Elephants have always caused, and will cause a heightened interest in people. Their enormous size, power and strength inspire fear and respect. Elephants occupy the second position in the ranking of the largest mammals in the world. Let me remind you that the first place deservedly got a blue whale.
African savanna elephant (lat. Loxodonta africana) (eng. African elephant)
In turn, the largest elephant-like elephant is the African savanna elephant, whose body length reaches 6-7.5 meters, and the height at the shoulders is 2.5-3.5 meters.
In the world there are only 3 species of elephants, 2 of which belong to the genus African elephants (this is savanna and forest elephants), and 1 - to Asian (Indian elephant). The habitat of African elephants is quite extensive - this is the entire territory located south of the Sahara desert. But he has some fragmentation caused by a strong reduction in the number of these animals since the XIX century. For example, now savannah elephants can no longer be found in the Gambia, Burundi and Mauritania. For the most part, they are found only in national parks and reserves, where they are safe.
Habitat of the African savanna elephant
They are found in any territories, regardless of the landscape. The main thing is that there was enough food, water and shade to save these animals from overheating.
African elephants are larger than Indian ones. The average weight of males is 5 tons, females - 2.5-3 tons, but among them there are real giants up to 4 meters high and weighing 12 tons. One such elephant was even listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest land mammal. Its weight was 12.24 tons.
But not only the overall dimensions are the hallmark of these 2 types. Another important parameter is the size and shape of the ears. African elephants are almost 1.5–2 times larger than Indian ones. Such huge ears perform the functions of a kind of thermostat. The large surface area and a large number of capillaries allows the elephant to get rid of overheating. Wavering ears in hot time create airflows that significantly accelerate the process of heat transfer.
Only elephants can boast such an amazing organ as the trunk, which was formed as a result of fusion of the nose and upper lip. In African elephants, its length is about 1.5 meters, and it weighs about 135 kg. The trunk consists of more than 40 thousand muscles and does not contain a single bone, which is why it is so flexible and strong enough. Its main purpose is to procure food. With its help, elephants can grope and pick up quite small objects. This helps him 2 process at the end of the trunk.
On the tip of the choir are visible 2 small process
In addition, the trunk has many other functions: the role of the pump while drinking water or bathing, at the end of the trunk are the organs of smell, it serves as a means for communication and warning of danger. In addition, the elephants are very fond of touching each other, for which they stroke their relatives with a trunk on the sides.
Another decoration, and at the same time a formidable weapon of elephants are tusks. In males of the African elephant, they grow to 2.5 meters and weigh about 60 kg. Tusks grow throughout the life of the animal, so it is possible to determine its age. With their help, elephants can easily defend themselves from any African predator.
The tusks are incisors of the upper jaw. In addition to these "teeth", elephants also have molars. There are a few of them, 4-6 pieces, but the sizes are serious. Each of them can reach 30 centimeters in length and weigh about 3.7 kg. For all his life, the molars have only 3 times changed from the elephants: the milky ones are permanent and already at a mature age. But the teeth tend to wear off (to 65-70 years). After that, the elephant dies of exhaustion, since it is no longer able to grind food with them.
Elephants can be called thick-skinned, in the literal sense of the word. The thickness of their skin reaches 2-4 cm. Despite this, it is quite sensitive to various injuries. Therefore, elephants in the quality of skin care take water, mud and dust baths, relieving the animal from annoying insects.
Elephants move almost silently. This is made possible by a special springy mass in the sole, located under the skin.
Even elephants do not see well, but this deficiency is compensated by excellent hearing and smell. During communication, they use the language of touch or make loud trumpet sounds that can be heard within a radius of 10 kilometers.
African elephants live in small family groups with matriarchy. Each "family" consists of the main female, her eldest daughters with their young and still immature offspring (males and females).
There is no room for mature males. Upon reaching 10-12 years, they are expelled from the family and begin to lead a single lifestyle. The first few years after the expulsion of the males can follow the herd of his mother, keeping him at a sufficient distance. But with the advent of a more mature age, the males move away from the herd and form their male companies.
In the family, everyone unquestioningly obey the instructions of the main female. After her death, this position is occupied by an older female. Older “children” (females) look after younger ones. Later, when they themselves have young, they still remain in the group.
