Sheepdogs - A large group of service dogs bred specifically for the protection of sheep flocks. The review, which presents a brief description of the most popular herding dogs, makes it possible to understand the most important thing: their purpose is always to be at work. The meaning of existence is the protection and security of family members and territories entrusted to it.
Features of the dog breed
Initially, there were special requirements for herding dogs:
- they have to be extremely hardy, because you have to work around the clock,
- thick coat should protect from the harsh climate,
- they must be fearless and strong, because in defending the herd, they have to deal with predators,
- a hunting instinct capable of leading far away from the herd should be kept to a minimum.
All these requirements in one way or another were taken into account when breeding shepherd dogs in different countries. Emphasis was placed on local climatic, geographical features and types of color.
However, this does not mean that dogs bred in one country cannot live and work in other countries or even continents. So, the Scottish shepherd (collie), the Central Asian (Turkmen Alabai), the Belgian, the Caucasian and, of course, the favorite of the dog's beauty - the German shepherd are well known and loved by all of us.
The German Shepherd is probably the most recognized and widespread breed in the world. Due to its ability to various types of training, exceptional intelligence, sensitivity and extraordinary devotion to the owner more than 90% of all working dogs are representatives of the breed.
Virtually no such service, where this dog would not have been involved, whether military, investigative, search and rescue or guard. The grace and elegance inherent in the Germans, do not leave anyone indifferent.
German Shepherds are deservedly considered to be great watchmen, so they are often taken to guard the house. Their content is not uncommon in a city apartment, but it should be remembered that the animal needs heavy physical exertion and long walks. In the absence of such, the pet begins to languish, loses its fighting qualities.
Differs in keen hearing and instinct, mistrustful, courageous, hardy. Type of higher nervous activity - balanced, agile.
Germans prefer life be in work, for them, the meaning of life is service to the owner. At the same time, excessive vigilance is perhaps the only difficulty in the content.
Probably, no breed has so many subspecies and species. She tried to withdraw in many countries, improved exterior and workmanship. However, the highest levels of intelligence, temperament, and performance remain of the standard type.
German Shepherd Types
Classic German Shepherd Dog, West Germany, high line. This type has the best pedigree characteristics and is most often used in search, military, guard duty, and also as a guide. Color characteristic cheprachny with tan or black.
The disadvantage is uneven back, the disappearance of pigmentation, weak character. In addition, these dogs are overly aggressive, which entails some problems.
German Shepherd Working Line. This group includes both Belgian and Danish shepherd dogs that are not related to the German line. They were bred for sports and search service. This breed is most involved in police and military service, as a search dog in the search for drugs and explosives.
This breed, despite the average assessment of the exterior, has excellent indicators of strength and physical fitness. They make excellent companions and service dogs.
Typical color - black, sable or tricolor. It is found black-brown, which is also the norm. It is not suitable for the role of guide or pet due to overly aggressive temperamental character.
German Shepherd, East German Line. This subspecies was created in East Germany after 1945 from those individuals that were bred in the pre-war years. These were wayward dogs with changeable temperament.
Modern representatives of East Germans have a complete set of the best working parameters, a serious disposition, and an excellent exterior. These dogs have massive bones, the head is large. Oriental "Germans" are perfectly trained, but may be too aggressive.
To improve the blood of the eastern "Germans" are often crossed with other working areas, although some followers are trying to maintain the purity of the breed.
The color varies from zonar black to black and tan.
German Shepherd, Czech / Slovak line. It was derived from Socialist Czechoslovakia from the eastern German line and has an external similarity with its ancestor.
This working line is often integrated with similar subspecies, although breeders try to isolate the breed from outside interference.
German Shepherd, American line. This species was registered and distributed on the North American continent in the 70s of the last century.
It was initially focused on walking, for this reason it lacks both working standards and standard hip height parameters. Individuals of this line are poorly adapted for classic running and jumping, and are distinguished by a disproportionately long angular body and relatively mild changeable temperament.
The disadvantages include poor health and a delicate psyche, however, representatives of the American line get along well in the family. Currently, selection work is underway to improve this breed.
The color of the American "Germans" differs little from the standard German one - cheeprachny with ginger, pale yellow burns.
