Plants

What is the role of sawmills in the steppe? Why is the steppe zone good for farming? name at least two reasons

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Steppes are the richest species in communities of drought-resistant plants - xerophytes. They are common where the climate is warm, but there is not enough rainfall for the forest to grow. The steppes are “a type of vegetation represented by a community of drought-resistant perennial herbaceous plants with the domination of turf cereals, less often sedges and onions.” If you analyze the geographical location of the steppe landscapes on the globe, you will find -

that the most typical steppes form in the inner regions of the continent. Steppe zones of the temperate zones of the northern and southern hemispheres, characterized by a dry climate, waterlessness of watersheds, the domination of grassy, ​​mainly grass vegetation on chernozem, dark chestnut and chestnut soils.

Steppes dominate by area, which are altered by pasture digression and represent low grass pasture communities dominated by fescue and wormwood. Hay-growing varieties of steppe are preserved in small fragments, among which there are southern, northern and central variants, which represent a transition between the northern and southern ones. In the steppes of the central variant, if they are not disturbed by grazing, feather-washed, Zelesky, narrow-leaved coals are common. In addition, there are fescue and very richly presented herbs. The composition of the steppe includes shrubs - Karagana, spirea, gorse, broom.

In addition to the mountain steppes, on the plain in small fragments, solonetsous steppes have been preserved, in which the wormwood of Lerch, Kermek Gmelin, and the East Falte-Vegek are common. For steppes on gravelly soils characteristic

participation of species - petrophytes, i.e., stone lovers - onosma of the simplest, thyme, grate, Siberian cornflower and others. Such steppes are especially easily destroyed by pasture digression. The productivity of steppe haymakings is up to 4-5 c / ha

Hay, the productivity of steppe pastures as a result of overgrazing is low and amounts to no more than 15-20 centners / ha of green mass

for the entire pasture period. According to the classification, according to the research of Professor Mirkin BM All the steppes of the Republic of Bashkortostan can be divided into two main types - meadow and typical. Meadow are common in the forest-steppe zone, and in the steppe zone they are to the slopes of the northern exposure.

Typical steppe occupy areas in the steppe zone of the republic.

Mordovnik sharogolovy

Biennial or perennial herb of the family Compositae. Plant height reaches 1.5 m. The stem is single, straight, branching at the top. It is covered with glandular hairs. Leaves twice pinnately, large long from 10 to 25 cm and from 4 to 10 cm wide. Rosette leaves with a petiole, the rest sessile, stalk. From above they are green, and from below they are covered with white felt, at the edges there are small spikes. The flowers are collected in spherical inflorescences, they are bluish-white in color. Spherical heads have a diameter of 4-5cm. Fruits are achenes. It grows in river valleys, among bushes, on the edges of island forests, on wastelands.

The population of plants on the hill Roman-mountain is represented by single plants. Occasionally there are "islands" of 5-10 plants. In general, the plants are in good condition.

Yarrow

Perennial herb from the family Compositae. Plant with erect stem. Under the conditions of the Republic of Belarus, its height varies from 48 to 72 cm. Several shoots of stems depart from a thin creeping rhizome. Bottom leaves - lanceolate, doubly pinnate-cut into narrow small lobules. Stem leaves are shorter, pinnately dissected.

Stem leaves are shorter, pinnately divided, divided into a large number of lobules. Inflorescence - corymbose, consisting of a variety of flower baskets. The flowers are small, white, mauve or reddish. It blooms in June and August, a very long time.

It grows on a hill everywhere, where there are areas of meadow steppe. It is especially common on gentle slopes on the south side of the slope, where cattle graze more often and closer to the Asly-Udryak river.

Asparagus medicinal

A perennial herb of the lily family. The stem of asparagus is erect, reaching a height of up to 150 cm, strongly branched. Branches on a stalk depart at an acute angle. The leaves are reduced to scales, modified shoots are formed in the axils of the stem, resembling leaves. Underground stem straight, smooth. It is juicy, etiolated, forming shoots extending from the rhizome. These stems are used as a vegetable plant. The flowers are small, greenish-yellow. Perianth of six petals with 6 stamens. The fruit is a red spherical berry. It blooms in June - July. Asparagus grows in the meadows, among thickets of shrubs, and is found in the steppes, on the slopes of the mountains.

It is quite rare in the study area. Found in areas adjacent to the forest belt and located between the rows of trees inside the forest belt. The population is represented by single plants.

