Desert snake efa: description, habitat and danger to humans


Sand efy - very small snakes, whose body length rarely exceeds 1 meter. On average, epha grow to 70 centimeters in length. Males are usually larger than females. Sand efy have a very bright yellow or golden color. Along the whole body there are lighter spots. On the sides of the body there is a zigzag pattern. On the top of the head there are dark spots that form a pattern in the form of a cross.


Sandy efa is a very mobile snake. Almost all her life she spends in motion, without stopping it, even during the digestion of food. Only in early spring can ephas lie for a long time in the sun, especially after eating. With the onset of winter, many snakes hibernate, with the exception of the sandy ef. If the ambient temperature does not drop much, then the snake continues to lead an active lifestyle, even mating of the epha takes place in January. Young snakes (ef - viviparous snake) appear in March. Sandy ephas feed mainly on insects and small mammals. The basis of their diet is grasshoppers, centipedes, beetles, mice, chicks.

The sand effect is widespread in Africa and practically throughout the Asian part of Eurasia. A lot of efs live on the territory of Hindustan. Efes prefer to settle in sandy areas (for which they got their name), where there are bushes or tall grasses. Ephas are not uncommon on clay and stony surfaces.

The bite of the sandy efah is incredibly dangerous mortality of people from the bite - about 20%. The lethal dose of poison is about 5 mg. This is not the most poisonous snake in the world; nevertheless, according to statistics, every seventh person on Earth who died from a snake bite was bitten by a sandy ephah. This snake is absolutely not afraid of people and often crawls into houses, outbuildings and cellars in search of food. There are cases when the fits settled in residential buildings, right under the floor. Very dangerous efy ​​during mating.

Snake EFA: Description

Efa (lat. Echis carinatus) is a sand snake of the Scale detachment, of the Viper family. This species prefers to live in arid climate. In particular, a large number of these snakes inhabit the expanses of African wastelands and deserts. Also, some of its subspecies can be found in the southern regions of Asia and in Indonesia.

As for the near territories, the snake efa can meet on the territory of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. And although their population here is not as large as in Indonesia, they still represent a significant threat to people who dare to enter the desert lands of these lands.


For many years, the snake Epha has adapted well to life in the desert. This is seen not only in her habits, but also in appearance. So, on the body of a reptile light colors prevail, most often of a golden hue. From the tail to the head, there is a dark zigzag pattern that stands out strongly against the background of multi-colored spots located chaotically on the back of a snake.

In addition, the EFA is a snake with many ribbed scales. They help reptiles regulate body temperature, which is essential for life in arid climates. The scales themselves are ribbed and are best seen on the back and sides of the predator.

But the size of the nature of the snake cheated. Thus, even the largest individuals rarely exceed the threshold of 80 cm, and the average representative of this species only grows to 50 cm. But such proportions are fully justified if we take into account the fact that efe has to exist in conditions with limited resources.


Let's start with the fact that the EFA is a very active snake. It seldom lingers in one place, and therefore it can be met both on the open planes of the desert, and among dense thickets of the steppe. In addition, some members of this species feel quite comfortable on rocky terrain. The benefit of their small size allows them to easily slip into even the narrowest holes and crevices.

However, the snakes themselves prefer to live among dense thickets and shrubs. First, it allows the efe to hide its presence from prying eyes. And secondly, in such areas much more food, which is very tempting. For the rest, the predator quickly adapts to any conditions of life.

Potential victims

Like most of her relatives, the snake efa is a born hunter. The basis of its diet are insects, as they are easy to catch. In addition, larger prey can be a real problem for the reptile, because it simply does not fit into her mouth. But this does not mean that the snake will not be able to kill her - the poison of the efah is enough to knock an adult horse down.

In addition, the predator loves to hunt small rodents. For them, they are an important source of energy, because, unlike insects, they are warm-blooded. If the food becomes very tight, the efa begins to lash out at anything that can be swallowed.