German Shepherd, English line. Podvid comes from the representatives of the old lines, once brought into the country and the modern post-war classic German shepherds. These dogs were distinguished by their gentle temper and unstable temperament. The body build, despite its heaviness, is beautiful and elegant.
They made excellent cops and guides. Over time, this breed was pushed aside German exhibition and working directions. The reason for this was the weak legislation, which did not defend the quarantine for the newly bred breed.
The individuals obtained as a result of crossing the English line with the German line had a flexible temperament and possessed the necessary performance characteristics.
Have a black color with fawn burns.
Caucasian Shepherd Dog
The Caucasian Shepherd Dog is the largest member of the herding family of dogs. The breed has more than two thousand years of history. The harsh mountain climate of the Caucasus left its mark: large sizes, wildly growing long thick hair with thick undercoat, extraordinary endurance and strength, dedication to one owner, nastiness and distrust, sometimes even ferocity - these are distinctive qualities.
The dog has a rough massive constitution, dense musculature, thick skin. The head is massive, with protruding cheekbones. The chest is strong, wide, powerful neck. Ears stop, so that there are no injuries during clashes with a wild beast. The color of "Caucasians" ranges from gray wolf, fawn, brown to motley and red, with and without a mask.
Caucasian Shepherd is deservedly considered best guard dog and little suitable for maintenance in a city apartment. “Caucasians” are ready to stand up for their families at any time, and they would like to play with children. This is a fairly friendly dog outside its territory. He will watch his plot with particular zeal.
This dog has considerable intellect and stable psyche. Good to be trained, and education should start at a very early age. Caucasians do not require special care and are practically not susceptible to disease.
Types of Caucasian Shepherd Dogs
For varieties of wool cover is divided into several groups:
- with long hair without a mane, tow and pantaloons,
- with long hairline, pronounced mane, pantaloons on hind legs and feathering,
- with shortened coat and lack of manes, tows and pantaloons.
Relationship with St. Bernard
In the late 1940s, a Caucasian Shepherd Dog, brought from a Georgian collective farm, and a Saint Bernard, taken from Germany as a trophy, were crossed by Soviet breeders.
This mating marked the beginning of a new breed - Moscow watchdog. The breed was finally registered only in 1985. According to external signs, they are close to St. Bernards, but, unlike their ancestor, they are leaner and stronger.
Types of Central Asian Shepherd Dogs
It is customary to distinguish several types of Central Asians:
Turkmen Alabai - unusually large, strong, enduring and at the same time graceful. They are characterized by remarkable intelligence, immunity to pain and instant reaction.
Tajik differ from Turkmen longer hair and even heavier constitution. Outwardly, they resemble St. Bernards.
Uzbek Asians characterized by lighter bones and smaller growth. In addition, there are numerous subspecies of this branch.
Kazakh Asians in the bulk - typical representatives of the breed, however, as they move to the northern borders, individuals become smaller, and the character becomes less and less decisive.
The remaining varieties
Another view - Belgian Shepherd Dog. This representative of the shepherds owes its origin to the crossing of a mastiff with dirhound.
There are 4 subspecies of this breed:
All of the Belgian subspecies are similar: powerful physique, broad forehead, black eyes, high-set triangular ears, patient and firm disposition.
The color is rather unusual: the ears and head are covered with black hair, the paws, chest and collar around the neck are decorated with blond hair, the sides are black, and the sacrum - with a reddish tint.
Kunming or kumin Bred in China in the 50s of the last century for military purposes. Despite the awkward physique, has a strong psyche and great ability to train. Dogs of this breed successfully bear military and police service.
Sheepdog Sarluz Wolfhound bred as a result of crossing a German shepherd with a European wolf. These dogs are distinguished by a strong cocky character and heightened aggression. The color does not differ from the usual wolf.
For a long time these dogs were used for guard, shepherd or investigative services. According to the exterior and origin, many species of shepherd are similar. Most often they are distinguished by their height, coat, or addition.
Not all dog lovers know what types of shepherd dogs are. Currently, more than 40 breeds can be identified. It is noteworthy that many of them have nothing to do with the traditional concept of shepherd dogs. The most famous species are: German, Central Asian, Caucasian, Belgian, Scottish, Commander, Collie. Representatives of the first breed occupy a leading place in popularity worldwide. Most often, German shepherds are used for service in law enforcement. They have a well-developed sense of smell and intuition, which helps well in search activities.
