces from a large piece with the help of its beak.
The avian esophagus is able to stretch significantly. Some types of birds can fill it with food and not feel discomfort. At the end of the esophagus, there may be a goiter — a special extension adapted for food storage.
The bird's stomach consists of a glandular and muscular part. In the first, the secretion of gastric juice, which softens the food, and in the second is its grinding. This process is facilitated by pebbles that swallow birds. The stomach is followed by the intestine ending in a cloaca. The ureters and excretory passages of the reproductive organs also open in the cloaca.
We continue to study the internal organs of birds. The internal structure of the birds is subject to the need to ensure the flight. This also applies to the respiratory system, which is represented not only by the lungs, but also by the air sacs located in the free space between the internal organs. These bags are connected to the lungs, and they have an important function of breathing during the flight. At rest, the bird breathes with its lungs by working the rib cage.
In flight, thanks to the work of the wings, the air sacs expand and contract, delivering air to the lungs. The faster the bird flaps its wings, the more frequent the reduction of air sacs. For example, a pigeon at rest takes 26 breaths, and up to 400 in flight. Thanks to the active circulation of air, the bird's body cools down. The air enriched with oxygen from the respiratory bags enters the lungs, which prevents the bird from suffocating.
Circulatory system of birds
Features of the internal structure of birds can be found and studying the circulatory system, which is represented by two circles of circulation and a four-chamber heart. Large and small circles of blood circulation are completely separated, that is, arterial and venous blood do not mix. The heart consists of two atria and two ventricles.
The heart muscle is able to accelerate its work dozens of times, for example, when a pigeon’s heart is at rest, it is reduced 165 times a minute, and 550 times during a flight. The structural features of the avian circulatory system are caused by a high level of metabolism. The heart has a large volume, the pulse is frequent, the blood is saturated with oxygen and sugars - all of this provides for both an intensive supply of all the organs with the necessary substances and the rapid removal of metabolic products.
Bodies of smell by birds are poorly developed. Most birds are unable to distinguish odors. The internal structure of birds, especially the organs of hearing, is more developed than that of reptiles. The organs of hearing are represented by the inner, middle and outer ear. The latter consists of a deep external auditory canal, framed by skin folds and special feathers.
Birds have well developed organs of vision. Eyes of large size and complex structure, good sensitivity. Color vision is better developed than many other animals. Birds distinguish a large number of shades. With a high speed of movement during the flight, sight allows you to assess the situation from a long distance, but the objects that are a few centimeters, the bird sees clearly.
In flight, the birds perform complex movements, so the cerebellum, which is responsible for coordination, has a large size. Visual mounds are also well developed. The forebrain hemispheres are enlarged. The internal structure of birds, their brain and nervous system is associated with the complex behavior of birds.
Most of the actions instinctively - the construction of the nest, the formation of pairs, care for offspring. But with age, birds are able to learn. If the chicks do not have fear of a person, then adult individuals are afraid. They can distinguish the hunter from the unarmed, and the crows can understand that it is in a man’s hand - a stick or a gun.
Some species of birds recognize people who often feed them, are trained and can imitate various sounds, including human speech.
Excretory and genital systems
Consider the excretory and reproductive systems, their internal structure and the reproduction of birds. Since the metabolism in birds is accelerated, the kidneys are large. These paired metanephic organs are divided into three lobes and are located under the dorsal walls of the pelvis. The ureters departing from them open in a foul place. The bladder of the birds is not. Waste activity, consisting mainly of uric acid, is rapidly eliminated from the body.
Most birds do not have a copulatory organ. The testes, increasing in size during the breeding season, remove the contents through the channel into the seminal vesicle located in the cloaca.
The internal structure of birds, and more precisely, the reproductive organs of females, has interesting features. They have developed only the left ovary and oviduct, the right ones are usually rudimentary. Most likely this is due to the lack of space for the simultaneous formation of large eggs. The oviduct departs from the ovary, which is divided into several sections: the long fallopian tube, the thin-walled and wide uterus and the narrow vagina, which opens into the cloaca. To carry out fertilization, the male presses his cloaca to the cesspool of the female.