Most of the day with elephants is devoted to the search for food and feeding. They use only vegetable food: leaves, roots, bark of trees and shrubs, shoots and so on. Everything will depend on the place of temporary stay. Old individuals with already bad teeth wander into the marshes in order to feed on soft marsh vegetation, where after a while they die from old age. This is where the legend got its roots from that all the elephants come to die in the swamp.
Also for them is very important to have drinking water. On the day of elephants can drink from 100 to 220 liters of water. During the dry period, when all the rivers and small water holes dry up, elephants dig holes in their beds where the water from aquifers accumulates. Drink in turn, observing seniority.
During the migrations, herds may temporarily unite. Leadership clashes during this period are rare.
Elephants sleep while standing, gathering in dense groups, and only babies lie on the ground during sleep. Apparently, this is due to the fact that adults do not want to receive additional heat from the earth heated during the day. Older animals, especially males, find it difficult to settle down for the night, as the forces are not the same, and the big tusks are pulling down. But they found a very original way out of this situation - the males put their tusks on the termitaries or rely on large branches of the trees.
The life span of elephants is quite long - 65-70 years. With good care in captivity, they can live up to 80 years. Elephant childhood lasts a long time. Sexual maturity in males occurs only by 10–12 years, and in females - 12–15, and under unfavorable conditions of existence - by 18–22 years.
During the breeding season, which most often occurs in the middle of the rainy season, females summon males to themselves, making loud trumpet sounds.
Pregnancy lasts a little less than 2 years - 20-22 months. At the time of childbirth, the elephant leaves the pack, and is accompanied by another elephant who protects the pregnant female. The elephant is born quite large - weighing 100-120 kg and a height of about 1 meter. Half an hour later, he can stand on his feet and is sent back with the mother to the herd. Up to 1.5-5 years, the female feeds the cub with milk, although from the age of 2 the baby is already quite able to eat vegetable food. Throughout their lives, females bring from 2 to 9 cubs.
Elephants love to swim and sometimes get into the water with their heads, leaving the trunk to breathe on the surface. If the river is small, then they begin to create from stones and branches of the dam. This proves once again that elephants are very intelligent and intelligent animals.
Elephant trunks above the water
At elephants the help and mutual assistance is strongly developed. Wounded kinsmen they help to keep on their feet, standing on the sides and not letting him fall. Here is another incredible and at the same time a bit sad fact. Judging by the behavior, elephants can recognize their dead kinsmen. Some even protect the remains of the animal from the encroachments of predatory animals. Elephants begin to blow over the recently dead animals.
Even these animals have an excellent memory. They perfectly remember all members of their family, offenders and those who do good for them (this primarily concerns a person). They can take revenge on the offender after many years if they meet again, of course.
For centuries, people have exterminated African elephants for their meat, hides and tusks. In the 19th and 20th centuries, these animals were mercilessly exterminated for the extraction of ivory (tusks), which were used to manufacture various expensive items. As a result, the number of these animals by the mid-1980s was only about 350-450 thousand individuals. The African elephant was on the verge of extinction. They survived only in places difficult to reach for humans, and in the savannas they were almost completely exterminated.
With such a pace of destruction, African elephants should have disappeared from the face of the earth by 1995. But thank God, the man changed his mind in time. In 1988, hunting for elephants was banned and the creation of reserves and national parks began. The number of these animals began to grow slowly. In 2004, in the International Red Book, the African elephant changed its status from “endangered species” to “vulnerable species”.
Elephant - description, characteristics and photos.
Elephants are giants among animals. The height of the elephant is 2–4 m. The weight of the elephant is from 3 to 7 tons. Elephants in Africa, especially savanna, often have a mass of up to 10 - 12 tons. The powerful body of an elephant is covered with thick (up to 2, 5 cm) skin of brown or gray color with deep wrinkles. Elephant cubs are born with sparse stubble, adults are almost devoid of vegetation.
The head of the animal is quite large with remarkable ears. The ears of an elephant have a fairly large surface, they are thick at the base with thin edges, as a rule, are a good regulator of heat transfer. Waving ears allows the animal to increase the cooling effect. The leg of an elephant has 2 kneecaps. Such a structure makes the elephant the only mammal that can not jump. In the center of the foot - fat pad, springing at each step, which allows these powerful animals to move almost silently.
