Scientists have long proved that if a person or an animal recovers from a disease, then reinfection will pass quite imperceptibly for the body. This phenomenon is due to the formation of immunity to a particular irritant.
Immunity is primary and acquired. In order for the dog to develop a second type of immunity, vaccinations are necessary. They contribute to the development of antibodies in the body of the animal, which in the future will be able to destroy viruses and infections. The term of acquired immunity can vary from fifteen days to two years or more.
If you vaccinate in time, you can be sure that the puppy will not get sick of the disease with which it is designed to fight.
When do you need vaccinations for puppies up to one year old? How to choose the right vaccine? What is the injection given in the first place? So, first things first.
Let's start with the fact that a puppy, which is breastfed, is obtained together with milk and its first immunity. After being weaned, he will need extra protection. The first vaccination of a small puppy should be done in two months. Prior to this, it is impossible to take him out for walks, to communicate with relatives, and also to put at risk of getting infectious and catarrhal diseases.
When should the animal be vaccinated? Usually they make the first vaccinations for puppies at 2 months. Previously, experts do not advise to carry out such manipulations.
Before vaccination, it is important to observe the following conditions:
- Two weeks before the proposed vaccination, you need to give the pups an anthelmintic drug. A large number of such drugs, both imported and domestic, have been developed. You can buy them in any vet clinic.
- Only healthy puppies can be vaccinated. If the dog is sick, then vaccination should be postponed until its complete recovery.
Vaccine and Disease Varieties
Talking about what vaccinations puppies are doing for up to a year, it is impossible not to dwell on the diseases they are designed to fight. So let's list them.
- Rabies. The disease is very dangerous, it can even be transmitted from a sick animal to a person, therefore a vaccination against rabies should be made to a puppy. In addition, dogs suffer such a disease, in the absence of treatment in most cases, unfortunately, die. A rabies vaccine is easily tolerated by the animal, so do not be lazy once a year to help your pet's body develop immunity to this dangerous disease.
- Parvovirus gastroenteritis is an intestinal disease that leads to complete dehydration of the animal.
- The plague is an infectious disease. She very often leads to death dogs. Animals tolerate a distemper vaccine easily, only some dogs become lethargic and lose their appetite. But this ailment goes away after a couple of days.
- Leptospirosis is another dangerous infectious disease that often leads to death. Vaccination is done for prophylactic purposes.
Now there are many varieties of vaccinations that can be divided into two groups:
- single vaccines (against one disease),
- comprehensive vaccinations (against several diseases).
Preferably, of course, comprehensive vaccination. So you can protect the dog from many diseases at once, using only one injection.
The vaccination scheme for puppies up to one year
When do you need to vaccinate? The first vaccinations puppies in 2 months do. After vaccination of animals it is impossible to bathe, bring to the street, and also perekormlivat. Often, after the first vaccination in animals, the temperature rises, diarrhea and weakness appear. The owner must do everything to alleviate the condition of the dog.
And when is the second vaccination done to the puppy? A month after the first. Remember, vaccinating a puppy again, you should use the same drug as the first time. After the second vaccination, puppies usually feel good. But still, for two weeks after vaccination, it is not necessary to take the dog for a walk, it must be protected from drafts, as well as from communication with relatives.
At six months, when the puppy has already changed its teeth to permanent ones, a complex and vaccination against rabies is done. Note that if the change of milk teeth has not ended before this period, it is better to wait.
In one year a dog is vaccinated with a complex preparation. The procedure is repeated annually.
It is according to this scheme that vaccinations are made to puppies of a sheepdog, labrador and other breeds.
How to vaccinate a dog? First, the specialist examines the animal, checks its temperature. If all is well with him, then inject an injection into the thigh or into the scruff. Be sure to make an entry in vetpasport.
Consequences of puppy vaccination
The body of each puppy is individual. After vaccination, there are various side reactions: lethargy, passivity, lack of appetite, fever. You shouldn't force a puffy puppy to eat, but drinking water should always be around.
Symptoms usually disappear within three days. Otherwise, you need to consult a doctor. It is possible that on the day of vaccination the dog was sick, and the vaccine worsened its condition.
