Enteritis of viral nature is among the five most common and most dangerous infectious canine diseases. It is often called intestinal viruses, but in reality, in parallel with the defeat of the gastrointestinal system, the kidneys, liver, heart and many other organs are affected. The disease must be diagnosed quickly and the treatment must be provided in a timely manner, since the risks of death are very high.
Mechanisms of development of viral enteritis in dogs
The disease affects dogs of absolutely any ages and breeds - the only difference is in the course and probability of recovery. Mortally dangerous enteritis is considered for small puppies 2-14 weeks of age, dangerous - for the age of 20 weeks to a year, relatively not dangerous and treatable - for older dogs. The virus does not have a breed predisposition; however, it has been recorded that the Whippet, Dobermans and East European Shepherd dogs suffer more disease than other breeds.
A group of enteric viral diseases combines three types of enteritis (depending on the pathogen):
All three species have common routes of infection, the same clinic and the same treatment regimen. The principal difference is the severity of the disease: in this race, parvovirus enteritis “wins”, which is considered the most dangerous for dogs and highlighted by veterinary medicine.
The intensity of the disease is determined by three main factors:
- the amount of virus that has entered the body and its strength,
- the state of health of the dog during the period of infection,
- the presence or absence of concomitant intestinal abnormalities.
The purpose of viruses in the dog's body are cells in the period of active growth and with an active metabolism. That is why puppies suffer the most because in their first weeks after birth, it is the heart muscle cells and the intestinal mucosa that actively divide. The liver starts to suffer because of the inability to neutralize toxins, which in large quantities enter the bloodstream from the breakdown of intestinal cells.
Enteritis is transmitted at the time of contact of the dog with the material, where it is most of all - feces and vomit from the sick animal at the time of sniffing. The damaging power of enteroviruses is such that only 1 g of vomit or feces in the midst of the disease can infect up to a million dogs (according to laboratory data).
A distinctive feature of parvovirus enteritis in dogs is the sudden onset, i.e. the appearance of the disease cannot be associated either with a change in diet and walking, or with changing places for walking, or with the presence or absence of stress, etc. The incubation period can vary from 1 to 5 (7) days.
Immunity is included in the protection of the body almost immediately, but a sufficient amount of antibodies to fight the disease accumulates only by 5-6 days. But such a speed of the immune response is not enough compared with the rate of development of clinical signs. Those. It is likely to survive in animals that, with active medical therapy, crossed the line of five to seven days after the onset of the disease.
Mortality with rotavirus enteritis - no more than 5%, coronavirus - up to 10%, parvovirus - above 80-85%.
Symptomatic picture of the disease and the speed of its development
All types of enteritis in dogs have exactly the same symptoms - the only difference is in the severity of the course and the rate of development of the disease. If the dog has become ill with enteritis, then the most striking clinical signs accompany exactly the infection with parvovirus.
- general state of oppression,
- complete loss of appetite, rejection even of your favorite delicacy,
- persistent vomiting with mucous membranes or foam,
- fetid diarrhea of not natural color and often with impurities of mucus and blood (from black-yellow to maroon-red), in the study of feces fragments of exfoliated intestinal mucosa are found,
- a sharp jump in body temperature to 40-41 ° C,
- signs of dehydration,
- enlarged liver and spleen (determined by the doctor during the examination)
- swollen lymph nodes
- a decrease in the level of white blood cells (as seen from the results of a blood test),
- signs of heart failure (heart rhythm disturbance, shortness of breath, cough).
The disease has two forms - cardiac and intestinal. Usually, intestinal (in adult individuals) or both (in puppies) occurs, signs of myocarditis separately occur very rarely (and again, only in young dogs).
The first symptoms appear after 1-5 days after the ingestion of viruses in the body - the rejection even of a favorite food, depression, fever. After 3-20 hours after the first clinic, diarrhea and vomiting appear, which lead to exhaustion and a state of dehydration rather rapidly. The signs of general intoxication are intensified, from which the animal dies against the background of dehydration. The dog dies from enteritis on the 3rd, sometimes on the 5th days with failure to provide timely treatment. In special cases, the animal manages to hold out up to 7-9 days - basically everything is about age: saving puppies is very difficult. This is the classic enteritis (intestinal) form of the disease.
In the form of the heart, shortness of breath is added to the symptoms, the pulse quickens, but with a weak filling (as myocardial work worsens), or tachycardia is noted. There may be a slight cyanotic mucous (blue) on the background of oxygen starvation of tissues.
The dynamics of development in all intestinal infections of viral nature, regardless of the form, is always rapid - a slight indisposition and refusal to eat on the first day is abruptly replaced by vomiting, diarrhea, visible emaciation and heart failure for the latter.
Treatment of enteritis
There is no one perfect cure for enteritis. Symptomatic treatment is carried out in parallel with the giving of vitamins, as well as medicines to maintain the heart and liver. A complete recovery of the dog after a clinical recovery takes a decent amount of time. If you suspect enteritis in dogs, home treatment is senseless and risky!
Differentiation by types of enteritis is not carried out because of the duration of the laboratory analysis and the rapid development of the disease. In any of the cases, the treatment is carried out, as for parvovirus enteritis, observing along the way the dynamics of the animal's state, changes in the clinic and making adjustments for therapeutic drugs during the course of therapy.
Important: Only a veterinarian under his strict control should treat enteritis of viral origin! There are no popular or domestic ways of dealing with these diseases, even taking into account the ease of some mild forms!
The treatment is carried out according to the following algorithm:
- destruction of enteritic viruses,
- removing the animal from dehydration,
- eliminating vomiting and diarrhea,
- detoxification therapy,
- stimulation of immunity
- restoration of normal gastrointestinal system,
- restoration of normal functioning of the cardiovascular system.
Important: all drugs at the beginning of therapy are administered only by intravenous, subcutaneous and intramuscular injections. Frequent gagging and abnormalities in the work of the intestine and stomach exclude the possibility of oral (through the mouth) administration of drugs.
The main goal of treatment is to maximally effectively support the work of all organs and body systems until the animal’s own immune forces enter the fight against the disease (by 5–6 days when the development of its own antibodies begins to fight viruses). Considering the rapid dynamics of the development of the disease, literally in a day from the beginning of the treatment, the animal will either get better (which will be the start to recovery), or the animal will die (if the treatment did not bring effective results). But fighting for the life of a pet always makes sense!