The trunk of an elephant is an amazing and unique organ formed by a conjoined nose and upper lip. Tendons and more than 100 thousand muscles make it strong and flexible. The trunk performs a number of important functions, while at the same time providing the animal with breathing, smelling, touching and capturing food. Through the trunk, elephants protect, water themselves, eat, socialize, and even raise offspring. Another “attribute” of appearance is the tusks of an elephant. They grow throughout life: the more powerful the tusks, the older their owner.
The elephant's tail is about the same length as the hind legs. The tip of the tail is framed by stiff hair that helps ward off insects. Elephant's voice is specific. The sounds that an adult animal makes are called boars, lowing, whispering and roaring of an elephant. The life span of an elephant is approximately 70 years.
Elephants can swim very well and love water procedures, and their average speed on land reaches 3-6 km / h. When running for short distances, the speed of an elephant sometimes increases to 50 km / h.
Types of elephants.
In the family of living elephants, there are three main species belonging to two genera:
- genus African elephants (lat. Loxodonta) are divided into 2 types:
- savanna elephant (Lat. Loxodonta africana) is distinguished by gigantic size, dark color, developed tusks and two processes at the end of the trunk. It lives along the equator throughout Africa,
African elephant (savanna elephant)
Forest African Elephant
Species often interbreed and give quite viable offspring.
- Rod indian (Asian) elephants (lat. Elephas) includes one species - Indian elephant (lat. Elephas maximus). It is smaller than a savannah, but it has a more powerful physique and short legs. Color - from brown to dark gray. A distinctive feature of this type of elephants - small ears of a quadrangular shape and one process at the end of the trunk. The Indian or Asian elephant is distributed in tropical and subtropical forests of India, in China, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Brunei, Bangladesh and Indonesia.
Elephant Festival in India
Where and how do elephants live?
African elephants inhabit almost the entire territory of hot Africa: in Namibia and Senegal, in Kenya and Zimbabwe, in Guinea and the Republic of the Congo, in Sudan and South Africa, elephants feel great in Zambia and Somalia. The main part of the livestock, unfortunately, is forced to live in national reserves, so as not to become prey of barbarians-poachers. The elephant lives on any landscape, but tries to avoid the desert zone and too dense tropical forests, preferring the savanna zone.
Indian elephants live in the northeast and southern India, in Thailand, China and on the island of Sri Lanka, live in Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam and Malaysia. Unlike fellows from the African continent, Indian elephants love to settle in wooded areas, preferring bamboo tropics and thick bushes.
What do elephants eat?
Approximately 16 hours a day, elephants are busy absorbing food, while eating with appetite about 300 kg of vegetation. An elephant eats grass (including rogoz, papyrus in Africa), rhizomes, bark and leaves of trees (for example, ficus in India), wild banana fruits, apples, marules, and even coffee. The diet of an elephant depends on the habitat, as different trees and grasses grow in Africa and India. These animals do not bypass the agricultural plantations, causing by their visits substantial damage to the crops of corn, sweet potatoes and other crops. Tusks and trunk help them to get food, chewing - molars. The teeth of the elephant change as they grind.
In the zoo, elephants are fed with hay and greens (in large quantities), and they also give animals vegetables, fruits, roots: cabbage, apples, pears, carrots, beets, watermelons, boiled potatoes, oats, bran, willow branches, bread, and also a favorite delicacy of elephants, bananas and other cultures. During the day in the wild, an elephant eats about 250-300 kg of food. In captivity, the consumption of food from elephants is as follows: about 10 kg of vegetables, 30 kg of hay and 10 kg of bread.
Adult individuals are known “water holders”. An elephant drinks about 100-300 liters of water per day, so these animals are almost always located near water bodies.
Reproduction of elephants.
Elephants form family herds (9–12 individuals), including a mature leader, her sisters, daughters and immature males. The elephant female is a hierarchical link in the family, it matures by the age of 12, at the age of 16 it is ready to bear the offspring. Mature males leave the herd at the age of 15-20 years (African at 25 years old) and become lonely. Every year, males fall into an aggressive state caused by an increase in testosterone, which lasts about 2 months, so there are often quite serious skirmishes between clans, ending with injuries and injuries. True, this fact has its plus: competition with experienced brethren stops young male elephants from early mating.
