Reptiles, also known as reptiles, are a class of animals, usually terrestrial and vertebrate. It includes creatures such as turtles, crocodiles, lizards, snakes. Several centuries ago they were united with amphibians, and now they are considered close to birds. Many reptiles are so unique that the study of this class will be interesting even for a non-professional biologist. What are reptiles animals? Photos and titles, as well as some information about each, placed in our article, will help to figure it out.
Perhaps these reptiles with a shell - the most famous animals, reptiles. Examples include both terrestrial and marine species, they are found in many countries of the world, in addition, they are often kept at home even by those who are not a big fan of the exotic. Turtles appeared two hundred million years ago, it is believed that they are descended from primitive catylosaurs. For a long time, people liked them - they are practically not dangerous animals that cause associations only with wisdom and tranquility. Turtles are the only ones with a shell. Inside it is bony, and outside it is formed by horny tissue from a multitude of individual elements connected by plates. Tortoises breathe with the lungs, and aquatic turtles with the help of the pharyngeal mucosa. In addition, these animals are unique in that they live longer than any other reptile. The names of the oldest turtles include species such as the Caroline box, one of the reptiles caught was 130 years old. However, more impressive figures are possible in the wild, just these individuals did not fall into the hands of researchers.
Perhaps many people, if they are offered to remember the names of reptiles, will not least say about these lizards. Unusual reptiles live on the branches of trees and are known for their unique disguises. Their skin can change color according to the environment. It is not surprising that chameleons are often kept at home. But it should be borne in mind that this is quite demanding reptiles. Photos and names - not everything that needs to be studied before buying an exotic pet. First you need to deal with the conditions of detention - the chameleon needs a spacious terrarium with heated floors and special lamps, a small pond and a tree, with excellent ventilation, and you will have to buy insects as feed.
Listing the names of reptiles, which often become domesticated, not to mention the iguanas. He has become very popular in recent years, and the number of such pets can be measured in tens of thousands. But one should not believe the information that keeping such a lizard is as easy as a cat or a dog. An iguana is a fastidious creature whose existence requires a lot of attention and money. For the lizard, a special terrarium with a special temperature regime is necessary, as well as feed from fresh vegetables, fruits and greens. If you comply with all the conditions, the iguana can grow up to five kilograms! A unique feature of these creatures is molting - for many reptiles, it happens quickly, and sometimes takes weeks.
These animals are perhaps the most dangerous and frightening reptiles. Names can be different - crocodiles, gavials, alligators, caimans, but in any case they are creatures from the same order. They are descended from reptiles that are more than fifteen meters in length and are known for a long time. Paleontologists have discovered traces of ancient crocodiles in Europe, North America, India and Africa. Now their size is much more modest, but they still remain the largest of the reptiles. Crocodiles spend most of their lives in the water, exposing only the eyes, nose and ears. The tail and paws with membranes make swimming an easy task, but only the ridge species can swim far into the sea. On land, they build nests, and sometimes they simply choose to warm themselves. The names of the reptiles of this order are different, but the alligator and the crocodile are one thing in common - they are dangerous to humans. The reptile has an incredible speed and a strong tail, so a sudden throw can cost the careless traveler of limbs or even life.
This is another reptile whose names are known to all. They differ from other reptiles in their long body shape, lack of paired limbs, eyelids, and external auditory canal. Separate similar signs can be found in lizards, but all together - only in snakes. Now man knows three thousand species. The body of the snake consists of three parts - the head, torso and tail. In some species, the hind limbs are preserved in a rudimentary form. Many of them are poisonous, with canal-like or striated teeth, which contain dangerous fluid coming from the salivary glands. All internal organs are elongated, and the bladder is absent. The eyes are covered with a transparent cornea, formed from accrete eyelids. In day-living snakes, the pupil is located transversely, and in night-time snakes, vertically. Because of the reduced ear, only loud sounds are distinguished.
