Combined feed (compound feed) is a special type of food, which is a ready-mixed mixture of various ingredients containing proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and other trace elements.
Feeding animals with such mixtures ensures their full development and supports the health of their body.
Benefits of feeding broiler feed
Meat breeds of chickens are slaughtered for meat at a relatively early age (an average of 3 months), so during their growth they must gain the maximum possible weight. To achieve this goal you need to use high-calorie feed for chickens.
High-quality feed meets the specified requirements. Other advantages of combined feed include a variety of products. A farmer can purchase or prepare nutritional mixtures suitable for broilers of any breed and age.
Most types of feed have a long shelf life - the product can be purchased in advance and feed them birds throughout the season.
Purchased feeds are ready-made mixes, that is, the farmer does not need to spend time and energy on cooking food for the birds.
In accordance with this requirement, feed for meat breeds are divided into four groups:
- "Pre-start" (for chickens at the age of 1-5 days). The main goal of this group of feeds is to prepare digestion for more nutritious food. The main ingredients are served in a very crushed form, the content of vitamins and minerals is increased in order to strengthen the immune system.
- "Start" (from 5 to 15 days). Caloric intake increases, the emphasis is on the development of ligaments and bones.
- Growth (2-5 weeks). The variety of ingredients and their caloric content increase, and the feed particles become larger.
- "Finish" (for broilers aged from one month to slaughter). At the last stage of life, chickens gain maximum weight, in accordance with this, the calorie intake increases.
The standard composition of feed "Start" includes:
- Wheat grain.
- Corn grain.
- Meat and bone meal.
- A piece of chalk.
- Natural charcoal.
The feed “Growth” contains identical ingredients, and peas are also added there, as the birds grow older they become able to absorb it. Finishing foods additionally contain soybean meal. Changing not only the number of components, but also their ratio. So, in the prelaunch mixtures, the proportion of cereals (corn, barley, etc.) is 70% of the total mass, in starter and other mixtures, their share drops to 40%.
Externally, these types of mixtures differ in the size of the granules, they have the largest diameter in the final feed.
No complete feed is complete without premix. Premixes are useful supplements consisting of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and medications.
Such additives may contain:
- Vitamins A, D, K, E, C and group B.
- Iron, fluorine, zinc, copper and other minerals.
- Enzymes (protosubtilin, amylosubtilin), contributing to weight gain.
- Feed yeast.
- Chalk that holds all the ingredients together in a homogeneous mass.
- Feed antibiotics and tranquilizers. Added to premixes if health problems are found in birds. Medications are recommended for use only after consulting a veterinarian.
The older the bird, the more food it needs per day. This reduces the frequency of feeding (from 8-10 times a day at the stage of pre-launch to 2-3 times at the finishing stage).
Purchased or homemade feed?
Buying ready-made mixes in stores saves time and effort, while the farmer can be confident in the safety of feed for the health of birds, since all products are subject to epidemiological control. But this approach has drawbacks:
- Unscrupulous sellers can add synthetic ingredients instead of natural ones. Synthetics do not cause direct harm to health, but it is poorly combined with many other ingredients, which can lead to problems with digestion.
- Ready mixes are more expensive than sets of ingredients for self-production of compound feed, as their price includes the cost of packaging and packaging.
- The recipes of finished feeds are standard and not subject to change, while in homemade mixes the farmer can change the composition and proportions of the components at his discretion. This advantage is especially important in those cases if the owner of the chicken coop has his own farm, on which it is possible to grow certain ingredients for feed.
Self-production of feed is possible, even if it takes time. The recipes for most feeds are simple, and even a novice farmer can master them. Particular attention should be paid to quality control of ingredients.
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Basic equipment, which is necessary for the preparation of compound feed - is a grain crusher and a large container.
Starter feed (up to two weeks)
The main component of nutrition for young chicks is corn flour - its particles are very small, which makes this product easily digestible. The share of corn flour in the mixture should be 50%. The share of wheat flour is 16%. Cake should be 14%, and barley - 8%. To facilitate the absorption of the product in the mixture are added low-fat yogurt in the amount of 1/10 of the total mass.
If starter feed causes diarrhea in chicks, they should be watered with a weak solution of manganese.
Feed for active growth (from two weeks to a month)
At this stage, food becomes more diverse. The proportion of ingredients:
- Corn - 45%.
- Sunflower cake - 20%.
- Wheat - 13-15%.
- Fish meal - 7%.
- Feed yeast - 5%.
- Greens - 6%.
- Feed fat - 1%.
- Protein-Vitamin Premixes (BVMK) - 5-10%.