Reproduction and care for offspring
We considered the internal structure of birds. Biology not only studies anatomy, but also analyzes the behavior of animals. Let's talk about such a complex process as reproduction and care for the offspring in birds.
The breeding season begins when enough feed appears. In our birds - in spring and summer. But reproduction in captive birds kept in captivity, such as ornamental ones, is stimulated at any time of the year, increasing the quantity and nutritional value of the feed.
Most small and medium-sized birds form pairs for the season, while large ones have long-term alliances. They can form flocks where temporary pairs are formed. The choice of a partner is not accidental. Males talk to attract the attention of females: they spread feathers, make special sounds, enter fights.
Most species lay eggs in the nest, which can be located on the ground, on trees, bushes, in hollows, and mink. Eggs are protected by durable shells, often with a masking coloration.
In brood species (poultry, ducks, geese, black grouses, swans), chicks emerge from eggs with open eyes and covered with down. Very quickly they begin to eat on their own and come out of the nest. In nesting birds (pigeons, crows, tits, sparrows, rooks, parrots, birds of prey), the young appear blind and bare, completely helpless.
Birds have long-term care for their offspring. Birds warm and feed their chicks, protect them.
What is the organ system
Systems that unite all bodies are their totality, arising for the implementation of their common function. Very often, individual structures of the body can not fully fulfill a particular role. Therefore, the bodies are combined in the system. They are quite diverse in their structure. For example, animal organ systems recite more than ten and ensure the functioning of the whole organism.
Internal organs of animals
A distinctive feature of animals is the ability to heterotrophic method of nutrition and active movement. They are represented by both unicellular and multicellular forms. Organ systems (the table below contains information about the main features of their structure) have a certain specialization. However, some of them perform several functions at once. For example, respiratory and circulatory exercise gas exchange in the body.
Systems of organs of animals and plants: the main differences
And now we consider the general plan of the structure of multicellular plant organisms. They, like animals, are made up of cells that unite in tissue. Here is the first difference. In plants, specialized organs form integumentary, basic, mechanical, conductive, and educational tissues. In animals, they are different. These are epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous. Accordingly, the organs that they form will differ in structure and function.
The next difference is that the plants do not produce a system. Speaking about their structure, they call the underground organ - the root, and also the part that is on the surface - the shoot. The latter, in turn, consists of the stem and leaves. Systems that unite all organs of animals are not only physiological, but also functional systems.
Systems uniting all organs
As a result, all systems are combined into a single and global, which is called a living organism. In humans, the regulation of its function is carried out in two ways: nervous and humoral. They have different mechanisms and speed of exposure. Nervous regulation is carried out by the same organ system. Its initial link is receptors. With their help, the body perceives a variety of information, which is subsequently converted into impulses and transmitted to the appropriate sections of the central nervous system. There is formed the response of the body, coming in obravratnuy direction to the working body. The operation of this mechanism lasts almost an instant. But humoral regulation is different. It occurs with the help of endocrine glands, which secrete special substances into the blood - hormones. They affect the various functions of the body. Their action is quite long. For example, a growth hormone that secretes pituitary gland is secreted in humans for 20-25 years.
So, the general plan of the structure of living organisms is the following structures: cells, tissues, organs, organ systems. The latter are combined to more effectively perform a variety of functions, ensuring a coordinated work as a whole.
anatomy of the location of internal organs, a diagram describing the function, structure, characteristics and activity of the human body
The main section of biology, which studies the structure of the body, is called anatomy. That it gives an idea of the normal structure of the body.
The organ system is the union of organs - different in structure, but connected by a common activity.
A full review of human viscera is presented in anatomical atlas. In it, with the help of diagrams, drawings, tables, the placement and arrangement of human organs is shown.
What is the body
To begin, we give a definition. An organ is an anatomical part of the body that is responsible for one or more functions of the body. Organs are located both inside and outside the body.
Each organ consists of tissues, has its own shape and a clearly fixed position in the body. Tissues are: muscle, epithelial, nervous, connective.
To maintain normal functioning, organs are combined into physiological systems. For example, for running the harmonious work of the respiratory, musculoskeletal and nervous systems is necessary.