Spring adonis

Perennial herbaceous plant of the buttercup family. Adonis has a two-stroke development - at the beginning

Early flowering is different, and then the formation of the stem and leaves. The color is early spring, from the end of April, in May. The bush in which there are up to 20-30 pieces of flowers, blooms from 40 to 50 days. The very first flowers, as a rule, are large, but they are pale yellow, golden, apical, solitary, abundantly visited by bees. At the beginning of flowering, Adonis has a bush height of 10 to 15 cm, and in the fruiting phase it reaches 30-70 cm. In each bush there are from 2 to 15 generative and from 4 to 23 vegetative shoots.

It occurs everywhere in the study area. The population consists of more than 150 plants that are in good condition.

Budra ivy-shaped

Perennial, herbaceous plant of the family Labiotour. Budra has a creeping and branched stem, it takes root, forming new stems. The leaves are petiolate, opposite, crenate-toothed, roundly reniform in shape. They are covered with hairs. Flowers 3-4 pieces. located in the axils of medium stem leaves, they are small, double-lipped, purple-blue or bluish-purple in color. Pedicels 4-5 times shorter than calyx, supplied with awl-shaped bracts. The calyx is covered with hairs, its teeth are triangular, thinly pointed. The height of the ascending stems ranges from 10 to 40 cm. It blooms in May-June.

It grows along the ravine and on the south side of the slope. A large population was studied at the beginning of flowering.

Hypericum perforatum

A perennial grassy plant from the family of the mammal. Stalk straight, height from 45 to 80 cm, naked, with two faces. The leaves are oblong-ovate, entire, opposite, sessile. Translucent dotted containers that resemble holes are scattered on the leaves, hence the name, perforated.

The flowers are numerous, golden-yellow in color, collected in a wide-body, almost shield-like inflorescence. Sepals are sharp with a solid edge. The petals are twice as long as the sepal, blooms in June-July. The fruit is a three-celled multiseed basket, revealed by 3 leaves. The rhizome is thin, several stalks leave it.

Found only in one place on the eastern sloping side of the hill. Presented by 8-15 plants.

Veronika Dubravnaya

Perennial herbaceous plant. Keeps green shoots all year round. The leaves are located opposite, in the axils of the brush are not the right flowers. In the flower 2 stamens and 1 pistil. The fruit of Veronica is a flattened box.

It grows in meadow areas of the steppe study area. Plants are evenly distributed between other species. Often found on the outskirts of the forest belt.

Bonfire

Belongs to the family of cereals. It has smooth stems, reaching a height of one meter. The leaves are flat and wide. Spikelets are collected in inflorescence - sprawling whisk. Bonfire is a good forage grass, it blooms from the end of May and in June. From the creeping rhizome there are many high upright shoots of peduncles.

In the plant communities of the hill is an environment-forming species, since occurs evenly often almost everywhere.

Annual, herbaceous plant of the buckwheat family. A small plant with a height of 10 to 40 cm. It has straight stems, prostrate, branched. Leaves elliptical or lanceolate, small, with a short spine. Flowers are in the axils of the leaves, distributed evenly throughout the plant. Corolla flower is pale pink. The fruit is a triangular nutlet. It blooms from May to October. It grows on the roads, on the streets, on yards, on pastures. On pastures, where there is a large load of livestock, all types of plants suffer, only the knotweed remains.

This species is well pronounced at the foot of the hill from the side of the river and the animal stall. In the main system almost does not occur.

Colza ordinary

Cruciferous herb. Bright green rosettes of colza from fancy lyre. pinnately dissected leaves are abundantly visible on the fields that were plowed up last fall. It blooms in May and June. With an abundance of sun and moisture from the melted snow at the colza, a flowering shoot with a brush of yellow flowers is quickly pulled out. A fruit - multi-seeded, opened by two shutters. Good honey plant.

In the vegetation cover of the hill does not grow evenly and is found in a large way from the side of the field, located closer to the eastern slope.

Purple Kozelets

Achenes at the base with a hollow swollen stem, 12 mm long, ribbed, light gray. Stems are straight and ascending, striated, simple and branching. Bottom leaves on long petioles, pinnate and dissected, with narrow linear lateral segments. The baskets are cylindrical, the wrapper is weakly arachnoid, then bare, its leaves are lanceolate, sometimes with a horn-like appendage. Flowers are yellow, marginal from the outside reddish.

It grows on a hill on the lawns between the trees of the forest belt. It occurs moderately often, the population consists of individual plants that are at a relatively short distance from each other - from 40 to 60 cm.

Belongs to the family of legumes. Shrub with gray straight thin branches, with four contiguous obsessive leaves with a wedge-shaped base and spikes on the top, flowers golden yellow with a broad obovate sail, blunt boat, focusing on 2-3 on single peduncles, which are twice as long as the cup, beans up to 3 cm long, bare, cylindrical, 1-4 seed.