If, after vaccination, the puppy's condition bothers you (drowsiness, blueness of the skin, etc.), check for an allergic reaction. If it is, you will need special drugs. It is better to return to the clinic so that doctors can help the animal.
How much are vaccinations for puppies? Now we will understand this question. Note that the cost depends on various factors:
- from the place where vaccination is carried out (at home or in the clinic),
- vaccine (imported or domestic).
We now give the average prices for vaccinating dogs in Moscow. In the regions, as a rule, the cost of the service is slightly less (about twenty or thirty percent).
At home, vaccination with the Biokan or Multakan polyvalent vaccine will cost one thousand rubles. If it is imported "Eurikan", "Nobivak", "Dyuramun", "Vangard", then the cost will be about 1,400 rubles.
If you will be vaccinated at the clinic, then you will need to pay another five hundred rubles more. For a passport you need to pay about one hundred and fifty rubles.
What you need to know about vaccination puppies?
For complex vaccination of a puppy, you need to plan 2-3 visits to a veterinary clinic with an interval of 3-4 weeks.
If you miss or violate the vaccination schedule, additional vaccination may be required to form a complete immunity.
It is impossible to reduce the interval between vaccinations, it will lead to the formation of shorter and more intense immunity.
Second vaccination puppy (mandatory)
At 7-8 weeks, a second vaccination with a complex vaccine is performed. This vaccination is aimed at protecting against parvovirus enteritis, plague, adenovirozy (infectious laryngotracheitis and infectious hepatitis), parainfluenza and leptospirosis.
This vaccination may be the first if the puppy has not been vaccinated against parvovirus enteritis at 6 weeks in the nursery.
When can a puppy start walking after vaccination?
You have probably heard that a puppy should be kept at home, as it does not form a post-vaccination effect. The main question is how many days after vaccination can you walk with a puppy? Different puppies for different vaccines form immunity at different times. If done correctly, full protection against all diseases is formed 2 weeks after vaccination at 3 months (for components other than leptospirosis and rabies even earlier - usually 1 week after vaccination at 3 months). But this does not mean that you can not walk a puppy up to 14 weeks. Early socialization of the puppy is extremely important.
You can start walking puppies with 10 weeks, following a maximum of precautions:
- DO NOT walk your puppy in places where other dogs have labeled territory or defecated
- DO NOT allow your puppy to play with unfamiliar dogs. And no matter how friendly they are.
- DO NOT allow your friends to play with your dogs if these dogs have a delayed vaccination.
- TRANSFER on the puppy's arms over the places where the dogs defecate or mark the territory (such as, for example, all the yards in front of multi-storey yards are)
What is the difference between the vaccination scheme of york, german shepherd, labrador, spitz and other dog breeds?
There is no difference in the vaccination schedule, the diseases that are being vaccinated, and the doses of injected vaccines. Breed does not matter when choosing a vaccine.
An independent change in the vaccination schedule, the volume of the vaccine, the components of the vaccine can lead to low immunization immunity after vaccination! Remember, puppies are most vulnerable to infectious diseases!
Do puppies of decorative dog breeds (Yorkies, Toi, Spitz and others) need to be given half doses of the vaccine?
Not. The efficacy and safety of vaccines tested on different breeds. The vaccine cannot be divided. A puppy york or spitz-dog does not need to be given half the dose, as well as it is not necessary to simultaneously administer 2 doses of the Irish Great Dane, for example. The introduction of half doses of the vaccine can lead to a lack of immunity in a puppy!
What infections can dogs be vaccinated up to?
The vaccine schedule for animals depends on several factors:
- region of habitat
- state of the epidemiological situation
- breed features.
Naturally, there is a certain list of diseases when pets are vaccinated regardless of their place of residence and conditions of detention. Such diseases include plague carnivorous, enteritis associated with parvovirus infection.
The decision on the timing and feasibility of vaccination is made by a veterinarian. Depending on the epidemiological situation and the probability of contact of the animal with sick relatives. A specialist may consider it necessary to vaccinate a dog against such diseases as hepatitis, leptospirosis, adenovirus, Lyme disease, parainfluenza and others.
Timing of inoculation dogs
The scheme of compulsory vaccinations for dogs before the year is as follows:
- 8-10 weeks from birth - the first vaccine against plague, viral hepatitis, parvovirus enteritis,
- 11-14 weeks or 30 days after the first injection - for rabies and infections listed above.