Etiotropic therapy (antiviral)
The very first medical help to block the free circulation and reproduction of enteritic viruses in oragnism. For this purpose, sera, immunoglobulins, interferons and interferonogen are used.
- Fosprenil (veterinary antiviral drug). The single dose varies by weight of the dog: 0.1 ml per weight up to 1 kg, 0.25 ml up to 5 kg, 0.5 ml - 5-10 kg, 1 ml - 10-20 kg, 1.5 ml - 20 - 30 kg, 2 ml - over 30 kg. Injected subcutaneously, intramuscularly, through the mouth with the dose doubled, and intravenously with a dose reduction of half. Scheme: 1 day - 4 doses every 6 hours, 2-8 days - 3 doses every 8 hours, 9-11 days - 2 doses every 12 hours, 12-15 days - 1 dose daily.
- Immunofan (Veterinary immunostimulating drug used in the complex for the treatment and prevention of various microbial and viral infections). Maintenance dosage - 1 ml once a week for 1-2 months, therapeutic dose - 1 ml once a day (up to 5 injections, making a day). Subcutaneously or intramuscularly.
- Cycloferon (mild immunostimulating drug, increases the recovery of cells of the affected mucous membranes - an option for veterinary medicine): the dose varies from the dog's weight: up to 1 kg - 0.8 ml / kg, up to 2 kg - 0.4 ml / kg, up to 5 kg - 0, 2 ml / kg, 6-12 kg - 0.15 ml / kg, up to 25 kg - 0.12 ml / kg, 26-40 kg - 0.10 ml / kg, over 40 kg - 0.08 ml / kg . Injected intravenously, subcutaneously and intramuscularly for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 days. In acute course can be combined with globulins, serums and interferons.
- Anti-enterovirus sera (sources of ready-made antibodies against enteroviruses. Always used in combination with vitamins, antibiotics and other treatment-supportive drugs). Dose for dogs up to 5 kg - 2-3 ml, more than 5 kg - 5-6 ml (according to serum instructions according to serum concentration).
aimed at removing the body from the state of dehydration. In this state, the use of any drugs is considered completely ineffective. Rehydration solutions restore the alkaline balance of the blood and contain the necessary salt set of elements. Introduced intravenously, spray or drip. Subcutaneous administration is sometimes allowed in small doses. All solutions should be brought to body temperature (38-40 ° C) and injected (dripped) until the dog starts drinking on its own without gagging. After several times a day, it is recommended to pour small doses into the mouth.
- Ringer-Locke solution. A dose of 10-20 ml per kg of animal weight.
- Trisol. Dose 7-10% of body weight.
- Rehydration Mix: 200 ml of saline + 20 ml of 40% glucose solution + 4 ml of 5% ascorbine solution. Dose: 30-100 ml / kg of body weight once a day, depending on the overall resistance of the animal.
This is a set of measures aimed at removing toxic products from the body from the processes of viral activity and cellular disintegration of the intestinal mucous membranes. Often combined with hepatoprotective drugs.
- Hemodez (pronounced detoxicant that binds toxins and removes them by the kidneys). Dose: 5-10 ml / kg of body weight 1-2 times per day before signs of general intoxication have passed.
- Syrepar (veterinary drug with a pronounced hepatoprotective and detoxification effect). Dose: 2-4 ml once a day until the signs of intoxication disappear. Slowly intramuscularly or intravenously.
- Hydrolysin (replenishes proteins in the body, removes toxins). Enter subcutaneously, intramuscularly or intravenously in the mixture with saline. Dose: 5-15 ml for 3-5 days.
It is aimed at the general maintenance of the body, as well as the elimination of the common clinical symptoms that accompany the disease.
- Antiemetic drugs:
- Zeercal. Dose of 0.5-0.7 ml up to 3 times per day. Do not use in small puppies and pregnant bitches. Continuous use should not exceed three times a day for 7 days.
- Cerenia (Serenia - an antiemetic veterinary drug specifically for dogs). Dose: 1-2 mg / kg. Enter only subcutaneously.
- Hemostatic agents (when detecting blood in feces or vomiting).
- Vikasol (hemostatic drug that increases blood clotting - a synthetic analogue of vitamin K). Dose: 1-2 mg / kg of body weight once a day for 3-5 days with general medical therapy. Intramuscularly.
- Etamzilat (veterinary haemostatic agent of the capillary direction). Dose: 10-12 mg / kg. Intramuscularly.
- Cardiovascular Support:
- Sulfocamphocain (heart drug, stimulating the work of the heart). Dose: 1-2 ml once a day for a month. Puppies are not prescribed. It is impossible if heart failure is manifested by tachycardia.
- Cordiamin (cardiopathy used for weakness of the heart). Dose: 0.1 ml / kg intramuscularly or up to 3 drops inside.
- Riboxin (cardiovascular agent that improves nutrition and oxygen supply to the heart muscle). Dose: 5-10 mg / kg every 12 hours for two weeks.
- Antibacterial drugs prescribed for prolonged elevated temperature and suspected adherence of a secondary infection:
- Cefazolin (cephalosporin antibiotic with a wide range of effects). Dose: 5-10 mg / kg, dissolved in water for injection. The interval between injections is 6-8 hours daily for 5-7 days.
- Probiotics for restoring intestinal microflora, prescribed when appetite returns to the animal.
- Bioprotectin (hepatoprotector + probiotic). Dose: 1 caps. for weight up to 5 kg, 2 caps. - 5-10 kg, 4 caps. - more than 10 kg. The course is 23 days. The contents of the capsules admix in food or drink.
- Bactoneotime (probiotic for normalization of digestion). Dose: 1 tab. / 10 kg weight of a large dog, ½ tab. puppies. Crushed, mixed with water and set for half an hour before feeding twice a day.
Feeding during recovery
Feed a sick animal can begin even when the vomiting was stopped and brought under control. Feeding should be strictly dietary and small fractional portions.
Important: it is forbidden to try to force-feed the dog - only after the appearance of a natural appetite and the termination of vomiting!
You can use special ready-made dietary complexes, and you can make your own diet. Frequent crushed feeding should be maintained for at least a month.