Note: The theory of physiological systems was introduced by the Soviet physiologist Anokhin, PK in 1935.
What kind of organ systems does a person have? A description of the systems and their organs.
In total, biology has 12 systems that ensure the normal functioning of a person. Consider some of them.
Musculoskeletal - includes about 600 muscles and a skeleton consisting of 206 bones. Muscles provide breathing, speech, chewing, blood and lymph flow, as well as support for the internal organs.
The spine is the basis part of the skeleton. It contains cerebrospinal fluid, which provides the central nervous system with nutrients and protects the brain from damage.
Digestive - includes: the gastrointestinal tract, the digestive tube and the digestive glands. The digestive glands include: the salivary glands, liver, pancreas.
These organs are responsible for the splitting of food and the absorption of nutrients from it.
Secretory - consists of a pair of kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra.
Carries out the removal of waste products from the body.
Reproductive - is responsible for the reproduction of the species. In women and men, the system has a different structure.
In women, the ovaries produce eggs, which pass through the fallopian tubes into the uterus. In the case of fertilization, the egg begins to divide, turning into an embryo that grows inside the uterus.
In the process of childbirth, the child passes through the birth canal located in the vagina.
Male reproductive cells - sperm, are formed in the testes.
During ejaculation, several millions of sperm penetrate the vagina through the urethra - the hole in the penis.
Immune - includes lymphoid tissue, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, appendix. Its main function is protective.
It tracks pathogens, viruses, parasites, the growth of tumor cells, produces the production of protective cells and destroys antigens.
Cover slip — представляет собой кожу и слизистые оболочки, которые располагаются по всему человеческому телу.
Главная их задача —предохранение от температурных перепадов, повреждений и проникновения чужеродных объектов.
Эндокринная — одна из самых важных систем. Это структура из желез, которые при помощи гормонов управляют жизненно важными процессами в теле человека.
The main organs are the adrenal glands, the thyroid gland, the pituitary gland, the epiphysis, the ovaries, the testes.
The human body is a complex mechanism with anatomical and physiological features. For a long and high-quality service of all its components, it is necessary to lead a healthy lifestyle and diagnose diseases in time.
Paragraph 5. Systems of animal organs
1. What is an organ? What human organs do you know?
An organ (from the Greek “organon” —an instrument, instrument) is a part of the body that performs certain functions, which has a certain structure, shape, and location in the body.
Examples of human organs: heart, lungs, liver, kidneys.
2. What is the organ system called?
Interconnected organs, united by common work, constitute a system of organs.
3. Create and complete the table "Systems of organs and their functions."
4. Thanks to which two systems does the body work as one?
Ensuring the coordinated work of all parts of a living organism is carried out by the nervous and endocrine systems.
5. What system provides gas exchange in your body? What other organ system is it associated with? Justify your answer.
Gas exchange in the body is carried out by the respiratory system. It is associated with the circulatory system, which is already involved in the transfer of gases throughout the body. If this did not happen, most of the cells of the body would be left without the necessary oxygen and with an excess of metabolic products, which would lead to inevitable death.
6. The musculoskeletal system consists of two parts. Which part is passive and which part is active?
The skeleton gives the body shape, supports it, protects its internal organs from damage (the passive part). Due to muscle contractions, the animal can actively move.
7. Why does the body work as a unit?
An organism is a biological system consisting of interconnected and coordinated elements, the interrelations of which and the peculiarities of their structure are subordinated to their functioning as a whole.
The human body consists of organ systems that interact with each other. Each organ system performs its specific function. It is necessary to maintain and maintain consistency of the internal environment. Organ systems do not work in isolation, but combine to achieve a useful result.
The functioning of the body as a whole is ensured by the work of systems that ensure the coordinated work of all parts of a living organism - these are the nervous and endocrine systems.
Bodies. Organ systems. | Biology| Biology
The human body consists of bodies. Heart, lungs, kidneys, hand, eye - all of this organs, ie, parts of the body that perform certain functions.