It is not recommended to vaccinate dogs under the age of two months. At this time, the development of active immunity will interfere with antibodies trapped in the blood of the dog along with mother's milk. The vaccine is given to monthly pets only if they were separated from the mother after birth, the female did not have milk, or there was a threatening infectious situation in the nursery. For early inoculation there is a special remedy with less aggressive allergens marked Puppy.
It is proved that a vaccine for dogs has a negative effect on tooth enamel. Therefore, veterinarians are strongly advised to vaccinate up to three months, when the change of teeth has not yet begun, or six months later, when the dentition has already been completely updated.
Types of drugs
Monovaccines are divided into live and dead (inactivated). The second group of medicines includes protection against rabies, as well as against leptospirosis. In addition, single vaccines can be monodrugs (protect against a single infection) and complex (contain several antigens or weakened strains of pathogens).
The monovalent vaccines have the following advantages:
- have such quality as reduced immunity load,
- allow the veterinarian to make an individual vaccination plan for each puppy,
- have an improved immune response,
- do not need to use special solvents, as in the process of grafting regular sterile water can be used.
Complex vaccines favorably distinguish a number of positive qualities, the main thing is the possibility of the formation of immunity from several diseases at once. In parallel with this, these funds not rarely provoke side effects in dogs, although they are well tolerated by adult animals.
Today, dogs are vaccinated with drugs of domestic and foreign production. The most affordable and effective Russian drug is considered a series Biovac, in particular:
- Biovac D - a remedy against the plague,
- Biovac L - anti-leptospiracy,
- Biovac P - for parvovirus erteritis,
- Biovac DPA - for plague, hepatitis, adeno-and parvoviroza,
- Biovac DPAL - for plague, parvovirus infection, adenovirosis, leptospirosis.
Naturally, modern veterinarians prefer to use imported drugs. In particular, Nobivac vaccines manufactured in Holland enjoy great confidence among specialists. Nobivac Puppy DP - the only registered agent used in relation to puppies of the first month of life, allows you to immunize individuals from such infections as the plague carnivorous and parvoviroz.
- Nobivac DH - for plague and hepatitis,
- Nobivac DHP - for plague, hepatitis, parvoviroza,
- Nobivac DHPPi - for plague, hepatitis, parainfluenza, parvoviroza,
- Nobivac L - for leptospirosis,
- Nobivac LR - for rabies and leptospirosis,
- Nobivac Parvo-C - for parvovirosis,
- Nobivac Rabies.
Often, veterinarians recommend the French vaccine Eurikan, it is a polyvalent drug for vaccination and revaccination of animals against a number of diseases, namely against the plague, parvo-and adenoviral enteritis, parainfluenza, hepatitis.
A comprehensive means of prevention Vanguard - an effective drug of American origin. It contributes to the development of immunity against plague, adenovirosis, infectious hepatitis, respiratory infections, leptospirosis, parainfluenza. Not recommended for use on pregnant females.
10 days before the proposed vaccination, the pet must be dewormed. You need to drive worms anyway, even if this event was already held a month before the procedure. Very small puppies are given pyrantel-based products, that is, medicines for children, only in the doses selected by the veterinarian.
Pyrantel suspension is better to enter into the mouth with a syringe, then the tool will completely enter the body of the pet. For a laxative effect, after administering an anthelmintic solution, give the dog 2-4 ml of vaseline oil (the dose depends on the size of the dog). Puppies older than 2.5 months can be given antihelminthic drugs in pill form. This may be the famous "Alben", "Febtal", "Milbemaks".
Vaccination is carried out mainly in the morning. Before the injection of the animal can not be fed. Water should be given as usual. If the procedure for some reason is scheduled for the second half of the day, then the pet can be fed, but only three hours before the manipulation, using dietary, non-heavy foods.
Rules of manipulation
For vaccination is better to invite the doctor at home. If this is not possible, then the pet is taken to a veterinary clinic or office. But do not forget that in places where animals are constantly examined, there is an increased risk of infection by infectious pathologies, especially for puppies with an immature reactive response system.
Before the injection, the puppy should be examined:
- assessment of the general condition
- the presence of signs of an inflammatory process, in the form of rhinitis, cough, lacrimation and the like,
- temperature measurement.