- limit carbohydrate foods
- the first week to introduce dairy products (yogurt, cottage cheese, kefir),
- low-fat and weak chicken broth is allowed,
- a week or two after appetite, you can enter boiled meat,
- later introduction to the diet of mucous porridges on the water,
- Boiled vegetables can be introduced gradually.
- any sausages,
- flour and sweet,
- fatty meat or fish products,
For dog food will have to follow for a long time, because One of the consequences of recurring viral enteritis is a long-term disruption in the gastrointestinal tract. See also the recovery of the dog after enteritis, what is possible and what is not.
Prevention of enteritis in dogs is carried out only by vaccination - mono- or polyvalent vaccines. Even after re-illness, immunodeficiency states are possible, in which repeated disease is possible even in a short time. The risk of getting sick from a vaccinated dog is only 4-5%, the course of the disease is noted several times weaker, and the death rate tends to zero.
- 1st: at 4-6 weeks old vaccine for puppies,
- 2nd: at 8 weeks with an “adult” vaccine,
- 3rd: revaccination "adult" vaccine 3-4 weeks after the 2nd injection (11-12 weeks),
- 4th: in 6-8 months (tentatively after the change of teeth) planned,
- The 5th and all the following: annual - recommended 11 months after each previous one.
Only clinically healthy animals that need to be dewormed 2 weeks before vaccination are subject to vaccination.
Important: it is forbidden to vaccinate the bitches during heat and during pregnancy. After giving birth, adult dogs are vaccinated together with the 2nd vaccination of puppies (at 12 weeks).
Due to the fact that parvovirus enteritis is a mortal danger for small puppies, you need to follow some other preventive measures to reduce the risks of infection:
- You can not put in free-range unvaccinated puppies.
- For unvaccinated puppies can not go in shoes and clothes, which were on the street.
- Before you stroke the puppy, hands after the street should be washed.
- Before admitting a nursing bitch to the offspring, after walking you need to wash her belly and paws.
- Not to give small puppies to visiting guests and strangers in the house - most often enteritis is recorded with such visits.
The most commonly used vaccines for the prevention of viral enteritis
All kinds of poly-and monovaccines against viral enteritis a huge amount. It is more convenient to use polyvaccines However, the complex vaccine preparation has a corresponding cost, therefore the use of monovaccines is also justified.
Biovac-R – monocomponent vaccine for the prevention of parvovirus enteritis in dogs. Immunity is provided up to 12 months.
Price: 150-180 rubles. for 1 dose.
Nobivak-R – Parvoenteritis monovaccine.
Price: 150-17 rubles. for 1 dose. Immunity up to 12 months.
Nobivac – polyvaccinic drug, which includes viral enteritis. Immunity - 12-14 months.
Price: 200-310 rubles.
Multican – polyvaccine with enteritis. Immunity is created in 2-3 weeks and lasts up to 12 months.
Price: 210-400 rubles.
Biovac – polyvaccine with enteritis. Создается напряженный иммунный ответ до 1 года.
Цена: 260-410 руб.
Эурикан – комплексная вакцина, включающая в себя и вирусные энтериты. Keeps an immune response up to 12 months.
Price: 350-490 rubles.
Asterion – two-component polivaccine for dogs, which includes several diseases, including viral enteritis. Provides immunity: in adult dogs 12-15 months, in young animals - up to 8 months.
Price: 150-300 rubles.
Enteritis of viral origin is a rather dangerous and difficult to cure disease in dogs. If you lose your pet's appetite and diarrhea, you should immediately consult a veterinary specialist. Timely diagnosis and correct medical therapy is a guarantee of preserving the life of the animal.
Every owner can not be a veterinarian. But it is not so difficult to recognize enteritis in a dog. The clinical picture is very bright. This is an infectious disease, or rather, a whole group that cause inflammation of the intestines. Almost all important organs are affected.
Vaccination is the only measure to protect the body of your pet. There is no breed predisposition, any animal can get sick. Therefore, if the breeder convinces that he did not vaccinate, because these dogs do not get sick, it is better to look for another. You are just trying to cheat. Most often, this disease affects puppies and older dogs. But susceptibility to infection persists at any age.
Two forms of the disease
Only an experienced veterinarian can distinguish them among themselves, and even then only if he has enough time. Most often, animals are brought to the clinic already in serious condition, as enteritis in dogs often develops rapidly. It also happens that animals simultaneously diagnose both forms, but this phenomenon is quite rare. In different cases, the symptoms can be either identical or diametrically opposed. So what forms are we talking about?
- In 93% of cases, the disease is caused by parvovirus. Therefore, he and the name is appropriate. Treatment of parvovirus enteritis in dogs should begin as early as possible, as the disease quickly leads to dehydration and death. In 80% of cases, the disease occurs with intestinal damage. The animal becomes lethargic. Of course, there can be a lot of reasons, but such a symptom should alert the host. Cardiac form is observed in 20% of cases. The pathogen enters the myocardium and causes disruption of the heart and lungs.
- Coronovirus enteritis. In dogs, the tops of the intestinal villi are affected. There is an acute form of the disease, in which the animal does not eat or drink, it has vomiting and diarrhea, and the stools are bright yellow. The mild form is accompanied by slight lethargy. In principle, you can do without treatment. Proper diet will allow the body to throw all the forces to fight the virus and win.
How the disease develops and progresses
Since his nature is viral, contact with the carrier is required for the infection. The incubation period can last one day or a week. All this time, the dog can walk on the playground and communicate with other members of his family. Water and feed can also be a source of infection. Viruses perfectly tolerate the effects of gastric juice. The period from infection to the first symptoms is not for nothing called incubation. During this time, viruses are successfully introduced into the mucous membrane. Active reproduction of pathogenic microflora begins, which leads to the destruction of intestinal shell cells.
All animals are sick. Of the adults die half. For puppies, this figure is even higher and is about 90%. At the first signs of illness, you need to go to a good clinic and begin an effective treatment.
Cardiac form is not so common, and coronovirus enteritis is less likely to affect animals that were born in dogs with good immunity. Or it passes in such a mild form that one can assume a banal intestinal disorder. Parvoviral enteritis is most dangerous.