Organ It has its own peculiar form and position in the body. The shape of the arm is different from the shape of the leg, the heart is not like the lungs or the stomach. Depending on the functions performed, the structure of the body is also different. Usually the body consists of several tissues, often from 4 main ones. One of them plays a pivotal role. So, the predominant bone tissue is bone, the main gland tissue is epithelial, the main muscle tissue is muscular. At the same time, there is connective nerve and epithelial tissue (blood vessels) in each organ.
Organ is part of the whole organism and therefore cannot work outside the organism. At the same time, the body can do without some organs. This is indicated by surgical removal of limbs, eyes, teeth. Each of the organs is an integral part of a more complex physiological system of organs. The life of the organism is provided by the interaction of a large number of different organs. Organs united by a certain physiological function constitute the physiological system. The following physiological systems are distinguished: the integumentary one, the support and movement system, the digestive, circulatory, respiratory, excretory, sexual, endocrine, nervous system.
Major organ systems
Structure - skin and mucous membranes. Functions - protects from external effects of drying, temperature fluctuations, damage, penetration into the body of various pathogens of the disease and toxic substances.
Support and movement system
Structure - represented by a large number of bones and muscles, bones, connecting with each other, form the skeleton of the corresponding parts of the body.
Functions - supporting function, the skeleton performs a protective function, limiting the cavities occupied by internal organs. The skeleton and muscles provide body movement.
Structure - includes the organs of the oral cavity (tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas).
Functions - in the digestive organs, food is crushed, wetted by saliva, it is affected by gastric and other digestive juices. As a result, the body needs the necessary nutrients. They are absorbed in the intestines and are delivered by blood to all tissues and cells of the body.
Structure - consists of the heart and blood vessels.
Functions - the heart with its contractions pushes blood through the vessels to the organs and tissues, where there is a continuous metabolism. Due to this exchange, cells receive oxygen and other necessary substances and are freed from unnecessary substances, such as carbon dioxide and decomposition products.
Structure - nasal cavity, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs.
Functions - is involved in providing the body with oxygen and in its release from carbon dioxide.
Structure - the main organs of this system are the kidneys, there are ureters, the bladder.
Functions - performs the function of removing liquid metabolic products.
Structure - male genital organs (testes), female genital glands (ovaries). Fetal development occurs in the uterus.
Functions - performs the function of reproduction, sex cells are formed here.
Structure - various endocrine glands. For example, the thyroid gland, the pituitary gland, the pancreas.
Functions - each gland produces special chemicals in the blood. These substances are involved in the regulation of the functions of all cells and tissues of the body.
Structure - receptors, nerves, brain and spinal cord.
Functions - unites all other systems, regulates and coordinates their activities. Thanks to the nervous system is the mental activity of man, his behavior.
The scheme of the body
Molecules - cellular organelles - cells - tissues - organs - organ systems - organism
Table "Systems of human organs" (for students of 8 classes)
Kayakent district Republic of Dagestan
Table "Systems of human organs"
(for 8th grade students)
Author: biology teacher
MKOU "Novokayakentskaya SOSH"
Umalatova Ravganiyat Biibulatovna
This table "Systems of human organs" is recommended for students.
8th grade. The material can be used when passing the topic “Organs. Organ systems. Organism "in 8 classes. The table includes images of organs and apparatus systems, structures, constituent organs and functions.
The table reflects: skeletal, muscular, respiratory, excretory, digestive, nervous, circulatory and reproductive systems, musculoskeletal and endocrine apparatus.
Tasks: Acquaintance of students with organ systems and apparatus, their constituent organs and functions.
Table "Systems of human organs"
Structure constituting organs
- consists of bones.
- supports the body,
- serves as a place of attachment of muscles
- performs a protective function.
- formed by skeletal muscles.
- leads the movement of the skeleton.
- excretion of liquid metabolic products from the body.
- provides oxygen to the body and excretion of metabolic products from the body.
- turns food into available for
assimilation by the body of nutrients.
- provides the movement of blood, which delivers oxygen and nutrients to the organs and removes metabolic products from them.
vital activity of tissues, organs and their systems,
the organism in a single whole, - carries out
the relationship of the organism with the external environment and its adaptation to changing environmental conditions,
- defines the mental activity of a person as the basis of his social existence.