Reproduction of elephants occurs regardless of the season. An elephant male approaches the herd when he feels the female's readiness for mating. Loyal to each other in the usual time, the males arrange marriage fights, as a result of which the winner is allowed to the female. The pregnancy of an elephant lasts 20-22 months. Elephants' births take place in a society that is created by females of the herd, surrounding and protecting the woman in labor from accidental danger. Usually one baby elephant weighs about a centner, sometimes twins. After 2 hours, the newborn baby elephant gets up on its feet and is happy to suck the mother's milk. After a few days, the cub easily travels with its congeners, clutching the trunk tail by its trunk. Feeding milk lasts up to 1.5-2 years, and all lactating females participate in the process. By 6-7 months, vegetable food is added to the milk.
Why are elephants afraid of mice?
About the subconscious fear, which, allegedly, giant elephants have to little members of the family of rodents - mice - is known to many. But not everyone knows that this fact is most likely a myth. There is a legend according to which in ancient times there were so many mice that they ventured to attack elephant's legs, gnawed almost to the bone the limbs of animals and settled minks for themselves there. That is why since then the elephants have begun to sleep not lying, but standing. There is little logic in this, because many animals, such as horses, are not afraid of mice at all while standing up. But suppose that a rodent can lie in its trunk and block access of air to a lying elephant, which would have caused the death of the elephant — much more likely, moreover, several such cases were recorded.
Есть еще одна теория, немного смешная, но все же: мыши, забираясь на слона, сильно щекочут исполина своими цепкими лапками, от чего слон испытывает постоянную потребность чесаться, а сделать это ему довольно трудно. However, all such assumptions were debunked by scientists: they were convinced that the elephants are absolutely indifferent to mice, peacefully coexist with them in the zoo aviaries, allowing tiny rodents to feast on the remnants of their meal, and are not at all afraid of them.
Why does an elephant have a long nose?
The trunk is the most spectacular distinguishing feature of the elephant. Reaching a length of about 1.5 meters and having a weight of 130-150 kg, this part of the body is simply necessary for the animal, as well as the hands, nose or tongue of man.
The ancestors of elephants, who lived in the distant past in the marshes, had a very small trunk-sprout: he allowed him to breathe under the water. Millions of years of evolution forced the ancient predecessor of the elephant out of the marshland, enormously increased the animal in size, as a result of which the trunk of the elephant also had to adapt to the new conditions of existence.
With its trunk, an elephant picks up and carries weight, rips juicy bananas from palm trees and puts them in its mouth, as if it is drawing water from a lake or river and arranges a shower for itself during the burning heat, makes loud trumpeting sounds, picks up odors, helps itself to drink, pouring water into mouth. Surprisingly, being able to use the trunk as a multifunctional tool is a rather complicated science that little elephants master not immediately: often the kids even step on their trunk, therefore caring mommies elephant patiently and for several months teach their children to use this necessary “process” .
- The inhabitants of Africa say that elephants have a mysterious place where they go to die in old age or because of illness. This is explained by the fact that almost no one found the tusks of dead elephants. Nevertheless, experts have dispelled these conjectures. It has been proven that porcupines consume ivory tusks when they die. In this simple way they cover a deficit in beneficial mineral compounds. The elephant trunk can reach a length of 7 m. It appeared due to the crossing of the nose and upper lip. The trunk concentrates about one hundred thousand muscle fibers. It helps individuals make sounds, drink, breathe.
- With a trunk animals capture various objects and communicate with each other. In African individuals, there are several processes on the trunk. They are necessary for breaking grass, as well as breaking trees and branches. Precisely trunk animals are drenched. Sometimes they search for dirty water, the clay subsequently dries out and scares off pests, creating a kind of barrier. Elephants are distinguished by large-sized ears. They are larger than the Indian representatives. Individuals do not have sebaceous glands, so do not know how to sweat. The ears perform the function of heat transfer, when the body heats up, heat is released through them.
- Of course, it is the auditory organs that animals use as a fan. They scare away annoying flies and other insects. It is noteworthy that the elephants are not able to jump or run. They learned to move hastily at the expense of a quick step. However, the structure of the kneecaps does not allow animals to run. A distinctive feature is the presence of special pads on the feet. They seem to be springy, so the animals move quietly, despite their weight category. These same pads tend to expand.
