Growing chicken young, the poultry farmer may lose part of the livestock due to illness of chickens. The first signs of indisposition individual individuals should be alerted. The smaller the age of the chick, the more dangers it lurks.
Prevention of chicken diseases in the first period of life
Of great importance is the selection of eggs for breeding only from healthy chickens. During the hatching, the physiological process of embryo development must be observed. The first brood chickens are more active, grow faster. Chicks removed from the incubator should receive:
- bright clean room with heating,
- some water in a special trough
- small dry food in the form of corn chop or millet.
The temperature is created comfortable, so that the kids do not climb on each other. To steam them should not be. If the heating is performed with an incandescent lamp, the temperature under it should be about 37-39 degrees, like that of a brood.
The chick, hatched from an egg, already sees, hears and is ready to follow the hen. The hen sits on the clutch after the firstborn for another 36 hours, after leaving the nest and leads the brood. Nature is wise, the remaining chicks will be weaker and may not survive. In the incubator, the process is stretched for three days.
When inspecting the squeaking family, one should pay attention to the activity of the brood, mucous membranes and the state of the down or feathers. Weakened and inactive pets should be deposited until clarified in a separate box. Infectious diseases in the absence of immunity can quickly mow the entire brood.
Responsible is the first week of grooming the pet until the beginnings of feathers begin to break through. Chick diseases are more common at this time. Malaise can be caused by:
- conditions of detention
- unbalanced composition of food,
- poisoning with poor-quality food or avitaminosis,
- bacterial and viral infections.
In order to obtain healthy young stock during the first month of life, it is necessary to observe the sterility of the feeders and the cleanliness of the chickens. To strengthen the brood immunity, vitamins for chickens in the first days are needed in the form of green crushed grass. Pharmacy formulations can be applied starting from the second week. From the first day in the trough should be gravel or coarse sand, for inclusion in the work of the stomach walls.
The role of vitamin supplements
If chickens do not have enough vitamins in their daily diet, it will be noticeable from the fifth day of life. The chicks require vitamins A, B, D, K. The disadvantage of each is characterized by the signs:
- A - conjunctivitis, weak legs,
- In - spasms, the head is thrown back, development lags behind,
- D - rickets, badly grows, soft bones, badly eats,
- K - the chicken refuses to eat, the skin is dry, there is no thermoregulation on hot days, cannibalism.
As a therapeutic and prophylactic agent for beriberi and polyavitaminosis, Trivit is prescribed for chickens. Vitamin complex oil-based is insoluble in water and added to food, according to the instructions. Do not exceed the dose. Use the drug as a medicine when there are signs of the disease in several individuals in the brood. Symptoms of polyavitaminosis will be diarrhea, convulsions, lethargy and weight loss of chickens.
Normally, if from the first days of life the chicks receive all the vitamins in their natural form. It will be enough 30 grams of different vitamin greens per head per day.
Water-soluble composition multivitaminacidos chickens added to the drinkers. This is a dietary supplement recommended for all farm animals and poultry, but in different doses. The full range of active substances is convenient and effective in use:
A prophylactic agent that prevents inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract mucosa, is the drug metronidazole for chickens. Water soluble tablets or powder are used. This medicine has no side effects.
What are chicken diseases symptoms and treatment?
At first glance, it is difficult for a layman to distinguish between physiological diseases associated with errors in care and infectious diseases. The first sign of contagious diseases will be a rise in temperature in the chick.
The hen is programmed to hatch for two months. Then she begins to trot. Monthly chicks are considered adapted to independent living.
Non-communicable diseases of chickens are related to care:
- Overheating or cooling the housing is dangerous for chickens up to one month of age, as they do not have thermoregulation. Such chicks move a little, gather in pyramids, they have signs of ARVI. It is necessary to adjust the heating mode and give a warm drink. If overheating is permitted, place the chicks in the shade and fill the water bottle, they usually overheat if there is no water.
- Atrophy of the muscle ventricle threatens chickens, eating a flour uniform food and lack of mineral additives in the form of small pebbles. Chickens eat and drink all the time, but lose weight. In litter comes undigested food. It is necessary to introduce crushed fruit and minerals into the diet. Make the diet varied.