Caucasian Shepherd Dogs, like Central Asian, from time immemorial, were shepherd`s breeds. Differ from other types of massive head, powerful paws, hanging ears and coarse bones. Due to the long wool, they are often used as hounds in the northern regions of Russia.
In the countries of the Americas are widely used such species of breeds of sheep-dogs, as collie, bullets, commander, French Briard, Malinois, Kuvas and others. In Western Europe, popular Slovak chuvach, lowland and Polish Podgale.
German Shepherd Variety
The most popular and famous breed is the classic, whose representatives belong to the high line. These types of German Shepherd dogs are characterized by loyalty and responsiveness. They are often used as guide and tracing dogs. The German Shepherd Dogs' lines are widely used in military service, as they are amenable to training. Their disadvantage is an overly aggressive temper.
The eastern line was bred from dogs that did not differ in playfulness and obedience. But the representatives of this species have an excellent physique and tranquility. The situation is similar with the Czech line. These are purely working types of shepherd dogs that can bear constant heavy loads. Separate from the rest is a new and old American line. These types of German shepherd dogs became popular in the 1970s in Canada. Initially, the line was taken out for high-speed walking, which is why angular body shape and a slightly elongated muzzle are in dogs. "Americans" are distinguished by their mild temper and good appetite.
Representatives of the English line look very powerful thanks to massive bones and a long body. Despite their moderate temper, these shepherds are bred purely for military purposes. However, in everyday life it is often possible to meet guide dogs among the “English”. White Swiss shepherd dogs are similar in temperament and form with representatives of the British line. It is noteworthy that purebred dogs of this species should have black pigmentation of the eyes, nose, lips, claws and most of the skin.
One of the most interesting subspecies of German shepherds are panda and shiloh. The first line was due to an unexpected mutation when crossing American breeds. As a result, dogs began to appear peculiar black specks, like a panda. Such shepherds cost a lot of money. As for shiloh, it is a mixture of the Sharplan line with the Alaskan Malamute. Representatives of this species have up to 50 cm in their shoulders, due to which they can withstand enormous loads for animals.
From the long-haired German shepherds can be distinguished royal and Sarluuz Wolfhound. The latter were bred in Holland and contain the wolf gene.
England is considered to be the birthplace of dogs of this breed. In the 8th century, British breeders crossed the dirhaund with a mastiff, hence such an extraordinary coloring. The breed was registered in Brussels at the end of the 19th century, and therefore the corresponding name is Belgian Shepherd. At that time, the main admirer of the new brood was the local professor Reyl. It was he who identified the types of Belgian Shepherds, which are limited to 4 lines: grunenendal, malinois, lakenoua and Tervuren. Each of these types is similar. Belgian Shepherd dogs have a strong character and patience. The head is long, slightly wide. The forehead is moderately pronounced, straight. The eyes are medium in size, mostly black. Ears of a triangular shape, set high. According to the complex, the Belgians are very massive and impressive.
Central asian shepherd dog
Representatives of this breed are also called Alabai. Central Asian Shepherd Dogs are widely distributed in Siberia. The Tibetan mastiff is considered to be the ancestor of Alabayev.
By the build dogs are large, well-built. Wide head, strong big jaws. In height, adults reach 71 cm (with a weight of 50 kg). On the neck is a characteristic fold of fat, bulging like a collar. As well as representatives of the Caucasian breed, the Alabayam requires the cupping of the ears and tail. The eyes and nose of these shepherd dogs are dark. Wool is relatively short, but thick, so dogs are able to withstand up to 40 degrees of frost. Color in Central Asian shepherd dogs can be anything. By the nature of Alabai very bold and unpretentious, always loyal to the owner. Species of Central Asian Shepherd Dogs do not require special training, since they are mostly able to develop independently. Puppies alabay differ ingenuity and restraint.
The main instrument of influence on shepherd dogs is the voice of the owner. From the first days of life in the new house, the puppy begins to distinguish a reproachful and tender tone. To encourage dogs to perform certain actions, you should use various treats. For obedience, a puppy may receive a piece of cheese, meat or cookies, depending on his preferences.