Products such as greens, milk, kefir, improve taste, they can be added to the feed to increase the variety of feeding birds. The main thing is to do it while maintaining all the established proportions. When feeding the chicks, grass and greens are thoroughly ground. Milk and greens are not necessarily mixed with the main feed, you can submit them separately.
Feed for birds aged a month and older
One of the simple recipes for the finishing mix includes:
- Wheat - 20%.
- Barley - 20%.
- Corn - 20%
- Soy - 20%.
- Peas - 5%.
- Cake - 5%.
- Protein-vitamin mixtures - 10%.
- Corn - 45%.
- Cake (or meal) - 18%.
- Wheat - 12%.
- Barley - 8%.
- Fish meal - 7%.
- Yeast - 5%.
- Greens and white chalk - 1% each.
- Feed fat - 4%.
Other additives that can diversify feed for mature broilers include bread crusts and crumbs, boiled potatoes, grated carrots, gravel and sulfur (in small quantities).
The daily dose of feed for broilers aged 1-2 months is 150 grams. When the bird reaches the age of one and a half months (45 days), intensive fattening no longer makes sense, so the calorie diet can be reduced. This is due to the fact that at this stage of life, the intensive weight gain by birds ceases almost completely.
The main thing that should be guided when cooking feed of any type is the maximum compliance with factory proportions. It is not always possible to achieve full compliance, but as far as gaining experience the farmer will approach it.
Many poultry farmers are interested in the question of what is needed for the quick rearing of broiler poultry, which then produces a large yield of meat. You can count on getting quality products only if the young are provided with balanced feeding from the very first day. It is from the hatcher that the main indicators of livestock are laid according to the breed standard. If at this time not to pay the closest attention to the diet, then it does not make sense to wait for good indicators.
In any feed of good quality contains minerals, vitamin and nutritional components in the right quantity, which affect the proper development of the young. What is the starter feed, which is used from the first day of the chicken?
On a note! If none of the manufacturers of feed does not have confidence, you can make food at home.
Starter feed is fed to young stock up to 14 days from the moment of hatching. Despite the fact that each manufacturer has its own recipe of food, the main components remain unchanged:
The main element is crushed corn grain, which is involved in the formation of skeletal bones of chicks, plays an important role in increasing muscle mass and contributes to the good work of the digestive system. Some manufacturers in the starting feed include vitamin and mineral constituents, the most important sets of amino acids and antioxidants, fats of vegetable origin, food soda, fish meal, feed phosphate, limestone.
After 14 days, the young growth is transferred to the growth feed, which serves to gain muscle mass of broilers.
He has significant differences from the start. First of all, it is grinding. Due to the larger granules, the time taken to absorb food increases.
In the second place, it should be noted that the growth growth feed is eaten by grown chickens. It differs from the starting one by the presence of lysine, meat and bone meal, and vegetable oil. Growing broiler feed consists of the following ingredients:
- special components
- vitamin and mineral complexes.
To broilers properly developed, feed them with one feed is not worth it. It is necessary to knead boiled chopped egg, greens, curd products. Then the by-products passed through the meat grinder, onion feathers, dandelion leaves, fish industry waste are introduced. All this is added to the feed mixture.
To calculate how much feed you need for one broiler, you need to know how much food they spend on average per day. Daily consumption of growth feed is a volume equal to 90−120 grams (the amount increases as the young grow). It is important to know that besides feed by livestock, drinkers with clean water, placed indoors, are needed. In the first few days after hatching, chickens can be given a light solution of potassium permanganate to avoid indigestion.
Finishing compound feed
Used at the final stage of fattening broilers, it is he who becomes almost the only food at this time. The biggest food expenses come during this period. The raised livestock is fed so that in a short time, as a result, you can get the maximum amount of meat products, which will allow you to recoup all costs. Finishing compound feed give 28 days before and directly slaughter.
The composition of this feed includes the following components:
- grain wheat - 13%,
- corn grain - 45%,
- meat and bone meal - 17%,
- yeast - 5%,
- cake and meal from sunflower - 17%,
- chalk, granulated grass meal - 3%,
- feed fat - 3%.
Such components provide an intensive weight gain bird. No matter what feeds are used, a big role is given to how they will be distributed. Proper distribution and installation of feeders - important factors that determine how well the broilers gain weight.
Equally important is the frequency of feeding the young. How many times a day should broilers get food in order to finally have enough slaughter weight? The rate of feeding is calculated taking into account age characteristics. Bone formation and intensive weight gain are taking place at the start and start stages. On this basis, the multiplicity should be as follows:
- 1 - 7 days - eight meals a day,
- 7-14 days - six times,
- 14-21 - four times a day,
- From the 28th day to the slaughter - twice a day.