It grows mainly on the western slope of the mountain, in the ravine and adjacent to the beam from the north side.

Nona dark

It belongs to the family borachnikovyh. The whole plant is covered with bulging, stiff hair and sparse glandular. The leaves are oblong-lanceolate, the lower ones are narrowed in the petioles, the rest are sessile, half-stem-rich. Bracts lanceolate, longer than flowers, dark red-brown color. Calyx bell-shaped, notched to one part. The shares of the calyx are lanceolate. Nuts are wrinkled.

On a hill it grows everywhere, it was studied and determined during the beginning of flowering.

Belongs to the bell family. Flowers numerous, in a large branched inflorescence. Corolla funnel bell-shaped, blue or white. Stem with dense foliage. The leaves are large pilchatye, naked or pubescent.

It grows in the communities of the studied plants between cereals. Rare, counted in a population of only about 30 plants.

Veronica dlinnolistnaya

Belongs to the family nornikovye. Leaves to the very top are unequated with thinly pointed,

Simple or base b.ch. double notches, oblong or linear-lanceolate, heart-shaped or rounded at the base, often whorled. The inflorescence is the final thick brush extending up to 25 cm, sometimes with several side brushes, the flowers on the pedicels are almost equal to the calyx. Corolla blue about 6 mm. Long, with a hairy inside the tube. The whole plant is bare or with short grayish pubescence.

The distribution of this plant in the studied ecosystem is moderately rare. It grows as individual plants or 2-3 individuals.

Violet is amazing

It belongs to the violet family. Stem up to 30 cm tall. Petioles of large, wide heart-shaped stem leaves are grooved, pubescent only on convex hairs facing down. Stipules of stem leaves are large, entire, prikrlnevyh large, rusty-red.

On a hill it grows in places with low grasses or among low grassy cover; it likes stony patches of surface.

Anemone Forest

Ranunculus family - Ranunculaceae. Perennial. Stem leaves not fused, similar to basal, short hair. The flowers are yellow and white.

It grows in small “small families” between pine rows of trees and separately on the open slopes on the eastern and northern sides of the Roman-Gora hill.

Field bindweed

Belongs to the family of convolvulidae. Bare or absent-minded plant with recumbent, creeping or climbing shoots. Flowers up to 3.5 cm in diameter, usually collected in 2-3 or single. Bracts in the form of a pair of small linear leaves located oppositely in the middle of the pedicel, do not reach the calyx. The corolla is pink, rarely white.

It grows in areas with other meadow plants from the side of the ravine and the river.

Onosma Preduralskaya

Belongs to the borage family. Pedicels are very short, much shorter than bracts. The whole plant is hard and rough. The stem is straight, simple, rarely branched, covered with stiff bristles and thick fuzz. Prikornye leaves are numerous, petiolate, linear, stem sessile, linear-lanceolate.

Loves open sunny places with stony soil. It grows crowded bushes. Very interesting during the flowering period. On the Roman-Gora hill there are not many plants on top from the south side. Numerical accounting showed about 20 plants.

Features of all kinds of plants in the steppe

36—37) steppe zone. For color matching, you can use the “key” below.

What zone, located between steppes and forest zones, remained unpainted? Paint it at home.

Our inquisitive Parrot knows something about the steppes. Here are some of his statements. Are they true? Circle Yes or No. If not, correct the errors (verbally).

a) The steppe zone is located south of the forest zones. Answer: Yes
b) In the steppe zone of a cold, rainy summer. Answer: No
c) The soil in the steppe zone is very fertile. Answer: Yes
g) Tulips bloom in the steppe in the midst of summer. Answer: No
e) In the steppe there is a bustard - one of the smallest birds of our country. Answer: No

Mama Seryozha and Nadi are interested in whether you know steppe plants. Cut out the drawings from the Application and place them in the appropriate windows. Check yourself on the textbook. After the self-test, stick the pictures.

And this task was prepared for you by Pope Seryozha and Nadi. Get to know the animals of the steppe by fragments. Sign the names of the animals. Ask a nearby student to check you out.

Make a diagram of the power circuit characteristic of the steppe zone. Compare it with the scheme proposed by the neighbor on the desk. Using these schemes, tell us about the ecological connections in the steppe zone.

Kovyl - Filly - Steppe Lark - Steppe Eagle
Tipchak - Khomyak - Steppe Viper

Think about the environmental problems of the steppe zone expressed by these signs. Formulate and write down.

Steppes are plowed almost everywhere. There are almost no steppes in the steppe zone!

In unplowed areas of the steppes graze cattle. Sometimes large herds of animals graze for a long time in one place, overgrazing occurs.

Offer nature conservation measures for class discussion to help solve these problems.