Vaccination can be carried out only if the puppy is completely healthy. In all other cases, it is better to postpone the manipulation until the animal recovers.
Vaccine for dogs is made in liquid form (sometimes in the form of powder, which must be diluted with a special solution). As a rule, it is in ampoules and vials in a single dose. The container is opened immediately before the injection, always one recommended dose of the drug is administered. An injection is made intramuscularly or subcutaneously on the back of the thigh, at the withers.
Probable complications of the procedure
Any vaccination is an external intervention in the puppy's immune system. Therefore, the breeder must be prepared for the fact that the resistance of a small animal to diseases after the procedure will be somewhat reduced over a certain period. In this regard, after vaccination, quarantine is recommended to avoid infection of a weakened organism.
The following reactions can be attributed to the normal effects of vaccination:
- moderate increase in body temperature (up to 39 0 С),
- lethargy and drowsiness,
- one-time refusal to eat
- episode of nausea, vomiting, bowel disorders.
These symptoms may occur immediately or the next day. Usually they pass by themselves and without consequences, after three days. If the condition of the animal has not returned to normal, but, on the contrary, continues to deteriorate, it must be immediately shown to the veterinarian.
Among the more serious complications of vaccination, which require skilled care and medical correction, include:
- temperature increase up to 40 0 С,
- repeated vomiting and diarrhea,
- полное отсутствие интереса к еде, когда щенок не ест более одного дня,
- the appearance of cramps and twitches in the limbs,
- the occurrence of discharge from the eyes,
- excessive drooling,
- persistent dyspnea,
- discoloration of the skin and blanching of the mucous membranes,
- severe weakness and lethargy of the animal for 2-3 days.
Sometimes a lump occurs in the site of the injection of a drug in a dog, which is the result of an incorrectly performed manipulation. This formation, as a rule, resolves itself with time. In rare cases, the lump may become infected. Then the puppy needs a course of antibiotic therapy or surgical opening of an abscess.
An allergic reaction during vaccination is rare, but nonetheless noteworthy. It occurs predominantly after the first vaccination and is manifested by itchy sensations, swelling, and anaphylactic shock. If a puppy has had similar reactions to the means of preventing canine infections, 7 days before re-vaccination, he should undergo a course of antihistamine therapy for up to a week.
Actions after vaccination
It is recommended to arrange a quarantine for the puppy, it implies the following:
- complete isolation of a vaccinated pet from other animals for a period of 2 weeks,
- ensuring normal rest and sleep,
- adequate drinking regime
- good nutrition
- protect your pet from drafts, the exception walks in a hard frost,
- exclusion of increased physical exertion during the week,
- refusal to wash and bath the dog, since the injection site cannot be wetted for 3 days.
Quarantine should be observed throughout the entire course of vaccination of a small pet, that is, until the age of 12 months. Severe restrictions are removed after 14 days, since this particular period of time is necessary for the formation of a full-fledged immune defense of the body.
General rules for vaccination of puppies
In many foreign countries, vaccination of a dog of any breed and of any age is a prerequisite for keeping such a four-legged pet in the city or in a country household. An animal without vaccinations will not be allowed to participate in exhibition shows, and export abroad will also be prohibited. It is very important to keep in mind a few of the most important, basic rules regarding the timing of vaccination and the rules for choosing a vaccine.
If there is a complex epidemic situation in the region where the epidemic is located, preference should be given to vaccines that are suitable for use at a very early age.. In areas with relatively favorable conditions for the animal, it is advisable to focus on the recommendations of the veterinarian. It is also necessary to make sure that the vaccine was stored in accordance with the attached instructions and fully complies with the established expiration date.
It is strictly forbidden to carry out vaccination without first performing deworming. Recently, more and more often, with the introduction of a vaccine, various immunostimulating components have been used, which makes it possible to obtain a strong immune response in an animal in the shortest possible time. Veterinarians recommend using this method if necessary to perform the prevention of infections during the seasonal exacerbation of severe contact diseases.
It is interesting! It is quite difficult at the moment the situation with almost any sera of therapeutic and prophylactic type. Depending on the characteristics of the series and the manufacturer, the titer of a set of antibodies can vary significantly, which immediately affects the level of protection.