In dogs, it develops so rapidly that sometimes the owners do not even have time to do anything. Leaving for work, they note that the pet is not too active, and in the evening they catch the animal, half-dead from dehydration due to excessive vomiting and diarrhea. Symptoms of enteritis in dogs can occur and progress with lightning speed, in this case, most likely, you will lose a pet. But let's look at everything in order:
- At the very beginning of the disease the animal refuses to play. During the day diarrhea begins. The feces are liquid, yellow in color. The temperature may rise to 40 degrees or, conversely, fall to 19.5 ° C. Sometimes vomiting begins. Such symptoms are characteristic of coronoviral enteritis.
- On the second day, the skin loses its elasticity.
- In parvovirus enteritis, on the first day of illness, bowel movement occurs every 20 to 40 minutes. The feces are greenish and watery. Vomiting occurs every 30 minutes.
- Symptoms of enteritis in a dog will only progress. On the second day, vomiting and diarrhea are observed at intervals of one to two hours.
- Shortness of breath begins.
- After 12 hours, the pet's condition is rapidly deteriorating.
The owner should be well aware that it is impossible to delay now. If the city has a veterinary ambulance, you can call it. Otherwise, you will have to take the dog to the clinic yourself. Best of all, if you have a veterinarian who has been keeping a pet since the very first visit. In this case, he knows the entire vaccination schedule, state of health and past diseases. It is very important for rapid diagnosis and the appointment of adequate treatment.
Signs of enteritis in a dog are a consequence of the processes that are now taking place inside the body. You can not try to influence only the symptoms, that is, to block vomiting and diarrhea with the help of special tools like "Cerucal" and "Imodium." Gastric edema causes squeezing of the receptors, so vomiting will only increase.
But the main changes occur in the intestines. The intestines are inflamed, the mucous membranes are destroyed and go out in pieces along with the feces. This is characteristic of parvovirus enteritis. Inflammation of the stomach leads to vomiting, intestines - to diarrhea. A large number of cells disintegrate, which causes the release of toxins. It disrupts the blood vessels. Dehydration of the body is also enhanced because the fluid moves into the intestinal cells, which only activates the reflex of its emptying. Blood viscosity increases, and the heart begins to work with overload.
Of course, the body is trying to fight. But viral enteritis in a dog that has not previously been vaccinated, is too hard. The body responds by producing antibodies. For 5-6 days in the blood they accumulate enough to bind viruses. But most of the pathogens at this time are in the intestine and myocardium. Dehydration and lack of nutrition complete the picture. The disease develops faster than the body's defenses work. Without therapy, death occurs at 2-5 or 7-12 days.
And today there are breeders who refuse to vaccinate puppies, arguing that vaccines are dangerous. But is it worth talking about how many dogs are dying, if you ignore vaccination. Yes, there is a certain risk, but it is not so great.
It begins with a visit to the doctor, examination and diagnosis. A very important point is the type and course of the disease. In the mild form of coronoviral enteritis, only puppies and weak animals need treatment. They will be assigned a special diet, antibiotics and immunostimulants, as well as vitamins. This diagnosis has the most favorable prognosis. Usually in a few days the pet will get better, and the doctor will allow you to complete the course at home. By the way, many are interested in where the treatment of dogs should be carried out. Enteritis is cunning. But a lot depends on the clinical picture. In severe cases, it is best to leave the pet in the hospital, under the clock medical supervision.
The main directions in the treatment
The course of viral enteritis in dogs can vary greatly. Despite this, the treatment can be divided into several areas, which adhere to modern veterinarians.
- Destruction of viruses. This is achieved by serums that contain antibodies.
- Recovery of lost fluid. Even if you go to the clinic as soon as symptoms appear, in a few hours the dog may be dehydrated. Not to mention if vomiting and diarrhea began at night, and the trip was postponed for the morning.
- Excretion of toxins from the body.
- Maintain immunity.
- Restoration of the stomach and intestines, heart.
Each of these areas is one of the components of the overall effective scheme. For this reason, the appointment of the course should be done only competent doctor.
Features of therapy in the intestinal form of parvovirus enteritis
In general, therapy has something in common with the treatment of the acute form of the coronavirus. Let's look at the main activities:
- In the first three days, doctors actively use immunoglobulin and hyperimmune sera.
- To avoid dehydration, 5% glucose solution and "Reopoliglukina" are used.
- Immunostimulants must be prescribed - "Cycloferon", "Fosprenil", up to the extinction of the symptoms of enteritis. Dogs should be treated under the strict supervision of a physician, the name of the drugs is for reference only.
- If severe intestinal damage is evident, antibiotics are required. This is required to suppress the secondary microflora.
- Preparations for heart support - "Mildronat", "Sulfocamphocain".
Additionally, the doctor selects an individual diet. Since it is necessary to treat enteritis in a dog for a rather long time, a scheme for visiting the clinic is being developed. It may be more convenient to leave a pet to a day hospital. And on the house the doctor paints procedures for every day.
Features of treatment in heart form
It occurs less frequently, and it is not always possible to diagnose the disease correctly at the initial stage, which affects the effectiveness of therapy. Do not forget that the treatment of enteritis in dogs at home, without constant monitoring and doctor's prescriptions, very rarely leads to positive results. Most likely, your pet will die.
In the case of cardiac form, rapid intravenous administration of solutions is dangerous. Long, slow infusions are recommended. Up to around the clock introduction. The rest of the treatment will repeat the above. But there are some differences. If a dog has had this form of the disease, it needs lifelong maintenance therapy.
Treatment by folk methods
Based on the above, you can understand how serious this disease is and how unpleasant the symptoms associated with enteritis are. Treatment of dogs at home, without special training and knowledge, in most cases leads to the death of the animal. You should not resort to the advice of friends and give the dog vodka. From this, she will not recover, but you will deliver a significant blow to the liver and intestines, which need protection.
Even with adequate therapy, the chance of death of the animal is high. And in case of delay or wrong actions, the probability of a pet's survival sharply decreases. Treatment by folk methods is allowed only with mild disease and after consultation with a veterinarian.
Memo to the owner
Even before the first symptoms appear, the dog refuses to eat. Feed the animal by force is impossible. If the pet has an appetite for mild form, then it should be a diet food. Best of all, without consulting a veterinarian, give nothing but water.