All types of shepherd dogs from an early age instantly respond to their nicknames, so it is recommended to use them before each team. Example: “Jack! To me!"
From the first days of upbringing, you should accustom your pet to cleanliness and respectability. Explain what you can not do, you need to add the command "Fu". It is better to teach a shepherd to be around with her bowl. Having enticed the dog to your meal, you need to slowly move away from it and repeat the command “Ko me.”
The puppy should know its place from the first days of stay in the house. In fact, the relevant team does not need clarification to the pet. If he is satisfied with his place, he will be happy to return to it.
All types of shepherd most prefer meat. However, it is important to regularly change the pet's diet so that its body receives all the necessary trace elements.
Так, суточная норма для взрослой собаки обязательно должна включать: 80 г мяса, 120 г овсяной или пшеничной крупы, 50 г картофеля или других овощей, 20 г животного жира, 10 г поваренной соли и 5 г рыбной муки. Кроме того, разрешены бульоны и витаминные добавки.
Белая швейцарская овчарка
Эта порода появилась благодаря совместным усилиям канадских, европейских и американских заводчиков. She was bred on the basis of the German Shepherd and differs from it only in its color. These animals received official recognition in 2003. At the same time, their modern name stuck to them.
The Swiss are a popular type of shepherd. They do not differ in large size. Depending on the sex, the height of an adult dog is 53-66 cm, and the mass varies between 25-40 kg. The strong proportional body of a representative of this breed is covered with short or long hair of snow-white color.
BSHO is a cheerful and sociable dog that does not manifest unreasonable aggression. She is loyal to other animals and perfectly adapts to the content in a city apartment. This intelligent and inquisitive animal is easy to learn and does not require special care.
This breed was bred in the XIX century in a small provincial town called Mechelen. Description of the Belgian Shepherd should begin with the fact that it is quite tall animals. Their height is 55-65 cm, and the mass varies between 20-35 kg. On a proportional head are high-set triangular ears and dark almond-shaped eyes. The whole body of malinois is covered with short red-brown or light yellow coat. On the face of the animal must necessarily be coal-black mask.
The Belgian Shepherd is endowed with a persistent character and a balanced psyche. It is easy to educate and does not represent a particular threat to others. However, it should be understood that this dog needs regular training at the training site. Otherwise, instead of an obedient dog, you will have an uncontrollable and independent creature on a leash that can cause a lot of trouble.
These animals were bred in the XII century. They are descended from Persian dogs and have another name - the French Shepherd. Characteristics of the breed must begin with a description of the appearance. Briards are fairly tall dogs. Depending on the floor, their height varies between 58-69 cm, and their weight is 25-45 kg. The entire body of this animal is covered with a chic, hard coat of red, black or gray.
Briard is an inquisitive and friendly dog, devoted to his master and his family. It adapts perfectly to urban conditions and is easy to learn. Properly educated dog of this breed will be not only an excellent guard, but also a good companion during long walks.
This breed was bred in the XVIII century in the eastern part of Spain. They do not differ impressive parameters. Depending on the gender, an adult dog grows up to 45-55 cm at the withers and weighs no more than 25 kg. A well-balanced elongated body of a dog is covered with beautiful wavy hair of fawn, sable, gray, black or brindle color.
Catalans - unpretentious dogs that do not require special care. They are easy to train and perfectly adapted to any conditions. They can be given both natural food and industrial feed for sheep-dogs.
The best breeds of shepherd
The forerunners are the dogs of the Bronze Age, whose remains were found in the territories of Western Europe. It is believed that dogs were born as a result of a cross between an Indian wolf and a dog.
Large breed of dog. It is characterized by a red-black color with a tan. German Shepherd Dogs have thick coat, powerful pectoral muscles, low set pelvis. Weigh about 26-39 kilograms. Height is 56-66 centimeters. They live 9-15 years.
The nature of the animal is non-aggressive. They are considered to be very intelligent animals, they are amenable to training well since childhood.
Alabai or Central Asian Shepherd
Formed as a result of long-term selection and selection. Dogs of this breed have a common origin with dogs living in the territories of Asia for many thousands of years.