Feeding broiler herds is costly, but they are fully offset by the sale of meat products. The main thing is that the diet is balanced.
Making feed yourself
Feed that comes to the implementation, are quite expensive. In this case, you can cook everything in the household. Such food will be of high quality and composed of natural ingredients.
For cooking, you need a crusher for grain and a tank into which the feed will mix.
Methods and norms of feeding, as well as the main part of the feed
The best feeding methods are two stage and three stage. In the first case, the starting mixture is fed to chicks up to one month from the moment of their appearance. After that, gradually transferred to the final composition for a set of muscle mass. The three-step method consists of a pre-start mixture of feed for broilers, used to strengthen the immune system and active growth. Feed them up to three weeks. The next two steps are the same as for the two-step feeding method.
It is not recommended to fatten broilers for more than three months, since before this time they are already fully growing and gaining the maximum possible weight.
The composition of feed for broilers must contain the following components:
- feed wheat and corn,
- cake or meal,
- bone or fish meal,
- a piece of chalk,
Depending on the growth stage of the chicks, the percentage of each ingredient will vary. The main thing is to correctly calculate the required amount of feed, since underfeeding or overfeeding causes deviations in the health and growth of broilers. From the table below you can find out how much feed you need to feed one chicken, depending on its age.
In the first week after hatching, the chicks need to be fed 8 times a day. In the second week, they feed 6 times, in the third 4 times, from the fourth to slaughter 2 times a day. You can give out in the form of a dry mix or a wet mash, but it is bred in such quantity that the bird can eat everything at once. Due to the long idle time, the mash from the broiler feed is souring, and this can cause intestinal upset. Dilute half a liter of milk, whey or broth per 1 kg of dry mix. The fiber content in any kind of feed should be up to 4%, since it is not completely digested by the broiler gut. Therefore, do not pour a lot of barley, oats or grass meal.
In order to increase the nutritional value of the feed, it is recommended to yeast or germinate the grain. For 2 liters of water use 1 kg of the mixture and 10 grams of yeast. Leave to infuse for 7-9 hours, occasionally stirring at the same time.
Combination Feed Recipes
There are a lot of ways to prepare compound feed for broilers with your own hands, the main thing is that all the ingredients are of high quality and natural. As soon as the chicks hatch, they are fed finely chopped boiled eggs, cottage cheese, millet, small cereals, and also milk-based mixes. The main thing that the food was easily digestible. 3 days after the appearance of chicks, finely chopped grass (dandelion, clover, sow thistle) can be added to the mash.
Feed for them should consist of the following components:
- corn - 50%,
- wheat - 16%,
- cake or meal - 14%,
- kefir - 12%,
- barley - 8%.
Recipe starter mix:
- corn - 48%,
- wheat - 13%,
- sunflower meal or cake - 19%,
- bone meal - 7%,
- fat - 1%,
- grass meal - 3%,
- yeast - 5%.
Corn and oilcake provide broilers with vitamins, grass meal with protein (alfalfa can be used instead), and bone meal or fish meal with protein. In order for the combined mixture to be high-energy, it must have at least 40% of grain crops, and two types.
The recipe for finishing feed for broilers, which can be made with your own hands:
- corn - 45%,
- wheat - 13%,
- sunflower meal or cake - 17%,
- bone meal - 17%,
- fat - 3%,
- grass flour, chalk - 1%,
- yeast - 5%.
When the bird reaches the last stage of fattening, it must be fed with more high-calorie mixtures so that it quickly gains the maximum weight (2-2.5 kg).
Next to the feeders must always be present fresh and clean water at room temperature.
Food for poultry varies not only in composition but also in size. For example, two-day chicks can not eat large granules, they just do not swallow them. In addition, their digestive system does not cope with such a rough feed. Therefore, it is necessary to select a combined mixture for each age of the bird separately.
The table with the size and structure of feed for broilers, made by hand.
The best way of feeding broilers is considered to be a combined one, when the dry mix and the wet mash are alternately given out. Compound feed can be kept in the feeders constantly, and feed the mash 2 times a day.
What feed is best suited for broilers and how much it costs
Feeding mixture is selected depending on age. Prelaunch feed for broiler chickens is labeled PK5-1. They are fed by birds up to 14 days old. Главный его компонент – измельчённая кукуруза, также в составе есть ячмень, горох и фуражная пшеница. Все эти ингредиенты способствуют активному формированию костей скелета, и оказывают положительное влияние на работу кишечника и желудков птенцов.After it, broilers are slowly taught to starter feed with marking PC5-2, as they have a time of intensive growth. As soon as the bird reaches one month of age, they are transferred to constant feeding until slaughter with the finishing compound food PK6-1.