Vaccine and Disease Varieties
Vaccinations for a puppy are a necessary necessity to prevent pet damage by the most dangerous diseases, including plague, rabies, coronavirus and parvovirus enteritis, as well as other infectious diseases. Currently, all used vaccines differ in several characteristics, but the main ones are only five types, represented by:
- by weakened live vaccines, which have in their composition only live, but rather weakened, strains of pathogens,
- inactivated vaccines, having in their composition only completely dead pathogens of microbes,
- chemical vaccines consisting of pathogen antigens that have been physically or chemically purified,
- toxoids or toxoids made from components of pathogens that have undergone preliminary complete neutralization,
- means of modern genetic engineering, which are currently constantly being tested and improved.
Depending on the main characteristics of the vaccination, as well as the main components, absolutely all modern vaccines can be classified into the varieties presented:
- complex vaccinations or so-called multi-component vaccines that can form immunity against several pathogens,
- double vaccines or divaccines that can form a good immunity to a pair of pathogens,
- homologous preparations, developed on the basis of biologically active materials of the animal itself, followed by administration,
- monovaccines, which include one antigen against one pathogen.
Separately considered multivitamin essential drugs. Depending on the method of use, all drugs for vaccination are presented:
- intravenous vaccines
- intramuscular vaccines
- subcutaneous vaccines
- cutaneous vaccines followed by scarification of the skin,
- oral vaccines
- aerosol preparations.
Somewhat less frequently, a four-legged pet is vaccinated with internazal or conjunctival drugs.
Against the plague of carnivores, animals can be vaccinated with Biovac-D, Multikan-1, EPM, Vacchum and Canivac-C. Parvovirus enteritis is prevented by Biovac-P, Primogod and Nobivac Parvo-C. Protection against rabies is best carried out with drugs such as Nobivak Rabies, Defensor-3, Rabizin, or Rabikan.
Divaccines “Biovac-PA”, “Triovac” and “Multikan-2” have proved themselves very well, and also polyvalent preparations “Biovac-PAL”, “Trivirovax”, “Tetravac”, “Multican-4”, “Eurican-DHPPI2 -L and Eurican DHPPI2-LR. Veterinarians recommend the polyvalent Nobivac-DHPPi + L, Nobivac-DHPPi, Nobivac-DHP, and also Vangard-Plus-5L4, Vangard-7 and Vangard-Plus-5L4CV.
Important! For each type of vaccine administration, the characteristic presence of strictly individual indications for use must be taken into account.
When to start vaccinating a puppy
Any domestic dog gets a certain set of vaccinations throughout its life, and the body is able to produce antibodies in the course of transmitted diseases, therefore, puppies born with mother's milk in the first days of life receive sufficiently strong immunity. However, this immunity is very short, about a month, after which you should think about vaccination.
In order for the procedure of the first vaccination of a puppy to pass easily and without any problems, it is necessary to find out from the breeder about the type of food and the conditions of the animal before the moment of implementation. It is important to remember that a couple of weeks before vaccination it is absolutely not recommended to introduce new, even very expensive and high-quality food into the diet of the animal.but.
It is interesting! As practice shows, the very first vaccination of a puppy is most often placed by the breeder himself in the nursery, at about a month and a half, therefore it is imperative to check the availability of such data in the veterinary passport of the acquired animal.
Scheme of vaccination puppies up to a year
To date, the current scheme of vaccination of dogs causes a lot of complaints from veterinarians and specialist disputes. Only rabies vaccination is not considered in this context, since the rules for its implementation are strictly regulated in our state.
Regarding other diseases, it should be remembered that the distribution of pathogens has changed very dramatically in recent years, but almost all over our country, preventive measures remain relevant to protect against carnivorous, hepatitis, parvo and coronavirus enteritis, as well as adenovirosis from the plague. In some regions over the past few years, there have been massive outbreaks of a disease such as leptospirosis.
To date, when vaccinations are conducted in dogs up to the age of one year, it is advisable to adhere to the following optimal scheme:
- in 8-10 weeks, it is required to perform the first vaccination of a four-legged pet against pathogens of such serious diseases as parvovirus enteritis, viral hepatitis and plague of carnivores,
- approximately three weeks after the initial vaccination, the second vaccination against diseases is carried out: parvovirus enteritis, viral hepatitis and plague of carnivores, as well as the first rabies vaccine.