- Indigestion makes itself felt at the age of one month. The reason may be rude substandard food, dirty drinking water and poor sanitation in the house. Vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, indigestion will be the reason why chickens die. Treatment with antibiotics, replace food, include cottage cheese and yogurt in the diet. Drink cook with the addition of potassium permanganate or baking soda.
- Chickens can peck up chemicals stored in an accessible place, poison for rodents or get excess salt. You can kill the bird with potassium permanganate, milk, but more often the chick dies.
- Cannibalism in chickens occurs for many reasons. A close room or too bright light can provoke aggression. One of the reasons is the wrong diet. If the baby’s body appears flaunted, the wound needs to be disinfected and made invisible. In extreme cases, the chicken needs to be planted. Why chickens begin to peck each other, set by experience. In the food add bone meal, yeast, herbs. Apply medical drug aminazin. Experts advise to debick the beaks, the procedure is painless at an early age.
- Other manifestations may be the result of malnutrition. Why do chicks fall to their feet? This problem is associated with a lack of calcium in the diet. However, rickets can have the same symptoms. And this is due to a lack of vitamin D and the content of chickens in a dark cramped room. To avoid illness, it is enough to feed pets with special feed with a full set of balanced ingredients from the first days.
Contagious infectious diseases include all diarrhea. How to treat chick diarrhea depends on the color of the discharge. Diarrhea leads to dehydration, weakens the body. White diarrhea is dangerous, it indicates the presence of salmonella sticks in the room. Contributes to the spread of the disease overcrowding and poor hygiene. Brown foamy diarrhea is caused by an infection called coccidiosis. After treatment of diseased chicks should be destroyed, the house should be disinfected. Green diarrhea can be infectious or a consequence of poor-quality food. Bloody diarrhea is treated with Avatev and Baytril.
In case of any diarrhea, the diseased chick needs to be isolated, and after it is continued to be treated, the place of general maintenance should be cleaned and disinfected.
Infectious diseases are accompanied by high fever. If the chicken is separated from the flock and stands motionless, laughing, you need to examine it. A common disease is typhoid, which affects a chick from two months of age. Dies up to 60% brood. For the prevention of using antibiotics and pink solution of potassium permanganate.
Paratyphoid fever or salmonellosis is a common disease in free-range chicks. They can infect pigeons or seagulls, being close. Initially, the disease does not manifest itself, after it is difficult to cure, the herd attacks to 70%. Smallpox is not treatable. On the fifth day of the disease, yellow growths appear on the body and near the beak, then a rash appears in the beak.
To grow healthy youngsters and avoid lunge, it is necessary to observe the conditions of detention, use benign food and vitamin supplements. When inspecting it is necessary to reject chicks with minor deviations. Provide additional care and treatment for weakened chicks at the facility.
What diseases can occur in laying chickens?
The young hens of laying hens do not differ in good health, especially if the chickens were purchased by pedigree, with high egg production and early onset of egg-laying and its late termination. After all, laying hens are valued precisely for these qualities.
When expecting to start getting a healthy and nutritious product on your own table or for sale, you should take care of the health of the bird from the first days of chickens' life, since most of the diseases that are almost asymptomatic can become chronic or affect the ability to carry normal, well-formed the eggs.
Laying hens may suffer from:
- infectious diseases, which are caused by penetration from the environment or sick chicken by pathogenic microorganisms, are easily transmitted from individual to individual, often dangerous not only for poultry, but also for people, are difficult to treat and can cause a massive death of the entire poultry population,
- parasitic lesions, i.e., invasions of various types of worms, ticks, dangerous to chickens of any age by peroids, fleas, lice,
- pathologies and diseases caused by improper care, feeding, unsanitary conditions.
Diseases of chickens and their causes
The first and most dangerous for the livestock group of diseases is infectious:
- Salmonellosis - this disease can penetrate into the house with wild bird droppings, be transmitted to offspring from an infected mother, and is caused by pathogenic Salmonella bacteria. Extremely dangerous for both birds and humans.
- Marek's disease - caused by a virus that a sick hen secretes through the follicles of feathers, as well as droppings, is transmitted by the virus and by airborne droplets.