- In animals, the skin thickness is more than 3 cm. Some believe that these individuals are cumbersome. But in time of need, they are able to accelerate to 30 kilometers per hour. Even on wetlands, individuals walk without fear. They have excellent eyesight. But guided by their sense of smell and hearing. Also trust in touch. Eyelashes on the eyes are very dense and long, protect from dust. Elephants swim well and love to do it, at a speed of up to 70 kilometers per hour. Can swim without touching the limbs to the bottom for 6 hours or more. When individuals make a guttural sound, it is heard at 10 km.
- Often the individuals in question form herds in the wild. In each there can be about 15 animals. It is noteworthy that only females are present in such a family. And they are connected by kinship. In such a herd dominated matriarchy.
- It is interesting that such wild animals do not tolerate loneliness. Therefore, they try to keep groups in order to constantly communicate with their relatives. It is noteworthy that the individuals represented remain faithful to their family until their death.
- Members of such a group are always trying to help and care for each other. Animals even raise offspring together. Elephants always protect each other from danger and help weaker relatives.
- As for the males, the individuals are mostly solitary. Most often males try to keep close to the group of females. In extremely rare cases, they can form their own herds.
- It is noteworthy that the young live in a group of up to 14 years. After that, the offspring may choose, they can stay with the family or form their own herd. It is interesting that the elephants show great sympathy for the deceased relative. The individuals are very sad.
- Such elephants respect the remains of their relatives. They will never step on them and, if necessary, move them aside. Interestingly, elephants can even recognize their relative from the remains.
- The rest of the life of such individuals is quite interesting. Such animals sleep no more than 4 hours a day. And during the holidays, they almost always take a vertical position. It is interesting that individuals gather in a circle and lean against each other.
- Some older elephants try to lay their big tusks on a tree or termitary. It is noteworthy that the closest relatives of these individuals - Indian elephants, prefer to sleep just lying. They lie quietly on the ground while resting. Such animals are very clever and their brain structure is complicated.
- The adult brain weight can reach up to 5 kg. Therefore, with precision we can say that in the wild animal world, elephants have the highest intelligence. The individuals represented are so clever that they can identify themselves in the mirror. Therefore, elephants are self-aware.
- Only dolphins and monkeys can boast of this kind. It is noteworthy that elephants and chimpanzees can use various tools exclusively. Numerous studies have shown that the individuals in question use a branch from a tree as a fly swatter. Elephants have an excellent memory. Such animals memorize various places and people with whom they communicate.
- As for the breeding season, the mating season does not have any serious time frame. But there is a confirmed fact that in the rainy season, the birth rate of elephants increases significantly. The time of estrus in females lasts only a couple of days. At this time, she screams a male.
- The pair is formed for several weeks. Only in such a period of time does the female sometimes move away from the herd. An interesting fact is that among male elephants there are homosexuals. The problem is that the female can mate only once a year. In addition, the pregnancy lasts a long time.
- In turn, males often need a sexual partner. Therefore, they have nowhere to go, how to start a same-sex relationship. The female continues to bear offspring for almost 2 years. In most cases, only 1 baby is born. In this case, when the female is about to give birth, all family members are present. They are always ready to help.
Elephants are unique and very interesting representatives of animals in the wild. Such individuals live mainly in herds. Each family member will always protect the other. Elephants value such relationships and respect each other.
Description of the African Elephant
African elephant - the largest land mammal on our planet. It is much larger than the Asian elephant and in size can reach 4.5-5 meters in height, and its weight is about 7-7.5 tons. But there are real giants: the largest African elephant, which was discovered, weighed 12 tons, and the length of its body was about 7 meters.
Unlike Asian relatives, the tusks of the African elephant are present in both males and females. The largest found tusks in length were more than 4 meters and weighed 230 kilograms. Their elephants are used as weapons for defense against predators. Although there are practically no natural enemies of such large animals, there are cases when lonely, old and weakened giants are attacked by hungry lions. In addition, with the help of tusks, elephants dig the ground and strip the bark from the trees.
Elephants also have an unusual instrument that distinguishes them from many other animals - this is a long flexible trunk. It was formed during the merger of the upper lip and nose. His animals are successfully used to pick grass, gather water with it and lift up to greet their relatives. Interesting technology is. how elephants drink water at a watering place. In fact, he does not drink through the trunk, but collects water into it, and then sends it into his mouth and pours it out. In this way, the elephants get the moisture they need.
Among the interesting facts about these giants, it is worth noting that they are able to use their trunk as a breathing tube. There are cases when they breathed through the trunk when immersed under water. Also interesting is the fact that elephants can "hear with their feet." In addition to normal hearing, they have special sensitive areas on their feet, through which they can hear the vibrations of the soil and determine where they come from.