The names of reptiles can be very different, though they belong to the same order. For example, snakes are snakes, although some believe that this is a separate species. In fact, these reptiles simply are not poisonous. However, these are snakes. They are distinguished by expressive scales with large ribs. Most snakes live by water and eat fish or amphibians. Less often, they manage to catch a small mammal or bird. Already swallows prey alive without killing it. With the danger of a reptile, they pretend to be dead, and during an attack they release a liquid with an unpleasant odor. For reproduction, they are looking for a bunch of vegetable garbage, dung or wet moss.
These are very famous reptiles, whose names are most often associated with the Komodo variety. In fact, there are seventy species of them, and they dwell not only on certain islands. However, they all differ in impressive size - only the short-tails reach up to twenty centimeters, and all others can grow up to a meter. But, of course, the Komodo are the biggest, with a weight of one and a half centners and a length of three meters. That is why they were called dragons. The lizards have tenacious and strong paws, a muscular long tail and large scales. A long tongue with a split at the end of the lizard smell. The coloration is most often inexpressive, in gray, sandy and brown tones, although the young may be striped or spotty. Varanas live in the warm countries of South or Central Asia, Africa and Australia. According to their habitat they can be divided into two groups. The first prefers desert terrain and dry shrubs, and the second keeps closer to the water in the tropical forest. Some lizards like to spend time in the trees.
These are reptiles, the names of which are associated with the unique ability to stick to even the smoothest surfaces. A small gecko can climb a vertical glass wall or even hang on the ceiling. In order to maintain its weight, the lizard can hold one foot. Such a feature has surprised people for several millennia - the skill of geckos has been trying to be solved by Aristotle.
Modern science knows the answer - there are small combs on the fingers of a reptile with thin bristles that help it to remain on the surface due to the law of interaction between molecules.
The Nile crocodile is a merciless killer. Description and photos of the Nile crocodile
The Nile crocodile is a member of the Reptiles or Reptiles class. This animal is one of the most ancient, unique and dangerous on the planet. The predator is rightfully called the “king of the river”, since its equal in strength and adaptability is practically non-existent. In this article you will find a description and photo of the Nile crocodile, you can learn a lot of new things about this strong and greatest predator.
Snake black mamba - dangerous snake of Africa. Description and photos of the black mamba
Who is the black mamba? Surely everyone heard this exotic name. The black mamba is the most poisonous snake in Africa from the Aspid family. Also, the black mamba snake is one of the most dangerous animals in Africa and in the world. In this article you will find a description and photo of a black mamba, as well as be able to learn a lot of new and interesting things about this poisonous and dangerous snake.
Characteristics of reptiles
Reptiles - these are vertebrates that move mainly by crawling, dragging their belly along the ground. Another name for these animals is reptiles. Now there are only four squad:
- Scaly (lizards, snakes),
- Beakhead, who have only one representative of the patter.
Scientists count about 8 thousand species of reptiles. These animals have spread to almost all continents, with the exception of Antarctica. Most reptiles will have a terrestrial lifestyle, but there are exceptions.
Reptiles in the animal kingdom stand between amphibians and birds.. Their skin is dry, the outside is covered with scales, shields, maybe a shell. The skin glands are usually absent. Reptiles breathe light. All animals are cold-blooded, they are dependent on the ambient temperature. Moves crawling, have a spine. Well-formed skeleton and muscles provide excellent mobility.
Most reptiles breed by laying eggs on land, even if they live in water. Eggs are covered with a leathery or lime shell. It protects them well from drying out. Reptiles can make sounds in the form of hissing or wheezing.
Most reptiles are predators or insectivores, but there are also herbivores and those that can eat absolutely everything.
Reptiles strike with a variety of body shapes, colors and wonderful adaptations that have been developed over a long history of development.
Scaly Reptiles - the most diverse and numerous group, there are about 6 thousand species. These include lizards and snakes. Lizards - closest relatives of snakes. They have an elongated body, compressed from the sides.
Fig. 1. External structure of a lizard (Source)
It consists of the head, body, paired limbs with claws and a long tail. In case of danger, some lizards may drop their tail. The skin of the lizard is covered with scales, plates, combs. Their head moves well, eyes have mobile eyelids. Lizards respond well to moving prey, they hear well. Lizards have small teeth, mouth tongue. This language has a split, because it is perfectly adapted to the hunt. It is also the organ of smell, touch and taste. Food from lizards varied.