- Newcastle disease - the so-called pseudo-lesion, which infects the internal organs of an infected hen, is fatal to chickens. In a very short period of time, practically all the population of a poultry house can be infected by one sick individual, in contact with it, by birds, in whose organisms this virus is present. Meat of infected chickens, eggs, shells, down and feathers, bedding, even feed, become the source of infection penetration into a prosperous economy.
- Pasteurellosis is caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can persist in the environment outside the carrier for a long time. Pastarella is extremely stable, it is transmitted both from individual to individual, and with food, water, not only sick, but also sick hens are contagious, carriers are wild birds and rodents.
- Pulloz - a disease is also called tuberculosis, the bacteria causing it are transmitted by airborne droplets, they hit the egg, meat, and the feathers of the sick. Chickens of hens can hatch with this disease if the mother was a carrier of bacteria.
- Infectious bronchitis - the disease causes the virus, which is called the virion, is transmitted by airborne droplets, long-lasting viability in the litter, on the inventory, in chick embryos.
- Coccidosis is a real punishment for the owners of private households. Bloody diarrhea is caused by the simplest microorganisms - coccidia, for adult chickens most often it does not pose any danger, the immunity is able to resist infection. But chickens up to 3 months of struggle with coccidosis is very difficult, often after contact with a sick and even a recovered bird - the carrier kills the entire young.
- Colibacteriosis - pathogenic Escherichia coli is present in the environment, weakened babies, chickens that were on the run where unsanitary conditions reign, who drank from puddles or untreated drinking bowls, die from intestinal disorders.
- Mycoplasmosis - the pathogen is transmitted from sick individuals. Mycoplasma is extremely aggressive, but only for birds. It is stored in farms where timely disinfection and treatment of the premises with ultraviolet radiation is not carried out, there is no ventilation in the poultry houses, the rooms are cramped, overcrowded.
- Chicken pox - a virus that affects the mucous membranes, eyes, skin of chickens, is stable in the external environment, blood-sucking, parasites, sick individuals can infect babies.
- Avian influenza is an extremely dangerous disease, the virus is aggressive, it attacks both birds and people.
- Gumboro's disease is a viral infection that is deadly for a young hen, the pathogen is transmitted from sick birds both by airborne droplets and through feed, water, and the remains of dead animals.
- Laryngotracheitis - a disease caused by viruses that infect mucous membranes, is acutely contagious, and the hen that has recovered remains its carrier for life.
- perojed - mites are kept in the external environment for a long time, the litter of infected birds is dangerous, you can see the rods of feathers affected by them with the naked eye,
- fleas - blood-sucking easily penetrate from clothes, shoes, owners, infected animals, deliver a lot of problems to kids,
- worms - eggs are stored in the soil, water, feed, infection occurs in violation of sanitary standards.
Pathologies and diseases of chickens associated with improper care:
- Atonia goiter - occurs when feeding low-quality feed and premix,
- Gastroenteritis - poor sanitation and poor nutrition lead to a disease that is often called inflammation of the cloaca,
- bronchopneumonia - caused by hypothermia,
- ketaroconjunctivitis - inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye in violation of content, inadequate ventilation, high ammonia content in the air,
- arthritis - abnormal development of the limbs, inflammation of the joints caused by violations of the rules and rules of feeding,
- Avitaminosis - an insufficient amount of vitamins for chickens, greens, fresh vegetables and dairy products provokes the appearance of pathologies, the consequences of which affect the development of young.
Fundamentals of prevention and diagnosis
Diseases in chickens, like in humans, are non-infectious or infectious-viral. The first category - ailments associated with poor conditions, physiological phenomena. The reasons in this case may be a draft, the lack of beneficial trace elements in the diet, impaired temperature or light. The bottom line is that chickens stop rushing, behave unnaturally, reduce activity.
The second category is caused by the same negative factors. In some situations, they provoke sources of infection: bacteria, viruses, spores. Another variant of infection in the livestock of chickens is an infectious effect from the outside. Viruses are carried by other animals, wild birds. This can cause a massive death of chickens.
Even with minor signs of any disease, you should immediately begin to act:
- A sick chicken is a signal that a pathogen has appeared somewhere in the yard. The first step is the separation of affected individuals into quarantine. For this, it is better to equip a suitable place in advance.