After the crisis has passed, food must be introduced very carefully. The intestine is now a continuous wound. Rough, greasy food will cause severe pain and will not be absorbed. As a result, you will be thrown back in your treatment, and you will have to go back to the vet for help. After enteritis, the intestine is restored for a long time. The dog may continue to vilify. Therefore, we need a competent program to restore the body, the constant use of probiotics.
When your pet shows interest in food, it should be offered a light broth. It can be chicken or beef. It is better if it will be the second cooking. Now it is very important to provide a sparing food and not to overfeed the dog, even if it asks for supplements. The gut is still too weak to experience a new shock.
Broken rice porridge on the water will also be useful. It envelops the intestines and stimulates the growth of a new protective layer. Two days later, you can give chopped meat, and then cottage cheese and kefir. All food must be fresh and warm. Increase the number of servings to gradually. After about 2-3 weeks, you will be able to return to your normal diet.
Even a mild course of the disease does not mean that the body is fully restored. A full range of therapeutic measures also does not guarantee the absence of consequences. Consider only the most common complications, which the attending physician will definitely warn about:
- Lameness. It may be temporary or remain for life.
- The sick puppy will not be able to catch up with their peers. He will forever lag behind in growth and development.
- Approximately two weeks after recovery, polyps may begin to form in the oral cavity. They need to be deleted.
- Bitches often remain barren.
- Heart failure most often remains for life.
Terrible and serious disease can be prevented only in one way. This is a vaccination. Good nutrition and optimal conditions, timely walks - none of the above does not guarantee even minimal protection against the virus. Immunity dogs with him not cope.
Puppies need to be vaccinated from 3-4 months of age. Prior to this, it is not recommended to bring a pet to a walking area where other animals are. Experienced dog breeders say that during this period you need to wash floors more often. After visiting the street, you must remove your shoes and wash your hands with soap. Today, a wide range of imported good quality vaccines is presented in veterinary clinics. There are not so many complications from vaccinations. The probability of their development is much less than the danger of becoming ill with enteritis. An adult dog needs to be vaccinated every year, as the immune response is weakened.
Enteritis in dogs symptoms
Symptoms of enteritis appear in adult dogs on the 10th day, in puppies the incubation period lasts 3 days. The characteristic symptoms are lethargy, drowsiness, diarrhea, vomiting, a slight increase in temperature. The dog begins to lose weight, its muzzle is sharpened, and its sides tumble. Often, an energetic-looking dog with a good appetite, when pressed on its sides and back, begins to arch its back and hold its tail. If you touch the animal to the stomach, then you can see that it hurts. It happens that the dog's pulse weakens, breathing becomes heavy, its limbs become cold, the mucous membranes become pale and sometimes bluish in color.
Rumbling in the stomach with enteritis in a dog
Rumbling in the abdomen is a symptom of bowel failure. This may be - irritation of its mucous membrane, excessive muscle activity, accumulation of gases (flatulence). Often, all these reasons are present simultaneously.
Gases can accumulate:
- Due to a large amount of food eaten at a time.
- Transferred stress at the time of eating food, as a result of which air got into the throat.
- Because of the excess amount of carbohydrates, fats, proteins in the food of the animal, which lead to its fermentation in the body.
- Due to diseases of the small intestine - enteritis, leading to poor digestion and accumulation of the food lump in the large intestine. If a dog has a stomach rumbling and is drowsy and lethargic at the same time, this indicates enteritis with a complication of the cardiovascular system.
- With liver disease.
- Pancreatic and other glands pathology of the digestive system.
- In case of poisoning.
Causes of enteritis in dogs
- No vaccinations are made. This applies to both an adult dog and a puppy. For example, an unvaccinated bitch may give birth to deliberately infected offspring. If a puppy is not vaccinated during time, then if he, for example, sniff the feces of an infected animal, he will immediately pick up the enteritis.
- Improper nutrition. Harmful food (smoked, fatty, fried), too hot or cold food, spontaneous, unbalanced, poor nutrition. This provokes irritation of the gastric mucosa, further gastritis, then gastroenteritis.
- Sharp change of food. The abrupt transition from natural food to dry food , introduction to the diet of new products are harmful to the gastrointestinal tract.
- Weak immune system. The body is not able to withstand a virus attack.
- Infection. It is possible to determine which infection provoked enteritis through laboratory tests.
- Parasites. Cause gastritis. Antihistamine drugs destroy enteritis symptoms.
Enteritis Vaccine for Dogs
Immunity protects dogs from viruses. Vaccines help to develop immunity. They have a wide range of actions, including struggling with enteritis. Breeders and dog owners are represented in Russia vaccines domestic and imported.
The most famous foreign drugs:
- NOBIVAK - the Netherlands. Against parvoviral enteritis. Immunity develops over 2 weeks and lasts up to one year. Нобивак Puppy DR применяют для щенков возрастом от 4-х недель, вакцина не угнетает действия материнских антител. Nobivac DHPPI — для щенков c 10-и недельного возраста.
- ЭУРИКАН LR — Франция. Иммунитет развивается на протяжении 2-х недель и сохраняется до одного года. Против парвовирусного энтерита. Eurikan DHPPI + 2L for puppies of 8 weeks of age.
Vaccines of Russian production:
- Asterion DHPPIL. Against parvoviral enteritis. Immunity develops over 2 weeks and persists in puppies up to 8 months, in adult dogs up to 1.3 years,
- Hexakanivac, Vladivak. Against parvoviral enteritis. Immunity develops over 3 weeks and lasts up to a year
- BIOVAK, MULTIKAN-2. Against parvoviral enteritis. Immunity develops over 2 weeks and lasts up to one year,
- MULTICAN-4, MULTICAN-6, MULTICAN-7, MULTICAN-8 - against parvovirus and coronavirus enteritis,
Vaccination against enteritis in dogs
Vaccinations are: monovalent (from one disease) or polyvalent (from a number of diseases). During vaccination, the individual is subjected to artificial infection. At the same time, the aim is to develop immunity to a particular disease. Scientifically proven and confirmed by practice - once having transferred enteritis or another illness caused by a virus, the dog for a certain period becomes resistant to the disease. Antibodies produced by the animal's immunity kill lightning viruses that enter the body and provoke disease. If, after the expiration of the guaranteed period, the animal still infected with the virus, the disease will have a mild form, often asymptomatic.