Continue filling the poster "The Red Book of Russia", which dad Sergei and Nadi. Find on the poster the plant and animals of the steppe zone and sign their names.

Thin-leaved peony, steppe eagle, bustard, steppe dybka

8. On the instructions of the textbook (p. 117) draw a steppe.

9. On the instructions of the textbook (p. 117), prepare a report on steppe plants and animals that you are especially interested in.

Subject matter: Bustard

1) Preface
2) Basic information
3) Conclusion

The bustard is recognized as the heaviest of flying birds, this steppe inhabitant basically moves on the ground and runs fast in case of danger. Individuals are considered omnivorous, in their diet are vegetable feeds (seeds, shoots, wild garlic) and animals (insects, rodents, frogs); in the mating period, the males perform a spectacular dance.
Dimensions:
Length: males up to 105 cm, females from 75 to 80 cm
Weight: males up to 16 kg, females up to 8 kg
Lifespan: 20-25 years
The bustard is mainly a steppe bird. She lives on open plains without groves, meadows and fields. This is due to the caution of the birds, since the free space there is far visible. During nesting, individuals stop in areas with high vegetation. There are also cases when bustards nest among crops of grain, sunflower and other crops.

Source (s) of information: Internet, Encyclopedia

Plants of the steppe zone: photo and names

What plants grow in the steppe?

  • Горные, степи с буйной альпийской растительностью и высокогорные, отличающиеся скудной и невзрачной растительностью, преимущественно состоящей из крупки и проломника.
  • Луговые. Степи, отличающиеся наличием небольших лесных массивов, образующих поляны и опушки.
  • Настоящие. Степи с растущим на них в большом преобладании ковылем и типчаком. Это наиболее типичные растения степи.
  • Sazovye - steppe, consisting of plants that adapt to the arid climate, shrubs.
  • Desert steppes, which grow desert grass tumbleweed, wormwood, prutnyak
  • It is also necessary to say a few words about the forest-steppes, which are characterized by the alternation of deciduous forests and coniferous forests with steppes, since the steppe and forest-steppe plants differ only in subspecies.

The steppe is embodied on any continent except Antarctica, and on different continents it has its own name: in North America - this is the prairie, in South America - the pampas (pampas), in South America, Africa and Australia - this is the savannah. In New Zealand, the steppe is called tussokie.

Let us consider in more detail which plants grow in the steppe.

Plant species steppe

  • Krupka. This is an annual cruciferous plant growing on the high mountains and in the tundra. There are about 100 varieties of grain, characteristic of our steppes. It is characterized by a branched stem with oblong leaves, topped with tassels of yellow flowers. The flowering period is April - July. In folk phytotherapy, Krupka is used as a hemostatic, expectorant and diuretic.
  • Prolomnik. It is also an annual plant, about 25 cm long and with oblong leaves, many flower arrows, each of which ends in an inflorescence consisting of tiny white flowers. Prolomnik is used as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic, diuretic and hemostatic, as well as an anticonvulsant for epilepsy
  • Poppy. Depending on the species, it is annual or perennial grass with flower buds on long peduncles. It grows on stony slopes, near mountain streams and rivers, in fields, along roads. Although poppies are poisonous, they are widely used in herbal medicine as a sedative and hypnotic for insomnia, as well as for some diseases of the intestine and bladder.
  • Tulips are perennial herbaceous plants of the steppe family of the lily family with large and bright flowers. They mainly grow in semi-desert, desert and mountainous areas.
  • Astragalus. This plant has more than 950 species of various colors and shades, growing in desert and dry steppes, in the forest zone and in alpine meadows. It is widely used for edema, edema, gastroenteritis, diseases of the spleen, as a tonic, as well as for headaches and hypertension
  • Feather grass. It is also a diverse grass. There are more than 60 of them, and the most common of them is feathery feather grass. This is a perennial plant of the cereal family. Ferrari grows up to 1 meter tall with smooth stems and spinous leaves. Feather grass is used as a decoction of milk with goiter and paralysis.
  • Mullein. This is a large (up to 2 m) plant with hairy leaves and large yellow flowers. Studies of the plant showed the presence of many useful substances in its flowers, such as flavonoids, saponins, coumarin, gum, essential oil, aukubin glycoside, ascorbic acid and carotene content. Therefore, the plant is actively used as a food additive in salads and hot dishes, they prepare drinks and also eat fresh.
  • Melissa officinalis. This is a perennial tall grass with a pronounced lemon smell. The stems of the plant are topped with bluish-purple flowers, which are collected in false rings. The leaves of lemon balm contains essential oil, ascorbic acid, some organic acids.
  • A camel thorn is a semi-shrub, up to 1 meter in height, with a strong root system, bare stems with long spines and red (pink) flowers. Camel thorn is widespread in the riverside space; it grows along canals and canals, in wastelands and irrigated lands. The plant contains many vitamins, some organic acids, rubber, resins, tannins, essential oil, as well as carotene and wax. Broth plants are used in colitis, gastritis and gastric ulcer.
  • Sagebrush. It is a herbaceous or semi-shrub plant found almost everywhere. The whole plant has a straight stem with thin pinnately-separated leaves and yellowish flowers, gathered in inflorescences. Wormwood is used as a spicy plant, and essential oil is used in perfumery and cosmetics. Wormwood also matters as a fodder plant for livestock.
  • So, we have considered only some species of steppe plants. And, of course, differences in the landscape leave their mark on the appearance of the herbs growing on it, but, nevertheless, some common properties can be distinguished. So typical for steppe plants:
  • Branched root system
  • Bulbous roots
  • Fleshy stems and thin, narrow leaves