- Start searching for negative factors. Even if there is no exact reason, it is necessary to eliminate all possible foci for preventive purposes. Inspect the shaded areas in the compound for mold. Make sure that there is no dampness in the grain and other feed of the hens, and there is no stagnation in the drinking water.
- Explore the territory in search of rodents.
- Explore the dark corners of the barn house in search of the same mold. If she showed up, just brushing her up a little. Check and modify the ventilation system. The goal - to save the room for chickens from the corners with stagnant air.
Attention! The ideal environment for life and development of all kinds of bacteria and fungus is high humidity and standing air. Eliminate these risk factors.
Dangerous diseases of chickens: pasteurellosis, pullorosis-typhoid
This category of contagious ailments. If you do not make a diagnosis in time and do not start treatment, the virus runs the risk of being transmitted to other birds. Most often the disease affects the liver of chickens. So you can lose all livestock. In some cases, the disease is transmitted to other animals, as well as people. Common diseases of chickens:
Pasteurella bacteria transporters - rats, mice. Chickens and young chickens up to 3 months are most affected. Birds lose their appetite, blue shades appear on the ridge, mucus accumulates in the nose. Prevention - vaccination of chickens with cholesterol drugs.
Treatment of pasteurellosis is ineffective. Apply antibiotics (tetracycline, norsulfazol) or sulfametazin. But it is much more efficient to get rid of sick chickens by burning individuals. Then carefully clean and disinfect the chicken coop. Otherwise, the pathogen will survive in litter, water, feed, dead birds.
Pulloz-typhus affects chicks up to 2 weeks old. They begin to actively drink water, neglecting feed. The young growth presses the paws, squeaks plaintively, lumps together, becomes sluggish. The hen's scallop turns blue, and the stool looks yellowish, frothy, liquid gruel. Qualitative treatment of pullorosis is possible with the help of furazolidone and biomycin.
Сальмонеллез и колибактериоз
Сальмонеллез — известная болезнь цыплят до 1 мес. Её симптомы сложно спутать с другими:
- жажда без аппетита,
- слёзные выделения на глазах,
- вязкие пенистые испражнения,
- синдром опухших суставов,
- inflammation of the mucous membrane of other organs,
- hard breath,
- stopping the growth of chickens.
An animal with a neglected disease dies in convulsions. The virus is transmitted through manure, eggs, feed, air. Experts advise to treat the bird like this:
- 10-day course of furazolidone and streptomycin,
- chloramphenicol, sulfanilamide, chlortetracycline,
- 10-day continuation of procedures using one furazolidone,
- Actions are repeated after a week break.
Attention! Prevention measures - immune serum. The house is thoroughly disinfected. Levomycetin is given to healthy chickens of all ages (three times a day for a week).
The causative agent of the disease colibacteriosis is Escherichia coli. It can also infect another bird that lives in the yard. Not only chickens, but also adults have low immunity to the disease, and colibacteriosis is also very dangerous for human health. Symptoms: excessive water consumption, loss of appetite, difficulty breathing, low activity. The chicken begins to fall on its feet, suffer from diarrhea. For treatment use medications: terramycin, biomitsin, enroflaksatsin, ampicillin, sarafloksalin.
Coccidiosis and infectious laryngotracheitis
Coccidiosis is transmitted by parasites - coccidia. This is a disease of chickens under the age of 3 months. Symptoms:
- low physical activity of young chickens,
- a sharp decrease in appetite
- lowered wings, ruffled feathers,
- diarrhea that changes color from slimy-green to dark bloody.
The treatment consists of a weekly course of disinfectants: furazolidone, norsulfazole, coccidin, sulfadimezin. They are added to the food of young chickens. Prevention consists in regular cleaning and disinfection of the chicken coop. The parasite is tenacious. Chickens remain infectious for 7 months. after recovery.
Infectious laryngotracheitis periodically affects extensive agricultural areas. The disease is transmitted directly from bird to bird. Risk age - up to 3 months. Juveniles begin to wheeze, cough and sneeze. Other symptoms:
- coughing and wheezing, whistling when breathing,
- watery eyes, runny nose,
- redness and swelling in the larynx.