Before using the vaccine, the animal must be prepared:
- No less than 10 days a dog should take anthelmintic drugs.
- A week before the procedure, the dog is either not taken for a walk at all, or they walk with it for a short time in order to avoid being infected with viruses or bacteria.
- A week before the procedure, it is necessary to measure its temperature every day. Normal for animals is considered the body temperature of 37.5—39 ° C. At the time of vaccination, the dog must be healthy.
The first time a dog is vaccinated in 1-1.5 months, then revaccination is carried out according to a certain scheme. The timing of re-vaccination affects the degree of risk of infection of the animal. A veterinarian is vaccinated in a veterinarian, because vaccine drugs can cause allergies. Allergic reaction can cause both mild discomfort and anaphylactic shock. Therefore, at first it is recommended to make a dog an allergy test. As a rule, puppies normally tolerate vaccination, in case of complications a specialist will quickly help.
- physical activity of the dog must be gentle
- stressful situations should not be allowed
- In order to avoid a cold, hypothermia of an animal should be avoided.
How to treat enteritis in dogs
- This disease without immunoglobulin serum can not be cured. Serum is selected depending on the type of enteritis pathogen.
- Antibiotics are prescribed to prevent the development of a bacterial infection and prevent the occurrence of complications.
- Saline solutions are used to restore the water-salt balance, which is disrupted due to incessant diarrhea and vomiting. Appointed in small portions in an interval of 10 minutes.
- Apply droppers, which are very effective in dehydration.
- For the absorption of toxic substances released during decay of undigested food, enterosorbents are used (activated charcoal, white clay, etc.).
- Vitamin therapy.
Enteritis in dogs is contagious to humans
The disease is not transmitted to humans. The virus infecting dogs is transmitted only to members of the canine family - wolves, foxes, arctic foxes, jackals. A dog cannot even infect a cat, since it is not a canine relative.
But a person can bring an enteritis virus on shoes or clothes into the house and unwittingly become a carrier of the disease. Owners of dogs are advised to comply with sanitary standards - when they come home, wash their hands, clean their clothes, and avoid contact with sick or suspicious animals.
Infectious enteritis in dogs
Infection occurs instantaneously - while sniffing or licking an infected animal, eating and drinking from the patient's bowl, as well as through combs and brushes. An infection can be brought on a person’s clothes or shoes. A dog that has been cured of enteritis can infect others for a long time.
Infectious enteritis is divided into parvovirus and coronovirus.
It occurs more often. The causative agent is parvovirus. There are 3 types:
- Intestinal area. The characteristic symptoms are lethargy, a slight fever, the dog begins to lose weight, it has a tapering muzzle, and its sides collapse. Often, an energetic-looking dog with a good appetite, when pressed on the sides and back, starts to arch the back and hold the tail. If you touch the animal to the stomach, it is noticeable that it hurts.
- Of cardio-vascular system. It is more common in dogs aged 2-9 weeks. It is characterized by drowsiness, lethargy. Severe pain in the stomach is absent, but there is a rumbling. The animal refuses to eat and drink. Diarrhea, as a rule, does not happen. Then the heart makes itself felt - the dog's pulse weakens, breathing becomes heavier, and the extremities become cold. The mucous membranes become pale and sometimes bluish in color. From this complication of enteritis, many dogs die, especially puppies.
- Combined. Observed in weak animals. Most often it is puppies that give birth to unvaccinated females.
The causative agent is the RNA virus from the discharge of coronaviruses. Hidden period lasts up to 7 days.
Acute. It flows instantly. The dog is dramatically weakening. The presence of a secondary infection is characteristic. Especially dangerous for puppies and weak dogs - many deaths. Adult strong dogs tend to recover.
Mild disease in adult dogs goes away by itself. The animal eats badly, sluggish. Temperature does not happen. A few days later the dog returns to normal.
Chronic. Manifested in animals-carriers of the virus or with low immunity.
Hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs
It starts suddenly. It is characterized by nausea, vomiting and diarrhea with blood. Diarrhea abundant, bright bloody color. Dogs have a stomachache, they look exhausted, they are in a fever, animals refuse to eat. The disease can occur in dogs of any breed and age, but more often it happens in breeds of miniature size. For example, the French Poodle, Jokshire Terrier, Pekingese, Miniature Schnauzer, Spaniel and others.
The exact cause of the disease has not yet been determined. Possible causes include stress, nervous excitement, worms , bacteria. It is possible that the problem lies in the wrong diet - the use of harmful foods or abrupt food changes. The disease is in the habit of becoming chronic.
Canine Rotavirus Enteritis
The causative agent is rotavirus. Hidden period up to 2-7 days. It belongs to the category of highly contagious diseases with infectious viral etiology. As a rule, it is a type of intestinal infection. Other names for the disease are “intestinal flu”, “gastric flu”. The disease can occur in dogs of any breed. It happens more often in puppies, in breeds of miniature sizes, highly bred individuals, dogs with low immunity, stray animals.
Lymphoplasmacytic enteritis in dogs
Inflammatory disease of the digestive tract, characterized by the penetration and accumulation in the gastric mucosa of lymphocytes and plasma cells (infiltration). Penetration can also affect the submucosal and muscular layers of the stomach. The processes that cause this disease and their causes are still poorly understood. Presumably, the cause of the disease lies in a distorted immune response to certain food components.
It starts suddenly. Bacterial gram-negative bacillus is transmitted throughout the body. To determine the diagnosis, a stool culture of a diseased animal is examined. Symptoms of the disease are actively manifested during stress or background disease. Symptoms include diarrhea, refusal to eat, nausea, vomiting, lethargic appearance.
Enteritis caused by Escherichia coli anaerobic Gram-positive E. coli capable of forming spores. Five CI strains were studied. To determine the diagnosis, a stool culture of a diseased animal is examined. The disease is characterized by hemorrhagic diarrhea with blood inclusions. During diarrhea, a large amount of extracellular fluid is released into the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in hypovolemic shock.
Serum from enteritis for dogs
The main panacea for this disease is an immunoglobulin serum containing antibodies against enteritis viruses. It is a clear yellowish liquid. Serum is injected under the skin or intramuscularly. The curative effect is to induce enteritis virus immunity in dogs. Serum is administered individually depending on the type of enteritis pathogen. It is used for both therapeutic and prophylactic purposes.