Even more interesting

We recommend to read: http://elhow.ru

Steppe zone plants

VEGETATION Steppes consists of various grasses capable of enduring drought. In some plants, the stems and leaves are heavily pubescent or have a developed waxy coating, while others have hard stems covered with narrow leaves that coagulate during the dry season (grasses), others have fleshy and juicy stems and leaves with a reserve of moisture. Some plants are distinguished by a root system reaching deep into the ground or form tubers, bulbs, and rhizomes.

The steppe zone is one of the main land biomes. Under the influence, above all, of climatic factors, the zonal features of biomes were formed. The steppe zone is characterized by a hot and arid climate during most of the year, and in spring there is a sufficient amount of moisture, therefore, the steppes are characterized by a large number of ephemera and ephemeroids among plant species, and many animals are also associated with the seasonal lifestyle, hibernating into arid and the cold season.

Steppe almonds. Photo: Sirpa Tähkämö

One of the steppes is represented in Eurasia by steppes, in North America by prairies, in South America by pampas, in New Zealand by communities of tussocks. These are spaces of the temperate zone, occupied by more or less xerophilic vegetation. From the point of view of the living conditions of the animal population, the steppes are characterized by the following features: good visibility, abundance of plant food, relatively dry summer period, the existence of a summer dormant period or, as it is now called, semi-resting. In this regard, steppe communities differ sharply from forest ones. Among the predominant life forms of steppe plants are grasses, the stems of which are clustered in turfs - turf grasses. In the southern hemisphere, such turfs are called tussocks. Tussouks are very high and their leaves are less hard than those of the turfs of the steppe grasses of the Northern Hemisphere, since the climate of communities close to the steppes of the Southern Hemisphere is milder.

Rhizome cereals that do not form turfs, with single stems on creeping underground rhizomes, are more widely distributed in the northern steppes in contrast to the turf cereals, whose role in the Northern Hemisphere increases to the south.
Among the dicotyledonous herbaceous plants, two groups are distinguished - the northern colorful forbs and the southern colorless. Mesophilic appearance and large bright flowers or inflorescences are characteristic for colorful forbs, for xenophilia for grasslands, more xerophilous appearance - pubescent stems in leaves, often leaves narrow or finely dissected, flowers hardly noticeable, dull.
Characteristic for the steppes are annual ephemera, which die off in spring after flowering are dying off, and perennial ephemeroids, in which tubers, bulbs, and underground rhizomes remain after the death of ground parts. A perennial tree is peculiar which develops foliage in spring, when there is still a lot of moisture in the steppe soils, only underground organs remain for the summer, and in autumn, when the whole steppe looks lifeless, yellowed, it gives bright lilac flowers (hence its name).

The steppe is characterized by shrubs, often growing in groups, sometimes - solitary. These include spireas, caraganas, steppe cherries, steppe almonds, and sometimes some types of juniper. The fruits of many shrubs are eaten by animals.
On the surface of the soil xerophilous mosses, bushy and scale lichens, sometimes blue-green algae from the genus Nostok grow. During the dry summer period they dry up, after the rains come to life and assimilate.

Photo: Matt Lavin

In the steppe there are plants rather unattractive, perhaps, therefore, to many unfamiliar ones: grains and breakers. They appear among the first on dry roads, sand mounds, hills and hills.

Cruciferous groats are most commonly found in the highlands and in the tundra. The total number of its species in our country reaches one hundred. The most common are Siberian pellets (found on meadows, in dry tundra, on alpine and subalpine lawns throughout almost the whole country, including the Arctic and mountain systems of Central Asia and Siberia), and also oak grove (distributed widely, except for the Arctic, in the fields dry meadows and steppes). Outwardly, these grains are very similar to each other.