Symptoms are similar to mycoplasmosis. Do not look for detailed differences. The treatment for this disease of chickens follows the same pattern. As a preventive measure, hatched chicks are given a solution of tilane 2-3 times.
These diseases of chickens are not transmitted from bird to bird or man:
- Cloacite. With a deficiency of fluorine and calcium in the diet, chickens develop an upset stomach, followed by irritation of the cloaca. The bird weakens and stops running. The mucosa should be washed with rivanol, smeared with petroleum jelly. After disinfecting the chicken coop, it is desirable to eliminate the causes.
- Intestinal flu. From poor-quality food or allergies to feed the chickens begin to suffer from diarrhea (yellow-green feces with a strong odor), high fever, poor appetite. Laxatives plus a course of antibiotics will cure the bird, and dietary correction will restore its strength and productivity.
- Worms They are easy to see in the liquid feces. A secondary symptom is a lack of appetite in chickens. In this case, the weekly reception of the glasshouse helps.
Ticks are also ways to cause pathology in the body of chickens. Knemidokoptoz forms the growths on the paws, as in the picture. Ectominum, trichlormetaphos and butox have proven themselves in his treatment. The louse and feather bite the bird, giving it discomfort and leaving red spots on the body. You can get rid of them with the help of an insect or arpalitis. In the treatment and prevention of chicken diseases strictly adhere to the instructions for the drugs. This is important not to harm the feathered.
Chick Disease Classification
All diseases of chickens are divided into two groups: non-infectious diseases and diseases transmitted from one individual to another, capable of causing an epidemic, and in severe cases of the brood. The causative agents of infectious diseases are viral infections, protozoa and parasites. The cause of non-contagious - improper care and violations of the conditions of the young.
Hypothermia is a common hypothermia. Immediately after the appearance and during the first four to five days, a temperature of at least + 30 ° C must be maintained in the brooder. Then the temperature decreases by 3 ° C weekly or 1 ° C several times a week. Gradually the temperature is brought to + 18 ° C - + 21 ° C, at which adult chickens are kept.
If the temperature was lower, the chickens show symptoms of hypothermia:
- the chickens are piled up in the center of the brooder or closer to the heat source,
- squeal loudly
- hectic behavior but oppressed
- intestinal upsets may occur,
- over time, there is a lag in development.
Treatment is to change the temperature. To do this, install additional sources of heat, the chicks are temporarily transferred to another, warmer room, give warm water and feed.
Frostbite, like hypothermia, is a consequence of improper content. Most often frostbite is the result of improper transportation of the young. In severe cases of frostbite in individuals, the limbs turn black, and gangrene may develop. With a weak frostbite, the chickens scaly and peel around frostbite skin.
This disease is associated with overheating chickens. In young animals, lethargy is observed, individuals are fragmented and try to keep away from the heat source. Birds yawn beak, consume more fluid, but refuse to feed. In difficult cases, there are problems with the intestines.
To remedy the situation, in the room with brooder, temperature correction is carried out. Chickens provide a cool drink in sufficient quantity. If overheating occurred during the summer period, they will organize a shadow on the walking ground and take out the youngsters to the air.
Dyspepsia is called indigestion in non-infectious chickens. Manifested by diarrhea with frothy secretions and lumps of undigested food. Nestlings become lethargic, untidy, can crouch on their feet, lose their appetite.
To eliminate dyspepsia, first exclude the possibility of infections, for the prevention give sulfa drugs or antibiotics. As a drink, soda and manganese solutions are necessary.
Atrophy of the stomach
This disease is associated with the consumption of mealy feed chickens without the addition of shell rock and without access of the bird to the fine gravel and sand. Manifestation of atrophy of the stomach, weight loss, unjustified increase in feed intake, strong thirst, diarrhea and the presence of lumps in the litter.
Treatment consists of feeding a larger fraction, for example, pelleted feed and crushed grain. Increasing the proportion of limestone or shell rock in the feed is recommended.