Diet with enteritis in dogs
With this disease, it is important that the dog does not eat heavy food. Suitable porridge, enveloping the walls of the stomach, for example, oatmeal. If the dog has no appetite, do not feed him through force. On the contrary, on the first day it is useful for the animal to starve. When the dog recovers, the appetite will come. Need to try, to she drank more water. Also useful at this time are decoctions of herbs with astringent and enveloping qualities.
Enteritis is a disease characterized by an inflammatory process in the intestines.. Most often, enteritis is caused by a virus. In severe cases, it can also affect other internal organs: the heart, kidneys, and liver. It has been established that animals of the dog family are subject to enteritis. At the same time, no susceptibility to enteritis, depending on gender or breed, was revealed.
Important! However, there are rocks that carry it especially hard. Among them are Dobermans, Whippets, East European Shepherd Dogs.
Enteritis proceeds rapidly. The manifestation of symptoms is accompanied by the appearance of pathogenic microorganisms in the secretions of the animal. This usually occurs on the 3-4th day of infection. Depending on the lesions, enteritis is divided into primary and secondary. During primary enteritis, only the intestines become inflamed. Secondary enteritis is called when it is only a symptom of another, often infectious, disease.
Non Viral Enteritis
The inflammatory process in the intestine can be caused not only by a virus. The reason may be improper diet or the presence of parasites in the body. Usually adults are already subject to this.
Sometimes inflammation of the mucous membranes occurs if the owners feed the dog with food from their table. In the human diet there are spices, fatty, smoked or fried foods that are completely unsuitable for animals and can cause problems with the digestive tract. In turn, the malfunction of the digestive tract becomes a fertile ground for the reproduction of pathogenic bacteria. It is also better not to give the dog a bone.
Important! Especially dangerous bones that have undergone heat treatment. They are too hard to digest and most often form sharp ends that can injure the intestines.
Also enteritis can develop in the presence of helminths in the intestine. Parasites violate the intestinal mucosa, thereby facilitating the penetration of the virus into the body. The presence of worms adversely affects the overall immunity of the body, making it unstable to disease. When this type of enteritis occurs, the animal inactive behaves and refuses food. Vomiting and diarrhea are also characteristic, as with viral forms of the disease.
Enteritis in puppies
Dogs of different ages are susceptible to enteritis, but puppies between the ages of 2 and 12 weeks are the hardest to bear. Puppies grow very quickly and all processes in a young body proceed faster than in an adult dog.
This may be a favorable condition for the development of the disease. The virus enters the young cells of the body and spreads at lightning speed. Usually the incubation period of the disease in puppies up to 2 months of age is only 1-3 days. In severe cases, death may occur in the first days of the disease.
Puppies are at risk during weaning. The fact is that breast milk contains antibodies that can improve the puppy's immunity. If the mother was vaccinated beforehand, then her puppies are protected for the first time, although these antibodies die on average after 4 weeks. If the mother does not have an enteritis vaccine, the puppies are not protected from the disease.
Important! If there were previously dogs in the house, especially those with enteritis, you need to sanitize the room before bringing a new puppy. Things for dogs best to get new.
In order to protect puppies from enteritis, it is necessary to prepare in advance. A few weeks before mating, it is necessary to vaccinate the mother against this disease. After birth, puppies need to be treated with worms as soon as possible with the mother. For a puppy, weaning from the mother and moving to a new home is always stress, which adversely affects the immune system. In addition, the diet in the new house will be different, which can lead to disruption of the gastrointestinal tract. This can aggravate the situation.
Diagnosis and treatment
In order to properly treat enteritis, it is necessary to make a diagnosis on time. To do this, be sure to contact the veterinary clinic. Only a doctor on the basis of laboratory tests can make an accurate diagnosis. In addition to determining the disease itself, the tests will make it clear what kind of virus caused the disease. In order to consult a doctor in time, it is necessary to carefully monitor the condition of your pet. Signals for a trip to the vet will serve:
- Diarrhea and vomiting, stingy and frothy, with remnants of undigested food.
- Loss of activity, fatigue.
- Increased temperature.
Attention! Not all cases of the disease in an animal fever. Especially when infected with parvovirus. Often the temperature rise does not happen until the death of the animal.
First you need to pay attention to the behavior of the dog. Sick animal refuses to eat. Sometimes during the walk the dog behaves as usual, and upon arrival he immediately goes to bed. This is also a reason to be wary. A healthy animal after a walk seeks to replenish strength and immediately goes to a bowl of food. Often with enteritis, the dog retracts the stomach and arches the back, if you try to stroke it. This is due to painful sensations in the abdomen.
Any of these symptoms should be a reason to travel to the hospital. The disease is rapidly, so you can not lose time. Take action is necessary quickly. Prolonged treatment can cause complications. In this case, to the existing symptoms will be added:
- Oxygen starvation of cells.
- Complications of other organs, inflammation of the heart muscle.
- Vascular insufficiency.
- Intoxication of the body.
When diagnosing enteritis in dogs, complex treatment is prescribed. Most often, the dog is prescribed special serums to help fight the disease. Supportive therapy in the treatment of enteritis acts in several ways. First, you need to maintain a balance in the body. Frequent vomiting and diarrhea quickly deplete and dehydrate the body. Disturbed natural fluid balance, leading to intoxication. Due to the condition of the animal, it is impossible to replenish it with food and drink, therefore, intravenous fluids are most often prescribed. Hypodermic droppers are also possible, but they are less effective.
Secondly, a course of antibiotics is often prescribed by a veterinarian. Although they do not kill the virus, their use will help maintain the condition of the animal. The body is always present potentially dangerous bacteria that are activated during the illness. The organism weakened by enteritis needs support in fighting them, otherwise the disease can be aggravated.
It will also be interesting:
It is also possible to use vitamin complexes and drugs that support the work of the heart muscle. These measures are taken to ensure that a weakened body does not suffer from comorbidities and quickly cope with the virus.
For a dog with enteritis, fasting is necessary. The animal's body will not be able to digest food and will reject it, it is a protective mechanism. All drugs used in the treatment of enteritis are administered by injection. The organism simply will not accept tablets, and will reject as well as food. Do not be afraid that the dog will lose weight. As soon as the disease retreats, and the food begins to digest, the animal will gain a proper weight.