Krupka Dubravnaya is an annual plant with a branchy, leafy stem up to 20 centimeters high, at the bottom of which there is a basal rosette of oblong leaves, and at the top there are loose tassels of yellowish flowers. It blooms in April - July. The chemical composition of the grains is poorly investigated, it is only known that the aboveground part contains alkaloids. The plant was used in folk herbal medicine as a hemostatic agent along with a shepherd's bag. It is believed that the aerial part, together with the seeds, has expectorant and antitussive action, as a result of which it is used for whooping cough and various bronchial diseases. The infusion of the herb is popular as an external remedy for various skin diseases (rashes and others), especially of allergic origin in children (while taking infusion or decoction of the herb externally and inward - as a blood-purifying agent) o In Chinese medicine, plant seeds are popular, which are used as an expectorant and diuretic.

Siberian Krupka - perennial with dark yellow flowers. It deserves, like the oak grove, medical examinations.
Prolomniki from the family of primroses in our country has 35 species, distributed mainly in the mountains of the Caucasus, Central Asia and Siberia. The most common is the Northern Prolomnik, a small, up to 25 centimeters, annual plant with a rosette of medium-sized oblong leaves and, as a rule, numerous, up to 20 pieces, floral arrows up to 25 centimeters in height, each of which ends with an umbrella-shaped inflorescence consisting of 10-30 tiny white flowers. There is a Northern Prolomnik almost throughout the country - in the forest-steppe, steppe, forest, and polar-arctic zones: in the dry and steppe meadows, stony slopes, in sparsely pine and other forests, and he especially loves.

Flora of the steppe

willingly occupies plowed glades and deposits like a weed.

The plant has long been used for medicinal purposes by the people of our country. Recently, medicine has been examining the possibility of obtaining from it preparations of a contractive (contraceptive) action. The studies performed gave good results - the age-old popular experience of the use of a Prolomnik was fully confirmed. Prolomnik is believed to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, its decoction or paste is used for whitening in women and gonorrhea in men, hernia and goiter, gastralgia, urolithiasis, especially widely - in inflammation of the throat (rinse throat and take orally). Prolomnik's use is also known as an anticonvulsant in epilepsy and eclampsia (seizures, including in children), as well as a diuretic and hemostatic agent.

Krupka oakravnaya. Photo: Matt Lavin

A peculiar life form of steppe plants are tumbleweeds. This life form includes plants that break off at the root collar as a result of drying, more rarely rotting, and are carried by the wind over the steppe, while rising into the air, then hitting the ground, they disperse the seeds. In general, the wind in the transfer of seeds of steppe plants plays a significant role. There are a lot of plants with bugs. The role of wind is great not only in pollination of plants, but the number of species in which insects take part in pollination is less here than in forests.

Features of steppe plants:

a) Small leaves. Leaves of steppe cereals narrow, no wider than 1.5-2 mm. In dry weather, they fold along, and their evaporating surface becomes even smaller (a device to reduce evaporation). In some steppe plants, leaf blades are very small (bedstraws, Kachima, thyme, gerbil, solyanka), in others they are dissected into the thinnest lobules and segments (zhabritsy, Adonis, etc.).
b) pubescence. A whole group of steppe plants create for themselves a special “microclimate” due to abundant pubescence. Many species of astragalus, sage, and others are protected from the sun's rays by means of the pubescence and thus combat drought.
c) wax coating. Many use a layer of wax or other waterproof substance exuded by the skin. This is another adaptation of steppe plants to drought. They have plants with a smooth, shiny leaf surface: milkweed, zhabritsy, Russian cornflower, etc.
d) The special position of the leaves. Avoiding overheating, some steppe grasses (rabbits, serpukhs, chondrills) place their leaves edge-on towards the sun. And such a steppe weed, like a wild lettuce, generally orients the leaves in a vertical plane north-south, representing a kind of living compass.
d) Coloring. Among the summer steppe grasses there are few bright green plants, the leaves and stems of most of them are painted in dull, faded tones. This is another adaptation of steppe plants, helping them to protect themselves from excessive lighting and overheating (wormwood).
e) Powerful root system. The root system is 10–20 times as large as the aerial organs. In the steppe there are many so-called turf grasses. This is a feather grass, fescue, tonkonog, harp. They form a dense turf, having a diameter of 10 cm or more. The turf contains many remnants of old stems and leaves and has the remarkable property of intensively absorbing thawed and rainwater for a long time.
g) Ephemera and ephemeroids. These plants develop in spring when the soil is sufficiently moist. Thus, they have time to bloom and give fruits before the onset of the dry period (tulips, irises, crocuses, goose bows, adonis, etc.).