The cause of protein poisoning becomes an unbalanced diet. A large proportion of protein in the diet of young animals leads to increased thirst in individuals, apathetic behavior, intestinal disorders. Symptoms of the disease are lowered wings and convulsions, in neglected condition - paralysis. Treatment consists in correcting the diet by reducing the amount of protein and drinking plenty of it.
There are several types of avitaminosis, each has its own characteristics and symptoms. However, there are general signs of a deficiency of vitamins and minerals:
- loss of appetite,
- disheveled plumage
- developmental lag
- weight gain reduction
- intestinal problems.
In a neglected state, avitaminosis leads to conjunctivitis, stomatitis, bone deformities, paralysis. For the treatment of selected vitamin and mineral complexes, which are added to the feed. If chickens feed on natural food, it is considered reasonable to transfer to feed mixtures.
Of the external parasites, the most common are fleas, ticks and perojedy. Especially hard chickens tolerate the invasion of perojedy. In this case, individuals have a loss of appetite, sluggish behavior, inflammation of the skin. In adult individuals, premature molting may occur, the pecking of its own feathers is observed.
Treatment against external parasites is carried out with insecticides. Usually the effect of such means is universal and directed against all types of external parasites. Effective drugs are considered "Ectomin", "Butoks", "Danitol", "Neopinamin". To prevent infections, it is necessary to regularly inspect the birds' plumage and timely disinfect poultry houses and brooders for chickens.
Coccidiosis (eymerioz) chickens
This unpleasant disease in chickens is caused by spores of the fungus Aimeria, so coccidiosis is called chick eimeriosis. Chickens aged 5–80 days are most susceptible to the disease. The danger lies in the fact that the recovered bird forever remains the carrier of the disease. The crowding of an adult bird in a chicken coop and brooder chicks, high humidity, and unsanitary conditions contribute to ameriosis.
Mechanical carriers can be rodents and maintenance personnel. The pathogen is resistant to most antimicrobial agents, dies completely when dried or when exposed to high temperatures. That is why timely brooder and chicken coop cleaning, regular changing of bedding, processing of feeding equipment, especially for chickens under the age of 10 days, are important.
The incubation period is 5 days. Chicks up to 10 days do not eat and die quickly, mortality reaches 100%. In older calves there is a strong thirst, loss of appetite, with a protracted course - paralysis, convulsions. The chickens attempt to straighten the wing and leg at the same time. The disease lasts about a week, the mortality of young animals reaches 85% - 90%.
For the treatment of chickens use drugs that do not interfere with the development of immunity. Effective are the drugs "Amprolium", "Koktsidiovit", "Iramin", "Sulfadimezin." However, it is necessary to take into account the high degree of adaptation of ameri to drugs. For successful treatment of drugs must be alternated.
Chickens do not tolerate helminth infections and may die in advanced cases. Infection with worms occurs in young at the age of three to four weeks. You can notice the parasites in the bird's litter. Infection occurs through the consumption of pasture, as well as an irregular change of filler in the sand-ash bath, through rodents and insects.
When the worms in chickens are observed appetite deterioration, lethargy, heavy breathing, diarrhea, pallor of scallops, weight loss, development stop. Treatment of helminthiasis is necessary not only in diseased individuals, but in the whole livestock. For these purposes, you can purchase the drugs "Fenpenvet", "Piperazin", "Levamisol". These drugs are universal action and are aimed at combating the most common types of worms.
Atrophy of the muscular stomach
With an unbalanced diet with a significant predominance of flour feed and a lack of coarse fibers and calcium components, atrophy develops in chickens.
It is accompanied by symptoms such as:
- Constant thirst
- Strong weight loss with excessive appetite.
- Changes in feces, up to constipation,
- Untreated food in faeces, etc.
Since the wrong food applies to all individuals, the disease affects the livestock completely, and not the individual chickens. Drug treatment atrophy does not exist. When a disease is detected, it is necessary to urgently review the diet of birds, enrich it with crushed shells and grain, as well as fresh greens.
Many poultry farmers are faced with the fact that chickens are lowering their wings. The reason may be an ordinary poisoning, which, contrary to popular belief, occurs not only as a result of ingestion of toxic substances.
When feeding broilers, poultry farmers use food enriched in protein to make chickens gain weight faster. But if this ingredient has an overabundance, then there will be a protein poisoning, which is no less dangerous than usual.