Important! A dog that has just experienced enteritis is absolutely not allowed to give meats, fried and heavy food, sweets and spices. Dairy products for the first time as it is better to exclude.
To feed the animal only with the permission of the attending physician. In some cases, excessive consumption of water can further induce vomiting, which cannot be allowed. As a maintenance therapy, the veterinarian may prescribe enemas and lavages. They can be carried out with the use of medicinal herbs solutions. However, it is not necessary to do this without consulting a doctor.
With timely identification of the disease and proper treatment, the animal will definitely get better.. The first time after recovery there are problems in the gastrointestinal tract. Для того чтобы облегчить восстановительный период, нужно соблюдать диету. Лучше всего кормить животное понемногу, но несколько раз в день. В меню можно включить вареное нежирное мясо, отварные овощи и разваренную рисовую кашу на некрепком бульоне (лучше второй варки).This diet is better to adhere to 2-3 weeks after recovery. Next you need to be based on the state of the pet.
Danger to humans
A vector can be a person. Most often, bacteria take root on clothes and shoes, and then enter the home. As a rule, enteritis is extremely rarely transmitted to a person and carries no danger. Similarly, animals of other species are practically not infected by sick dogs. A person also suffers from enteritis, but this is a completely different type of disease that is not transmitted from dogs. The owner may not be afraid to become infected while caring for your pet.
However, you need to be careful, especially if there are children in the house. Children often have allergic reactions to the cells of this virus. Therefore, it is imperative that you wash your hands thoroughly and wash clothes after contact with a sick animal. The dog alone cannot maintain its health. She needs help and attention, especially in the first days of her life in a new house. Only the responsibility and attentiveness of the owner will help protect the pet from diseases and will be able to maintain its health.
Characteristics of enteritis
Viral enteritis refers to a group of infectious diseases that cause inflammation of the intestines, which is included in the list of the five most common in dogs.
It is relatively new, but has a very high mortality rate , the statistics of lethal outcomes is almost equal to distemper. In our regions, this disease was first seen in the eightieth year of the last century.
During the first outbreak, natural immunity was not yet developed, which caused massive animal deaths. For dogs of relatively young age, an average of two to nine years, the infection is deadly. The most severe complications after observed in puppies.
Puppies are most susceptible to severe complications.
Enteritis in the first place provokes a violation of the heart, kidneys, liver and other internal organs.
Certain breeds do not have a genetic tendency towards it, but Dobermans, Whippet and East European Shepherd dogs suffer the disease worse than others.
Doberman dogs have a genetic predisposition to the disease.
This problem is dangerous for dogs of any age and breed. But it practically does not infect other animals, and for people it does not carry any threat.
Characteristic signs and symptoms of enteritis in dogs
The first signs of infection are lethargy and lack of appetite.
Approximately ten hours after the virus enters the body, the dog begins to have diarrhea, from four to five times a day.
Diarrhea in a dog begins about 10 hours after the virus enters.
Coronavirus and rotavirus enteritis
Coronavirus and rotavirus enteritis is characterized by the release of liquid yellow feces, with which mucus is secreted.
When enteritis, the dog begins to drink a lot of water.
The animal drinks a lot of water, in some cases there is frequent vomiting. And body temperature can rise to thirty-nine and a half degrees. By the second day, the skin becomes inelastic.
Risk of death
The most dangerous periods for life are from the second to the fifth day, from the seventh to the twelfth.
2-5 days have a high risk of death.
It is at this time that there is a high risk of death. Even with quality and timely medical care, a high percentage of animal deaths: rotavirus enteritis is less than five percent, coronavirus is up to ten. The most dangerous is the parovirus type of the disease. Mortality in his victims is more than eighty percent.
Causes and ways of infection
Enteritis virus pathogens are transmitted through diseased individuals, the main source in large cities is homeless dogs that do not have proper care and living conditions.
Homeless dogs are carriers of enteritis virus.
They stand out with feces and gag masses, which can be stored for more than one day even at zero temperature. Viruses are quite tenacious, they do not change their structure even at sixty degrees of heat, they die only when exposed to direct sunlight.
Ways to transfer
Stressed dogs are particularly vulnerable to illness.
There are two ways to transmit viral enteritis: contact and non-contact.
The first involves direct contact with an infected animal or carrier. In the process of sniffing, licking them, you can become infected. But pathogens are also transmitted through food or water, care items, bedding.
Particularly vulnerable are those dogs that have suffered stress, severe illness, surgery, suffering from problems of the digestive system, or the presence of parasites in the body. Inadequate care, poor nutrition and living in damp and cold conditions significantly increase the risk. And also especially careful you need to be for puppies up to four months .
Stages of treatment
Katozal is a drug used to fight infection.
- The first stage of treatment must be carried out by a veterinarian. After all, the infection can be overcome only by the introduction of special drugs into the vein. After all, through a large loss of fluid other injections will not be absorbed.
- Used to fight infection serum or immunoglobulin, having in its composition of antibodies . But they are not administered intravenously. Often resort to the use of katozal, Erbisol and other means that stimulate the immune system. Introduction of an intravenous salt solution (disol, trisol, quartosol), as well as glucose. What kind of solution and its concentration prescribed by the doctor, based on the state of the dog. Glucose is used only as a five percent solution.
- Toxins are derived from hydrolysin and its analogs. . It is necessary to use substances that support the functioning of the liver (glutargin), because it is she who participates in the treatment of intoxication. There are medications that provide comprehensive treatment. For example, taking polyoxidonium or lycopidium guarantees the removal of toxins and increased immunity.
- Metoproclamide helps stop vomiting . The main danger lies in the rapid development of microbes in the affected areas of the intestine. Eliminate this problem is possible only with antibiotics. It is necessary to include in the course of treatment the use of enterosgel, oak bark extract or flax seeds. They have an enveloping and fastening effect. But to begin rehabilitation of the intestine is possible only from the second day of infection.
- Love and attention to him will help to save the life of your pet after transferring enteritis. . Protect the animal from any stress and increased physical exertion. Pet will need to follow a strict diet, apply vitamins.
And most importantly, remember that you are responsible for the life of your dog, at the manifestation of at least one of the symptoms, immediately contact a veterinarian.