Behavior features

The snake efa is active both day and night. This is extremely unusual for reptiles who prefer to divide the day into periods of hunting and recreation. However, our predator does not stop its cycle of travels even after it eats tightly. The maximum that she will do is to slow down her “step”, and that only slightly.

Also this species of reptile does not hibernate. True, in those regions where they live, coolness rarely drops to the point that can affect snake metabolism. Nevertheless, with a strong drop in temperature, the eff still calms down a bit: it stops traveling and settles in the hole or crevice found.


The snake efa is remarkable in that it brings forth live offspring. Recall that most reptiles are accustomed to lay eggs, and similar metamorphosis for them is a rarity. But this type of predator decided to stand out from the rest of the fellows.

Snake marriage games begin in late January - early March. The gestation period is a little more than a month, and therefore already in early spring the female gives birth to young offspring. At the same time, it is capable of giving life to 16 serpents, who are immediately ready to feed on their own.

Danger to humans

As mentioned earlier, sand efah is a very poisonous snake. If time does not provide medical care, then its bite will be fatal for a person. In this case, the victim herself will experience terrible pain, because the toxins released into the body, immediately begin to eat away in his blood cells.

Worst of all, EFF is not afraid of people. She can safely approach their dwellings and even crawl into them. For example, there is plenty of evidence that a snake built its lair under the floor or in a closet. Therefore, if a person is in the territory where these snakes live, he must always be alert.

Features lifestyle efy

Snakes of this species are in constant movement all their lives. Whatever the activity, she remains mobile. Even after she “had lunch,” and food is digested inside her, she continues to move. Such active life in many snakes ceases when the period of hibernation in reptiles begins, but this does not apply to the sandy efe. Then, when the rest of the representatives of the “snake kingdom” are already immobile and hibernating, the efa continues active activity. If the winter is not cold, then its advance will not affect the activity of the snake.

Sand effect

It is noteworthy that sand efa refers to the species of viviparous snakes, that is, its young are born in the form of small snakes. Mating of individuals of this species occurs, often in January, and young snakes are born in March. Usually one female gives birth to 3 to 16 cubs.

Snakes belonging to this species, feed, as a rule, insects, as well as, small mammals. They love grasshoppers, various beetles, centipedes, small lizards, scorpions and even chicks. And from mammals they prefer to eat mice.

Where dwells sand ef?

These snakes are called Sandy, because they live, most often in deserts. Therefore, snakes of this species are common in Africa, and, moreover, in the deserts located on the territory of the mainland Eurasia (in its Asian part). On the territory of the Indian subcontinent, scientists have discovered a record cluster of sand effects.

Most of the ephas prefer thickets of shrubs or high grass, but can also live on stony surfaces, as well as clay areas.

Efa dwells in the deserts and the half of the grains

How sandy is dangerous?

It has been proven that with its bite, efa can kill a person. Just 1 milligram of venom sandy enough to kill dozens of people. Scientists have conducted research and made a sensational statement that every seventh person on our planet, who died from the bite of a poisonous snake, was the victim of the sandy efa.

Despite its small size, this snake is very cunning. She can easily become an “uninvited guest” in a house, shed, cellar. On a visit to the person she comes for food. There have been cases when people found the nests of these deadly poisonous snakes right under their floor. Particularly dangerous are sandy ephas during the period of breeding of pups and during the mating season.

Do you want to know what place sand ef takes in the top of the most poisonous snakes? Then you here!

Who does the snake hunt

Like most species of the viper family, the sandy ef is, in fact, a born hunter, deftly mining the prey needed for feeding. The main ration of this reptile is the insects that are easiest to catch. Larger in size animal dwellers are not so attractive for efa as prey, mostly due to the too modest size of a snake. However, it does not mean that the efa is not capable of killing them - the poison of this creeping predator can almost instantly kill an adult horse. Therefore, if an efah hunts animals, then in this case various small rodents become its prey.