Diagnose intoxication on several grounds:
- Constant thirst
- Lethargy chicks
- Lowering wings
- Death on his feet
- Problems with the organs of the gastrointestinal tract,
- Toddlers are trying to draw the neck in the shoulders.
Treatment of poisoning is carried out as a matter of urgency by folk remedies and medication. It is imperative to observe that there is enough clean drinking water in the feeders, and the basis of the diet, during this period, consists of the enveloping components.
The disease affects all ages. It occurs in acute or latent form. The latter mainly affects adult birds and practically does not manifest itself, since they have good immunity. The acute form can infect young animals immediately after hatching or at the embryonic stage, if the egg is taken from a sick chicken.
The main danger of the disease lies in the fact that it is not treated and is fatal. Typhoid fever pronounced:
- Whitish diarrhea,
- Sleepy state
- Partial or complete loss of appetite
- Disheveled appearance of chicks,
- Kids keep their eyes half closed,
- Chicken weight is rapidly falling.
When such symptoms are detected, diseased individuals should be immediately transplanted from the main livestock and call the veterinarian to clarify the diagnosis. The meat of dead chickens is unfit for consumption - it is better to burn it.
As a preventive measure, all youngsters are given Biovit - 40 as follows:
- 12.5 mg of drug per chicken from 1 to 10 days of life,
- 15 mg of medication per head after 1.5 weeks and up to 1.5 months.
The disease usually affects immunocompromised chickens during the first two months of life. Pasteurellosis spreads rapidly throughout the population and causes death in more than 75% of individuals, if measures are taken to treat the disease, otherwise all youngsters die.
Chickens can "pick up" the bacterium from other birds, dead animals or blood-sucking parasites. Symptomatology manifests itself sharply in most of the young. Most often, poultry farmers observe:
- Partial or total loss of appetite
- Pallor and dull plumage,
- Feces with mucus pronounced yellow or green tint,
- Frothy nasal discharge
- Cyanus scallop and earrings.
If, during pasteurellosis, the chicken breathes heavily and opens its beak, it will die very soon. This mainly occurs on the third day after the onset of the first symptoms.
As the disease spreads quickly and literally kills the body in a matter of days, the sooner treatment is started, the better.
- To combat pasteurellosis, veterinarians prescribe tetracycline-based antibiotics.
- Antimicrobial agents such as Cabactan and Trisulfon.
- As part of a comprehensive recovery, each chick is injected with serum to strengthen the immune system.
Only such measures to eliminate the infection can lead to the recovery of the birds.
In the case where the treatment was not carried out, and some individuals went on the mend, you should not lose vigilance, because pasteurellosis can turn into a chronic form. The disease will gradually affect the joints and skin of the chicken, and then it will also be fatal.
E. coli is a pathogen that can be carried not only by birds, but also by humans. Infection has a high level of survival in the environment. Colibacteriosis likes to infect chickens up to the age of three months, because then the bird's immunity successfully fights the disease, although not always successfully.
In individuals infected with E. coli, the following symptoms are observed:
- Loss of appetite,
- Loose stools,
- The chickens breathe heavily, they start to yawn, a cough appears,
- The blueness of the skin, scallops and earrings,
- Increased body temperature.
Without proper treatment, chickens die on the third day after the first symptoms of the disease appear. All diseased individuals are subject to rejection, and their meat is unsuitable for food, so it is burned. For the prevention of healthy young growth, chloramphenicol is administered. The coop, troughs and feeders must be cleaned and disinfected.
Viral disease affecting chicks from the first days of life. It is mainly distributed in chickens, where the conditions of keeping young stock are not met. It is rapidly transmitted by airborne droplets and affects all livestock. In most cases, only half of the chickens are cured, and the rest die.
Symptoms of laryngotracheitis include:
- Open beak,
- Coughing up blood
- Red eyes,
The severity of symptoms depends on the form of laryngotracheitis. With an acute course of the disease, the symptoms are very disturbing to the chickens, and in the chronic - less noticeable, the carriers of the disease do not appear at all.
It is possible to help kids only with vitamin therapy and such drugs as Sulfazole, Selfametazan. For preventive purposes, it is recommended to disinfect the chicken coop with the help of Glutex, Virkon and other similar solutions.