Steppe plants

December 11, 2012

Steppe plants are extremely diverse, but many of them can be identified and common signs. Among them are small, narrow leaves. In some species, they have the ability to curl during droughts to protect themselves from excessive evaporation of moisture. Leaf color is often grayish or bluish-green: bright green foliage familiar to the eye can be rarely found here. Steppe plants tolerate heat and lack of rain.

According to various reference books, in the steppe one can see about 220 different plant species. Many steppe plants have a branched root system that allows them to extract moisture from the ground. In the floodplains of flowing rivers can be found willows, and in places where groundwater comes close to the surface of the earth - and other trees and shrubs: hawthorn, Tartar maple, wild grapes, thorns, etc. In places with saline soils, grow special steppe plants: saline wormwood, Kermek, reduced, saltros.

Surly in most of the year, the steppe is transformed in early spring. At this time, before the beginning of the dry season, it is covered with a variegated carpet of early-flowering plants: tulips, irises, hyacinths, crocuses, and poppies. Steppe plants differ from cultivated varieties, first of all, by their smaller size. At the same time, their form can be more bizarre - such as, for example, in Schrenk’s tulip, one of the pioneers of the cultivated varieties of this flower. Because of the plowing of the steppe, as well as the ruthless gathering of flowers, this species is listed in the Red Book of Russia. The dwarf iris of the steppe, as well as the Schrenk tulip, can have flowers of various shades, from yellow to purple. This species is also counted as endangered.

Until the heat comes, the bright steppe flowers already have time to give seeds. Nutrients are stored in their tubers, which will allow them to bloom next year. There comes a turn of plants that are accustomed to drought: fescue, feather grass, wormwood. Tipchak (Valissa fescue) is an upright grass up to half a meter. This plant serves as food for horses and small livestock and is one of the main grazing plants in the steppe zone (for preparation for use, a fescue is unsuitable). Feather grass, a typical representative of the steppe flora - a perennial grass with a short rhizome and narrow, long leaves that resemble wire. All in all, about 400 species of this kind, some of them are under protection. The main enemy of the feather grass is uncontrolled grazing, during which this plant is simply trampled down. As for wormwood, in the steppe, along with other plants, there are almost all of its species (there are more than 180 of them). Сплошные же полынные заросли образуют обычно невысокие разновидности – например, полынь поникшая, приморская и другие.

Отдельные растения степи (например, кермек) после высыхания образуют так называемое перекати-поле. В конце лета высохший стебель кермека порывом ветра отрывается от корней и катится по земле, рассеивая по пути семена. К нему могут прицепиться другие стебли и веточки: в результате получается довольно внушительный сухой ком. Kermek ordinary blooms pink, purple or yellow small flowers. On its basis, many cultivated varieties that are widely used in landscape design are currently bred. The species of the genus Sveda that are widespread on saline soils — small-leaved and creeping — are, respectively, a small shrub and an annual plant with reddening stems. They are eagerly eaten by camels.

What plants are typical for the steppe zone

Like them, Soleros also serves as food for livestock in the autumn-winter season. Soda was extracted from its ashes.

All plants of the steppe have their own characteristics, allowing them to survive in conditions of heat and lack of moisture. These include powerful roots, early flowering in certain species, narrow leaves, etc.

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As for the species composition, and for some environmental features, the fauna of the steppe has much in common with the fauna of the desert. Just as in the desert, the steppe is characterized by high aridity, only slightly less than in the desert. Animals are active in summer, mostly at night. Many of them are drought-resistant or active in the spring, when there is still moisture after the winter. Species of hoofed animals are distinguished by their sharp eyesight and abilities for quick and long-term running, and from rodents they build complex burrows (ground squirrels, marmots, blind spots) and jumping species (jerboas). Most of the birds fly away for the winter. The steppe eagle, the bustard, the steppe harrier, the steppe kestrel, the lark are common in the steppe. Numerous reptiles and insects.

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Field sow thistle (yellow sow thistle, garden)

This view is hard weed. It grows in the fields, along roads, near ditches and in many other places. A very strong lover of bees, but he stands out for nectar only in the morning hours, in the second half of the bees thaws his flowers. Pure black honey is obtained in a rich amber color. The stems and leaves contain a large amount of white, viscous juice. The leaves themselves are a little prickly, and the flowers are bright yellow. Flowering time in summer.

Cornflower, Cumin, and Nivyanik ordinary

Cornflower is a perennial species.represented from the Asteraceae family. In height can reach up to one meter. It grows in all meadows, fields, near the roads. Absolutely not capricious plant. It is medicinal, used as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic. Good honey plant, bee's favorite.