It is important to note that in conditions of an unlikely contact of a puppy with carriers of the rabies virus, the first vaccination against this disease can be performed between the ages of six months and nine months.. Some currently used vaccines are able to provoke a pronounced darkening of the tooth enamel, therefore vaccination of the growing pet is practiced before or after the change of teeth.
Important! According to the established scheme in our country, vaccinating puppies at the age of less than two months is absolutely not recommended, due to the presence of maternal antibodies and the animal’s immune system that is not fully developed.
Preparing a puppy for vaccination
About a week before the vaccination, the puppy is required to give any anthelmintic drug. It is advisable for pets of a month of age to give 2 ml of a suspension of the preparation “Pirantel”, after which about half a milliliter of pure vegetable oil is given in half an hour. It is more convenient to give anthelmintic medicine from a syringe, in the early morning, about an hour before giving food. A day later, this procedure should be repeated.
Dogs at the age of two or three months can be given special anthelmintic drugs in pills. As practice shows, it is best to use “Alben”, “Milbemaks”, “Kanikvantel”, “Febtal” or “Prazitel” for this purpose, which have practically no side effects and are very well tolerated by animals.
Vaccination is usually done in the morning, and best of all on a fully empty stomach. If a puppy is to be vaccinated in the afternoon, then pet food is given approximately three hours before the procedure is performed. With natural feeding, it is advisable to give preference to the most dietary and not too heavy food, and the rate of dry or wet food should be reduced by about a third.
After weaning the puppy from the mother and until the course of the main preventive vaccinations is fully completed, the standard quarantine must be observed. You can not walk a four-legged pet, who is in quarantine, on common recreational areas or in the company of other dogs.
Important! It is also advisable to observe the behavior of the pet and its appetite for a few days before the introduction of the first vaccine. Animals are not subject to vaccination, with any deviations in behavior or loss of appetite.
Possible complications and consequences
After vaccination is required to carefully observe the puppy for several hours. As a rule, dogs tolerate well enough any vaccinations, however, in some cases, side effects may occur in the form of local and general body reactions. At the injection site, a slight swelling may occur, which most often self-dissipates in a maximum of two to three days.
Absolutely normal reactions to vaccination are:
- a short-term increase in the body temperature of the pet to 39 ° C,
- a one-time failure of the animal to feed,
- single vomiting or diarrhea,
- short lethargy and apathy.
Treatment in the shortest possible time for advice to a veterinarian requires the symptoms presented:
- diarrhea, which last more than a day,
- high body temperature, which does not decrease more than a day,
- multiple and too abundant vomiting,
- jerkiness or muscle twitching,
- lack of appetite for a day or more,
- excessive salivation, pronounced secretions from the nose or eyes.
Apathy of a puppy after vaccination may be caused by a stressful situation, but it passes rather quickly.
Important! The puppy's immune response is fully developed a couple of weeks after the vaccine is introduced, after which the four-legged pet can be walked without restrictions, as well as bathed not only in the bath, but also in natural waters.
When to refrain from vaccinations
It should be noted that a puppy of one year old must be vaccinated three times: in two months, in four months and after the milk teeth are replaced, at about the age of seven months. It is necessary to refrain from vaccinating a pet if the puppy has no appetite or has a passive behavior, and there is even a one-time increase in body temperature. Experts recommend measuring the temperature for all three days before the proposed vaccination procedure.
Important! It is strictly forbidden to vaccinate a puppy that has not been dewormed or has had contact with sick dogs. Pregnant and lactating females should also not be vaccinated. A bitch is advisable to be vaccinated about three or four weeks before estrus or a month after it.
As practice shows, vaccination of a pet against diseases such as enteritis and hepatitis, almost does not cause side effects, but the appearance of mild diarrhea, which passes during the day. And the post-vaccination period after vaccination against the plague can proceed much more difficult, therefore the health of the pet undergoing this procedure must be impeccable.
The process of vaccination of a pet should be entrusted only to a qualified veterinarian. A personal vaccine is often the main cause of various complications or the complete lack of immunity to the most common diseases.