Yellowtopus and brittle spindle have no legs and look like snakes (Fig. 2, 3).
Fig. 3. Breaking spindle (Source)
Sand lizard, green and viviparous lizards (Fig. 4-6) are the most common.
Fig. 4. Sand lizard (Source)
Fig. 5. Green Lizard (Source)
Fig. 6. Viviparous lizard (Source)
The marine iguana has mastered the water element, where it feeds.
Fig. 7. Marine iguana (Source)
Basilisks have a very awesome view; they run on water as if on land.
The most bizarre lizards, the flying dragon, belong to the Agam family.
Fig. 9. Flying Dragon (Source)
Moloch impresses with its large and sharp thorns.
There are poisonous lizards of the gila.
Giant monitors live on Komodo Island.
Fig. 12. Giant monitor (Source)
Chameleons can change soy color and body pattern.
A gecko can walk upside down.
In nature, there is even a blue-tongued skink.
Fig. 15. Blue-tongue skink (Source)
Snakes are also scaly reptiles. They have a long cylindrical body with a tail. The head is usually facial or triangular. Snakes have no legs, their bodies are covered with scales. Snakes move very well, crawling quickly enough. The eyes of the snakes are covered with a transparent film, they do not see well and do not hear very well. Snakes have the same language as lizards. They have teeth. Some snakes are poisonous. Snakes are predatory animals. They also shed their skin and their body color is patronizing. Among the snakes there are those who strangle the victim, wrapped around the rings. It is a boa and a python.
There are miniature blindmoses. They can even live in a flower pot.
Fig. 16. SleepMake (Source)
Rattlesnake is known for its rattle at the end of the tail. This is a kind of warning about the appearance of this snake.
Fig. 17. Rattlesnake (Source)
Even two-headed snakes are found in nature.
Fig. 18. Two-headed snake (Source)
There are completely harmless snakes - it is snakes. In case of danger may themselves become dead.
But the common viper is a viviparous snake.
Taipan and tiger snake are very dangerous and poisonous snakes.
Fig. 22. Tiger Serpent (Source)
Cobra has a warning before an attack - a bloated hood.
There are arboreal flying snakes. Being on a tree, if necessary, they jump straight down in search of prey.
There is another kind of reptile - this turtles. They number about 200 species. The body of turtles is usually hidden under a powerful shell, their limbs and neck are horny, the shape of the head is pointed, the turtles do not have teeth. Turtles have color vision. In case of danger, the turtle hides all the protruding parts of the body under the shell. Turtles can be herbivorous and zoophagous. In nature, land, sea and freshwater turtles are found. By sea is the largest leatherback turtle.
Fig. 24. Leatherback Turtle (Source)
The man eats green turtle meat.
Fig. 25. Green Turtle (Source)
In sea turtles, the limbs are flat; they do not pull them into the shell. These reptiles are great swimmers.
Tortoises less mobile. Among them are long-lived. The sizes are very different. Very large ivory, and small - spider turtle.
Fig. 26. Ivory Turtle (Source)
Fig. 27. Spider Turtle (Source)
The Central Asian turtle hisses like a snake.
Fig. 28. Central Asian tortoise (Source)
There are freshwater turtles - a fringed turtle mata-mata. Its appearance is very unusual.
Fig. 29. Turtle Mata-mata (Source)
Chinese trionyx refers to soft turtles.
Fig. 30. Chinese Trionix (Source)
Very biting and aggressive cayman turtles.
Fig. 31. Cayman Turtle (Source)
There are another representatives of reptiles - this crocodiles. They comprise about 20 species in nature. Crocodiles are semi-aquatic animals, their skin is covered with shields and plates. They have an elongated, long body. Muscular tail and limbs with membranes provide excellent swimming in water. Crocodiles see and hear well. They have powerful jaws with sharp teeth. Crocodiles swallow their food entirely, without chewing. The largest crocodile is considered the largest, it can even attack a person. Its weight reaches over one ton.
Fig. 32. Saltwater crocodile (Source)
Large Nile crocodiles can lie for hours and wait for prey at the watering place.
Fig. 33. Nile crocodile (Source)
The Mississippi alligator hibernates during the cold season.