This is a disease that should be feared not only chickens, but also people. Bird flu carriers can be wild birds that transmit the virus to domestic animals. In the domestic environment the disease quickly spreads across the population and carries a danger to humans.
Симптоматика заражения вирусом гриппа ярко выражена:
- Полная или частичная потеря аппетита,
- Цыплята сидят нахохлившись,
- From the dirty cloaca and nasal passages mucus is released, this leads to the fact that the chicks begin to choke,
- The temperature rises to 44 degrees,
- Likely convulsions.
If a bird flu is diagnosed in a bird, then you need to do only one thing - to destroy the sick individual and burn the carcass, since it will not be possible to cure the chicken. The healthy part of the young are vaccinated.
Viral infection that is transmitted to chicks from other birds, rodents and even ticks. There are several types of Newcastle disease. If it proceeds in an extremely acute form, the chickens simply die for no apparent reason.
A sharp course of indisposition in chickens is diagnosed by the following symptoms:
- Chickens twist their necks as they find it hard to breathe,
- Mucus in the cesspool and nasopharynx,
- Smelly loose stools sometimes with blood impurities,
After the first symptoms of an unhealthy condition appear, the chicks die within a week and a half. There is no specific treatment for Newcastle's disease, so the sick individuals are immediately rejected. Healthy young animals are given vaccines. A virus can be dangerous for a person, so all work is carried out in special protective suits.
The virus infects chickens from the first day of life. It is transmitted by contact, as well as by household means. Symptoms of the disease can be seen with the naked eye - first, the chicks become lethargic, eat poorly, and then vesicles appear on the skin, especially in the head area.
Chicken pox is not treated, so the sick youngsters are immediately destroyed. To exclude the possibility of infection, veterinarians recommend timely vaccination of the whole population.
The disease most often affects young animals up to the age of 1.5 months. Infection can occur in a household way from other birds, animals and people, as well as through contaminated food or water, which contains the causative agent of the disease - coccidia.
Symptoms worsen over time:
- It all starts with a greenish liquid stool,
- Then comes a partial loss of appetite.
- Weight is reduced and the gait becomes shaky,
- There is an impurity of blood in the feces, which changes color to brown.
For treatment, veterinarians recommend the use of drugs: Statil, Coccidin, Zoalen, Furagin. If the chickens are on the free-range, then as a preventive measure, it is recommended that Aprolium take them away according to the instructions for the medicinal product.
Worms are found not only in chickens, but also in animals and people. Symptoms of the appearance of worms in birds are very similar to the manifestations of infection of any other organism:
- Digestive problems
- Weight loss with good appetite
- Significant decrease in productivity.
Worm invasion can be successfully treated with medication. As a rule, use such tools as febantel or fenbendozol. For the purpose of prophylaxis, once every few months chickens and adult chickens are fed with Fenothiazine.
Cannibalism can not be called a disease - it is rather a feature of behavior that develops when the chickens do not have enough food or room in the hen house. Strong individuals begin to peck the weak to free up the area and provide themselves with food in the required quantity.
Unfortunately, having tasted the taste of blood once, the birds can not always stop and continue to peck until most of the livestock is exterminated. Most often this behavior is manifested in broilers.
The main symptoms of slander include:
- Plucking feathers from their fellows,
- Damage to body parts of other chicks,
- Explicit slaughter of weak individuals.
At the first signs of a disease, treatment will give a positive result, if there is a reason for the occurrence of aggression in birds and is eliminated.
- Weak or affected individuals are temporarily removed and wounds are treated.
- Particularly snooty chickens are also recommended to be planted from the main herd.
- If their behavior does not change, such hens are rejected or kept separately.
If the chick is sick, then first of all it is removed from the healthy young stock in order to avoid the occurrence of an epidemic and the death of the livestock. In the case when it is not possible to diagnose a disease on their own, seek the help of a veterinarian, as it is often necessary to carry out preventive treatment.
Dmitry V. Morozov
Hereditary poultry farmer, owner of a poultry farm, graduated from St. Petersburg State Agrarian University with honors, the author of articles in specialized publications