Also, despite the fact that they have very thick skin, it is very tender and the elephant is able to feel when a large insect sits on it. Also, elephants have learned to perfectly escape from the scorching African sun, occasionally sprinkling themselves with sand, this helps protect the body from sunburn.
The age of African elephants is quite long: they live an average of 50-70 yearsmales are noticeably larger than females. Mostly live herds of 12-16 individuals, but earlier, according to travelers and researchers, they were much more numerous and could number up to 150 animals. The herd is usually headed by an old female, that is, elephants have matriarchy.
It is interesting! Elephants are really very afraid of bees. Because of their delicate skin, they can cause them a lot of trouble. There are cases when elephants changed their migration routes due to the fact that there was a high probability of meeting swarms of wild bees.
Elephant - a social animal and loners among them are extremely rare. Herd members recognize each other, help wounded brethren, and together protect offspring in case of danger. Conflicts between members of the herd - a rarity. The elephants are very well developed sense of smell and hearing, but the vision is much worse, they also have an excellent memory and can remember their offender for a long time.
There is a common myth that elephants cannot swim due to their weight and structural features. In fact, they are excellent swimmers and can swim significant distances in search of feeding places.
Previously, African elephants were spread throughout Africa. Now, with the advent of civilization and poaching, their habitat has decreased significantly. Most of the elephants live in the national parks of Kenya, Tanzania and Congo. During the dry season, they travel hundreds of kilometers in search of fresh water and food. In addition to national parks, in the wild, they are found in Namibia, Senegal, Zimbabwe and the Congo.
Currently, the habitat of African elephants is rapidly decreasing due to the fact that more and more land is given for construction and agricultural needs. In some usual habitats of the African elephant is no longer to be found. Because of the value of ivory, elephants have a hard time living, they often become victims of poachers. The main and only enemy of elephants is man.
The most common myth about elephants is that they allegedly bury their dead relatives in certain places. Scientists spent a lot of effort and time, but did not find any special places where the bodies or remains of animals would be concentrated. Such places do not really exist.
Nutrition. African elephant diet
African elephants are truly insatiable creatures, adult males can eat up to 150 kilograms of plant food a day, females are about 100. They take 16-18 hours a day to absorb food, they spend the rest of the time looking for it, 2-3 take to sleep hours This is one of the most low-alert animals in the world.
There is a prejudiceAfrican elephants are very fond of peanuts and spend a lot of time looking for them, but this is not true. Of course, elephants have nothing against such a delicacy, and willingly eat it in captivity. But still in nature it does not eat.
Grass and shoots of young trees are their main food, they eat fruit as a treat. With their gluttony, they damage agricultural land, farmers scare them away, as it is prohibited to kill elephants and they are protected by the law. In search of food, these giants of Africa spend most of the day. The cubs completely switch to plant food upon reaching three years of age, and before that they feed on mother's milk. After about 1.5-2 years, they, in addition to mother's milk, gradually begin to receive adult food. They consume a lot of water, about 180-230 liters per day.
Second myth says that the old males who left the herd become murderers of people. Of course, there are cases of attacks of elephants on humans, but this is not associated with a certain model of behavior of these animals.
The myth that elephants are afraid of rats and mice, as they bite their feet, also remains a myth. Of course, elephants are not afraid of such rodents, but they still don’t have much love for them.
African Elephant Species
At present, science is known for 2 species of elephants living in Africa: savanna and forest. The horned elephant inhabits the expanses of the plains, it is larger than the forest, dark color and has characteristic processes at the end of the trunk. This species is distributed throughout Africa. It is the savannah elephant that is considered to be African, as we know it. In the wild, these two species intersect extremely rarely.
The forest elephant is smaller, gray in color and lives in the tropical forests of Africa. In addition to size, they differ in the structure of the jaws, they are longer in it than in the savannah. Also, the forest elephants on the hind legs have four toes, while the savanna has five. All other differences, such as small tusks and small ears, are due to the fact that it was convenient for them to pass through dense tropical thickets.
Another popular myth about elephants is that they are the only animals that are not capable of jumping, but this is not true. They really cannot jump, there is simply no need for it, but in this case elephants are not unique, such animals also include hippos, rhinos and sloths.