Fig. 34. Mississippi Alligator (Source)
The Chinese alligator is a symbol of power in its homeland, because it looks like a dragon. In China, a meeting with a crocodile is considered to be lucky.
Caimans are sanitation reservoirs.
Very unusual appearance in Ghanaian gaviala. It has surprisingly narrow and long jaws, which look like big tweezers. They help to catch the most nimble fish.
Fig. 35. Ghanaian Gavial (Source)
In nature, there is another squad of reptiles - this Beakhead. The most interesting thing is that it consists of only one representative, the gatter, which is found only in New Zealand. Tuatara has a peculiar body shape. In appearance, the guitar is more like a lizard, its head has a tetrahedral shape, the head and the whole body are covered with scales of different shapes. On the neck, back, tail stretches the comb of thorns. In addition to the teeth, the tongue has incisors, like those of rodents. The shape of the mouth is also unusual, similar to a beak. The most interesting thing is that this reptile has three eyes. The third eye is on the head and covered with thin skin. The Tatters are the most cold-loving of all reptiles.
The most interesting representatives of reptiles
In the lesson we have seen that reptiles are amazing and interesting animals that rightfully occupy an important place in nature.. Consider the most interesting representatives of reptiles.
The largest snake is the Anaconda water boa, 11 m 43 cm.
The largest lizard is a monitor lizard from Komodo Island, up to 3 m long, weighing up to 140 kg.
The largest crocodile is comby, up to 9 m in length, and its mass is approximately 1 ton.
The biggest turtle in the sea is leathery, about 3 m, and its mass is 960 kg.
On land, the largest tortoise is an ivory, 2 m long, weighing up to 600 kg.
The most venomous snakes are taipan, black mamba, tiger snake, rattlesnake, sea snake.
The number of species of reptiles decreases, in which people are to blame. Very often, a man destroys and destroys these animals because of his fear. Необходимо помнить, что, как все живое, пресмыкающихся нужно оберегать и охранять.
На следующем уроке будет рассмотрена тема «Древние рептилии и амфибии. Динозавры». На нем мы отправимся в далекое путешествие на много миллионов лет назад и познакомимся с древними рептилиями и амфибиями, особенностями их строения и среды обитания. Также узнаем о животных, вымерших много веков назад, – динозаврах.
- Самкова В.А., Романова Н.И. Окружающий мир 1. – М.: Русское слово.
- Плешаков А.А., Новицкая М.Ю. Окружающий мир 1. – М.: Просвещение.
- Гин А.А., Фаер С.А., Андржеевская И.Ю. Окружающий мир 1. – М.: ВИТА-ПРЕСС.
Дополнительные рекомендованные ссылки на ресурсы сети Интернет
- Mirzhivotnih.ru (Источник).
- Filin.vn.ua (Source).
- Festival of pedagogical ideas "Open lesson" (Source).
- Who are the creeps?
- What features do reptiles have?
- Name the four groups of reptiles and describe each of them.
- * Draw a picture on the theme: "Reptiles in our world."
If you find a mistake or a broken link, please let us know - make your contribution to the development of the project.
Reproduction of reptiles
In terrestrial reptiles, fertilization is internal. In the process of mating, the male introduces spermatozoa into the cloaca of the female, then they penetrate into the egg cells, where their fertilization takes place. Eggs develop in the female's body, and then she lays them on land, burying them in the pits.
Egg outside is covered with a special dense shell. It contains the necessary supply of nutrients, through which the development of the embryo occurs. Over time, the eggs do not appear larvae, like amphibians, and individuals that are capable of independent living.
Turtle laying eggs
This group includes a real "living fossil" called hattery (lat. Sphenodon punctatus), which is the only species preserved not far from the coast of New Zealand, on small islands. This animal resembles a lizard very immobile and predominantly nocturnal. The structure of the tuberculosis has features that make reptiles similar to amphibians: the bodies of its vertebrae are biconcave and there is a chord between them.
Scaly (lat. Squamata) are also one of the orders of the chord type reptile class. This group included sub-detachments: lizards, chameleons, snakes, and amphimben (dvohodki). The detachment received this name, because the bodies of all its representatives are covered with special horny scales or scutes.