-production of gametes and sex hormones,
- contributes to the movement of man,
- provides fixation of internal organs, muscles, tendons and ligaments,
- participates in metabolic processes, provides a constant composition of blood.
- develop active substances,
- affect the body's metabolism,
- ensures the preservation of the homeostasis of the body under changing environmental conditions.
1.Biologiya.8 class. Man: Training. For educational institutions / N.I. Sonin, M.R. Sapin. - 6th ed., Stereotype. -M .: Drofa, 2004.- 216 with
Functions of systems of human organs - Naukolandiya
The human body, like most other living organisms, is very complex. It consists of many different cells, tissues and organs. Every organ in the human body performs its function. At the same time, it can ensure the performance of other organs, as well as depend on their functioning. Thus, the human body is a complex system, the various components of which are interconnected.
Organs of a living organism are united in groups - organ systems. Each organ system performs one big task for the body, plays a certain role for it. And each organ in a particular system performs a smaller task, a kind of subtask.
In humans, there are more than ten organ systems. The main ones are as follows.
Cover system - This is the skin and mucous membranes. The skin protects other organs from damage, drying, prevents the entry into the body of harmful substances and microorganisms, reduces the effects of temperature fluctuations in the environment.
Musculoskeletal system - these are bones and muscles. Human bones are movably connected to each other, resulting in a single moving skeleton. The skeleton gives support to the body, most muscles are attached to it, and the skeleton also performs a protective function for a number of organs. Muscle tissue is combined into individual muscles, it is responsible for the mobility of parts of the body, is part of some organs.
Digestive system includes many organs, the joint work of which provides the human body with nutrients extracted from food through its processing. These substances first enter the blood, and then spread to the cells of the body.
Respiratory system human consists of several organs, the main ones are the lungs. There is a gas exchange between the blood and the air. Carbon dioxide is removed from the blood, and oxygen enters the blood. Oxygen is essential for cell activity, energy production. As a result, carbon dioxide is formed, which must be removed from the body.
Circulatory system consists of the heart, various vessels, blood, blood-forming organs. It provides the transfer of oxygen and nutrients to the cells of the body, the removal of decomposition products from them. Also thanks to the blood in the body is the redistribution of heat. It is diverted from the organs that produce it, to the organs that lack it or through which it can be removed from the body. In addition to these functions, the blood performs a number of others - protects us from a number of diseases, performs an immune function, carries hormones, etc.
Excretory system human consists of a pair of kidneys and a number of other organs. Its function is to remove metabolic products, water, and harmful substances from the blood from the digestive system from the blood. Thus, the excretory system ensures the constancy of the chemical composition of the environment for the cells of the body, which is important for their normal vital activity.
Sexual, or reproductive, system in men and women consists of different organs. In both sexes, the reproductive system produces sex cells, and in women, it also provides for gestation. Thus, the function of the reproductive system is reproduction, i.e., ensuring the reproduction of representatives of the species.
Nervous system Human consists of the brain, spinal cord and many different nerves. Its functions are to ensure the coordinated work of all organs and systems of the body, the processing of information coming from and from the environment, the adoption on the basis of this decision, a reasonable activity. It is intelligent activity that is the distinguishing feature of a person, distinguishing him from the world of animals. Thus, the nervous system is a regulator of the human body, its “main manager”.
Endocrine system The human body includes various glands, “scattered” throughout the body, which synthesize certain chemicals - hormones. Through the hormones entering the blood, the body is controlled. Unlike the nervous system, where signals are transmitted along the nerves, here the control takes place in a different way (molecules through the blood).
Sense organs a person is different; these are several “subsystems”, each of which consists of a number of organs. The senses perceive information that is meaningful to the body from the environment and transfer it to the brain. Based on the incoming data, the brain makes decisions about what the body needs or doesn't need to do. The human sense organs consist of organs of sight that perceive light, organs of hearing that perceive sound, organs of smell and taste, perceive the chemical composition (molecules) of the environment and food, and also touch that perceive pressure.
Joint coordinated activity of all organ systems ensures the life of the organism.