In the common people Cmin sandy is called immortelle. It is a perennial that grows on sandy and rocky surfaces. The inflorescences have dry scales, when cut the flower does not fade remains in one pore. Because of this, it is called immortelle. Flowers collected for medicinal purposes.

In the ordinary sense of the field - this is an ordinary daisy. Refers to asteraceae, from a number of asteraceae. It grows in meadows, usually likes wetter and shady places, in preference selects drained soil. Chamomile blooms in June, and its fruits ripen in August. It has healing properties and is a honey flower. Stem thin, with narrow leaves. The flowers are small, white, and inside the yellow middle.

Elecampus, stone shrubber and a stonecrop survivor

Plant perennial, Asteraceae. Grows in steppes and forest-steppe. Chooses wet terrain, grows where rivers and reservoirs. And also lover to get lost in the tall grasses. Flowering lasts one month, from August to September. In height grows more than one and a half meters. Long and thin stalk, on top of a yellow flower.

Bedouren - perennial herbaceous plant. For himself chooses hilly places, sunny glades, edges. Loves the sunny side. Plant height reaches 30 cm, a branchy plant with small white flowers.

Sedum belongs to the family of pulkovy, perennial species. It grows on the slopes of hills with high grass, in the dry thickets. Height of a plant is 50–60 cm. Inflorescences small yellow color. Bees visit it very actively, as it is an excellent honey plant. Blooms from early June with a duration of up to September.

Pasternak forest and groundwort

Type - biennial plant, family - umbrella. It can be found in the field, in the gardens, near the roads. The length of the stem is about 1–1.2 meters in height. Leaves, though large, but pinnate. Flowers are very small, gathered in umbrellas. It is pollinated not by bees, but by flies.

Meadowsweet grassy perennial. Presented from the family Rosaceae. This flowering grass can be found in the summer on the grassy meadows, on the outskirts of deciduous forests. In the leaves of this plant, contains a huge amount of vitamin C. That is why the collected flowers are brewed into tea, and in spring, the newly grown shoots are cut for salads. Flowers are small, in a pink tone, with a pleasant light smell of honey. If you rub the leaves, you can hear the smell of fresh cucumber.

Pneumorum pharmacy

From a species of herbaceous, Rosaceae family. It is a perennial plant, it grows in densely planted shrubs, as well as on dry forest edges.

Plant height reaches 60 cm, closer to the root of the foliage of larger size than at the top. Burnet - plant with straight, branched stems, with lots of foliage and have slight pubescence. Flowers are small in dark color (red or black). Blooms in mid-summer and continues until the beginning of autumn. Flowers emit a huge amount of pollen, and nectar quite a bit.

Is a healing plant for a long time. Its root system is used in folk medicine as an excellent anti-inflammatory drug. A good decoction of the roots of the burner prevents the appearance of microbes in the body.

Lemon or catnip

The name "catnip lemon" plant received due to a strong saturated lemon smell. A plant of the family of Labiaceae. Prized for its essential oils. Is the favorite of bees. Often, beekeepers near their apiaries make plantings from catnip, thus luring bee swarm. As a wild plant, it is very rare at present. In the edges of Western Siberia is very common and grows well. The height of a branched, tetrahedral stem sometimes reaches up to half a meter. The leaves have a triangular shape, the flowers are small, pink tint. Begins to bloom from early June to late September.

Sage steppe

It is a perennial plant (family Labs). Occurs in the steppe, on wet slopes, as well as on forest edges. Sage is not high, it grows up to 25 cm, sometimes growing with several stems at once. Its leaflets are elongate and ovate. Flowers are blue or purple in color, collected in inflorescence. There are hard hairs all over the plant. It blooms only in mid-summer - from late June to late July.

Green strawberry

From the Rosaceae family, a popular perennial plant. It can occur on various steppe zones, forest-steppe and wet slopes. The plant is completely non-capricious, so it can adapt to any terrain.

It grows with a downy bush, the leaves are directed in different directions, the flowers are white, of which some time later some tasty bright red fruits ripen. Bloom in mid-May to late June.

Zopnik tuberiferous

People sometimes call it grandmother.. Belongs to the lipotsevolny family and is a perennial plant. In the steppes is very common. The plant is quite tall, its dark red trunk reaches a height of one meter. The leaves are large, elongated, wrinkled with small hairs. Flowers have a pink shade and bloom at the ends of the stems of 2-3 pieces. In the south, the steppes of Western Siberia begin to bloom at the end of June, and in other areas flowering occurs until the last days of August.

This article presents only a short list of steppe plants. Our steppe is vast and immense, rich in a diverse flora, and to describe all the steppe plants in one article is, in fact, impossible.

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