The typical representative of chilled is sand lizard. Its external structure indicates that it is a terrestrial animal. There are no swimming membranes on her five-fingered limbs, and her fingers are armed with short claws, thanks to which her body crawls along the surface of the earth, touching it, i.e. groveling (hence the name).
Aquatic vertebrate crocodiles (lat. Crocodilia) - are the largest and most highly organized predatory reptiles, adapted to the aquatic lifestyle. These reptiles live in the tropics. All crocodiles are semi-aquatic predators that feed on aquatic, near-water and coming to the watering animals.
The tortoise unit includes about 328 modern species belonging to 14 families and two sub-orders. They are widely distributed both in tropical and temperate climatic zones, both in water and on land.
Turtles (lat.Testudines) differ from others in durable, well-developed shell, formed from bone plates, which are covered with horn substance from the outside. It consists of two parts: the upper convex shield and the lower flat shield. Turtle shell is the main defense against enemies.
Turtles grow very slowly and are considered long-livers, as some species can live to 150 years. Among them are the real giants, for example, such as the marsh turtle, having a length of up to 2 meters and a weight of up to 400 kg., Or a soup turtle, having a length of up to 1 meter and a weight of up to 450 kg.
And in more detail, about interesting representatives of the class of reptiles, you can meet on the pages of the heading "Reptiles"
Spotted Leopard Eublephar
Spotted leopard eublephar (lat. Eublepharis macularius) - lizard class Reptiles, squad Scaly, family Eublefarovye, genus Eublephar. Previously, he belonged to the family of Geckos (Latin Gekkonidae), therefore, it is often called the spotted and leopard gecko.
Author: admin · Published 03/30/2018 · Last modified 11/29/2018
Cobra is a common name for various species of venomous snakes from the Aspid family (lat. Elapidae), not united by a common taxonomic unit. Most of these reptiles belong to the genus Real Cobras (lat. Naja).
Author: admin · Published 09/05/2017 · Last modified 11/08/2018
Python is a non-venomous snake, which belongs to the class of reptiles, scaly squad, sub-order snakes, the python family (Latin Pythonidae). The article describes this family. The word "python" came to the Russian language from Greek mythology.
Author: admin · Published 05/24/2017 · Last modified 10/18/2018
Already - this is a snake, which belongs to the class of reptiles, squad scaly, suborder snakes, the family already-shaped (lat. Colubridae). The Russian name "too", probably, comes from the Old Slavic "already" - "rope".
Author: admin · Published 02/17/2017 · Last modified 11/29/2018
A boa is a non-venomous snake, which belongs to the class of reptiles, scaly squad, and sub-order snakes. The Russian word "boa" arose because of the peculiarity of these reptiles squeezing the captured victim before swallowing.
Author: admin · Published 1/8/2017 · Last modified 11/01/2017
Komodsky monitor lizard
The Komodo lizard (giant Indonesian lizard, Komodos monitor lizard) (Latin Varanus komodoensis) is the largest lizard in the world. The predatory reptile belongs to the order of the scaly, the superfamily of the species, the family of monitor lizards, the genus of monitor lizards.
Author: admin · Published 12/20/2016 · Last modified 11/29/2018
The Nile crocodile (lat. Crocodylus niloticus) is a large reptile of the order of crocodiles, the family of crocodiles, a genus of real crocodiles.
Author: admin · Published 10/19/2016 · Last modified 11/13/2018
A chameleon is a lizard that can change the color of the body. It belongs to the class of reptiles, scaly squad, the family of chameleons (lat. Chamaeleonidae).
Author: admin · Published 10/09/2016 · Last modified 09/12/2017
Anaconda (water boa) is a large non-venomous snake, belongs to the class of reptiles, order scaly, suborder snakes, infraorder lower snakes, false legged family, subfamily constrictor, kind of anaconda (Latin Eunectes).
Author: admin · Published 08/26/2016 · Last modified Apr 28, 2018
The Viper is a poisonous snake, which belongs to the animal kingdom, chord type, reptile, scaly squad, viper or viper family (lat. Viperidae).