To find out which feed for broilers is best suited, you should carefully study the composition of products. It should contain only natural ingredients. It is also better to purchase feed from large producers with quality certificates. If you buy products of a little-known company, then there is a chance that the bird will not get enough vitamins, as a result, it can get sick.
As a starting feed for broilers with a price of 1,350 rubles per 40 kg, the combination mix BR-1 (Start) for chicks over 14 days of age is well recommended. It uses corn and wheat as a basis, and also contains fish meal, sunflower and soybean meal, salt, chalk, vitamin-mineral premix, amino acids and vegetable oil. For birds with an age from 14 to 30 days, a combination PC-5 mixture is often purchased. It is also based on wheat and maize, but there are also wheat germ, meat and bone meal, and yeast. The price of this feed for broilers starts from 1,100 rubles for 40 kg. As the final feed use BR-3 (Finish) - 1300 rubles, or PC-6 cost 1000 rubles per bag.
For fast growing broilers necessarily need a combined mixture. On the usual pasture, the bird will grow much longer and may not gain its maximum weight before the time of slaughter. Do not feed broilers for more than three months, as it is unprofitable. In addition to the main feeding, medications must be used against the appearance of diseases, as well as disinfection of the pen. It is impossible that access to food was difficult, and there was a crush in the cell. With proper and rational feeding, monthly chickens should weigh from 500 to 700 grams, and two-month-old 2 kg.
If you feed the broiler only feed, then after 40 days they reach a maximum weight of 2.5 kg, and they can be sent for slaughter. It is noticed that the pellets are better absorbed by the bird, so if you plan to breed a large number of birds, it is recommended to purchase a granulator apparatus.
1 How to feed broilers
You can feed broiler chickens with feedstuffs, as well as use your feed (grain with mineral additives). Special feeds are divided into three groups:
- Start. Food that is fed to chickens from the first days of life. Contains a large amount of protein. It has a smaller fraction and the chicken does not gag.
- Growth. Specialized growth lure. It contributes to the maximum accumulation of muscle tissue (meat) in chickens.
- The finish. They are fed already grown broilers. Unlike Start and Growth, it contains a minimum of protein, but it contains many vitamins and minerals.
When you get chickens, then focus your attention on their proper nutrition. From nutrition will depend on the health of chickens, their size and life. Broiler is a tender and susceptible bird to any changes in the feed and its quality.
Starter feed for broiler chickens
Balance - the main principle of fattening birds. Follow the recommendations and you will grow chickens successfully:
- chicken age 1-7 days - feeding 8 times,
- 7-14 days - 6 times
- 14-21 days - 4 times
- from 1 month - 2 times (in the morning and in the evening).
In order for the chicks to be healthy and grow quickly, experts recommend giving different feed additives to the main ration of broilers:
- Starting the third day of life, enter the greens. It is useful for poultry - it helps in digestion and improves the quality of meat. Greens should be about 20% of the rest of the food.
- After the first week of life, the chicks begin to give grass meal. Portion for one chicken 2-3 grams, from the third week increase the rate to 5 grams.
- At ten days of age, the broiler begins to give fish waste. This must be done! Fish tripe is a valuable source of protein.
- From three weeks, if you want to diversify the menu of broilers, enter boiled potatoes into their diet.
With proper feeding, chickens in 2 months already weigh 3 kilograms.
How much feed for broilers need. Daily rate.
Compound feed for broilers
Compound feed for broilers It is a dry balanced mixture, which consists of a different type of grain, as well as products containing a large amount of protein, protein, amino acids, various fats, minerals and vitamins. Depending on the growth stage of the birds, the combined feed for broilers is selected individually, so that the feathered animals grow healthy and quickly gain muscle mass.
This type of food can be purchased in specialized stores in poultry farms, or do it yourself. It is better to cook this nutritious food for poultry, of course, on your own, then you can precisely decide which ingredients to mix to get the optimal product for all indicators and not doubt its origin and quality.
Combined feed and its features
Broiler chickens grow very fast and by purchasing them, farmers rely on what they need grow in 3 months. This period is quite enough for the bird to grow and gain weight. The broilers are not kept longer than this time.
In order for chickens to quickly gain the necessary body weight, you need to use special feed, which will include a large amount of protein and protein, vitamins and minerals. It must be very nutritious and have a positive effect on the health of the bird.
Compound feed, which is produced now and sold in stores, is quite expensive, also, it is impossible to control its quality and the presence in it of all the nutrients. If an unfortunate composition of the nutritional mixture suddenly falls, then the health of your pets will be undermined and you will not have to rely on high-quality meat.
Therefore, many owners of domestic birds prefer to cook such food at home with their own hands. The process of preparation of feed does not pose any difficulty. The main thing is to remember that its basis is wheat and corn, which allow the bird to gain the optimum weight.
Composition of feed for broilers
Food for broilers that are made for sale is divided into two types:
- Starter intended for chicks (up to two weeks).
- Finishing, which is designed to prepare the birds for slaughter, they are fed two to three weeks before.
Each type of nutrient mixture has a different composition, but there are a number of specific products that are contained in all broiler feed. These ingredients are:
- Wheat and corn.
- Oats and barley.
- Fish meal and meat and bone.
- Salt, fat, calcium.
Classification of feed
A lot of attention should be paid first starter feedswhich are necessary for the full cultivation of broilers. They are different, but it is worth bearing in mind that the food intended for very small chickens will have a small structure, and for older birds its particles will be larger.
Since the birth of chickens until the age of three months, the following feed has been used:
Feed PC 6 is designed for feeding chickens from birth to two weeks. The composition of the nutrient mixture contains small corn, which has a positive effect on muscle development, as well as wheat, barley and useful vitamins. Despite the fact that in the feed there are all nutrients that are valuable for nutrition, babies need to be offered the necessary additives for their age: cottage cheese, egg, fresh grass.
When the birds reach the age of two weeks, they can begin to give PC 6-2 feed. The composition of this feed is larger, and the nutrients contained therein affect the growth of broilers. You can feed grown-up chickens by adding bone meal and fish meal to PC 6-2.
Feed PC 6-3 or "finish" used for feeding birds from 30 days to slaughter. This type of dry food can be combined with cereals. It is beneficial, economical and fully affects the growth and development of broilers.
How to feed the birds combined feed
As the birds mature, not only the composition of the nutrient mixture will change, but also the norms of its use by them. Of course, the older the chickens become, the more food is required, but one should not forget that it is impossible to overfeed the bird in any case, it is dangerous for their health.
When feeding broiler chickens you need to adhere to a certain scheme:
- Age of birds 1-2 weeks - the rate of feed 10-25 years.
- 3-4 weeks - 50-120 years.
- 1 month - slaughter - 150 g.
Compound feed for broilers can be given in crumbly form, but most beneficial in the form of mixtures. In the instructions for use of feed, manufacturers advise the birds to offer dry food, which can be poured into the trough and fill it with water. Birds pets will eat it with pleasure.
As an additional feeding, you need to use sprouted grains, with it you can make the procedure of yeast, which will make food even more nutritious and tasty for birds. Yeast grains can be done at home, with their own hands, it does not pose any difficulty.
To do this, take a basin with warm water and pour in the yeast - 10 grams per 10 liters of water. Then add 1 kg of mixed fodder there and leave the whole mixture for 8-9 hours, not forgetting to stir periodically. After the allotted time, you can give yeast food to your pets.
Feed recipe for birds 2-4 weeks of age
This composition of feed for broilers will be slightly different from the previous one, since Designed for older birds:
- 48% corn,
- 13% wheat
- 20% meal or cake,
- 5% feed yeast,
- 8% meat or bone meal or fish,
- 3% dry reverse and grass,
- 1% fat feed.
Broiler food recipe 4-12 weeks
This food can be prepared with your own hands, when broilers are 4 weeks old, it consists of the following ingredients:
- 45% corn,
- 8% barley,
- 17% oil cake and fish or meat and bone meal,
- 13% wheat
- 3% feed fat,
- 5% yeast,
- 1% grass.
Very important arrange the feeders so that the birds are not crowded and it is convenient to eat from them. It is necessary to fill the dishes for feeding not completely, but about half, so that later you can fill the feed. It is imperative to maintain cleanliness and order near the place of feeding, because unsanitary conditions can adversely affect the work of your pets' digestive tract.
To improve digestion in chickens up to 6 weeks, they can be watered with a 0.1% solution of potassium permanganate. It should be given in the morning, and after that it is necessary to rinse the dishes well.
Weakened chickens usually they are deposited in separate cells and watered with a special mixture of egg yolk and half a glass of warm milk. This drinking mixture gives strength to the chicks.
Make feed for broilers with their own hands at home can anyone, even a novice farmer. Its main advantage is a complete composition and savings on feeding. Of course, it is much easier to purchase ready-made feeds, but many poultry farmers prefer to grow broilers on household feeds and products of natural origin.