Distinguish smooth-haired and long-haired Central Asian shepherd dogs. Distinctive features: massive head, eyes located far from each other. The most common colors: black, white, gray, white and red.
Sure, strong, hardy breed. Alabai agressively treats strangers “not her territory”, but does not attack animals “from her yard”. With proper training will never attack a person. Well-defined guard qualities are transmitted only genetically.
In the old days served as an assistant to farmers. She was taken out in America.
The dog stands out in a bright unusual white-gray-reddish color. The eyes of the animal are expressive and unusual: bright blue or amber. Heterochromia is often observed in Australian shepherds.
The dog is medium sized and flexible. It has a muscular neck and a tail of great beauty.
The nature of the dog is considered ideal. She gets along well with everyone: both with children and adults. Come to the rescue at any moment. Mobile, active. This breed requires long walks.
Modern Anatolian Shepherd is descended from the mastiffs that lived in Turkey.
Among the characteristic features distinguish: fawn color, black ears and the tip of the muzzle. Differs powerful muscular physique, rich wool.
Calm and balanced dog. Does not trust strangers, but is strongly tied to the owner. Bred exclusively for work. They say about such people: “Not a moment's peace”. Needs active pastime.
Difficult to maintain. Not suitable for novice dog breeders.
Specially deduced by farmers in America in order to improve the quality. English shepherds guarded the farm and the flocks of sheep.
Allocate black and white or black and brown color. The representative of the breed powerful legs, neck and chest. Rich wool. Beautiful big tail.
An active, agile dog, despite its hulking appearance. Able to run long distances.
Never hurt a child, patient. Loves walking. Tends to lead an active lifestyle.
Hungarian Sheepdog or Komondor
It is believed that the ancestors of Komondor lived in the Black Sea. Was bred as a result of crossing a wolf and a shepherd.
Powerful, muscular dog with an unusual coat of wool: a long light hair. So long that it dries after washing it is 2 days.
Wool is similar to harnesses. They hang almost to the ground. Care is therefore very difficult. It is necessary to regularly brush Komondor, brush his ears in order to avoid infectious diseases.
Komondor wary of strangers. Loyal to his master. Smart, smart.
The dog is originally from Italy. It was bred to help the shepherds. In the 80s recognized as the best guard dog. The Maremma-Abruzzo Shepherd is able to fight back even a grizzly.
A distinctive feature of the dog is a snow-white color. The eyelids and nose are exceptionally black. Big low set tail.
For this dog the owner is not dominant. She calmly treats strangers during the day, but at night her instincts become aggravated. Exceptionally guard dog. Capricious, charismatic.
Since ancient times, the Norwegian Sheepdogs accompanied the Vikings in the campaigns. Served as herding dogs.
The Norwegian Sheepdog is medium sized. Among this breed are common wheat or black color. Well visible high set tail. Pronounced sexual dimorphism.
In any situation, can stand up for themselves. Smart and quick-witted. Of the minuses of the breed, it is possible to identify excessive barking, which is easily eliminated by training, but at first frightens many novice dog breeders.
Scotch or collie
Homeland are the mountains of Scotland. Watching flocks of sheep. In a critical situation, could grab a sheep by the leg. The structure of the jaw did not allow to bite through the ungulate, and scare.
There are two different types: long-haired and short-haired. They differ slightly in character. Collie color is white-red, black and white. Other colors are also allowed.
Kind, affectionate dog for novice dog breeders. Ideal for content in families with children. She loves outdoor games.
The breed was brought from Canada to Switzerland after a snow-white puppy was unexpectedly born from a German.
A distinctive feature of the Swiss shepherd is snow-white wool, constricted muzzle and high triangular ears.
Representatives of the breed are disciplined and playful. Quickly memorize commands. Well amenable to training. Can even perform tricks. Dogs of this breed are strongly tied to the owner. They will show aggression only in the case of a real threat. Good-natured, tender, love children.
The Croats brought the dog to Slavonia in the 7th century.
The color is exclusively black. Small blotches of white spots are rarely permissible. Withers not expressed. Stretched head. Triangular ears. Dark almond eyes.
Croatian Shepherd Dogs are very attentive and devoted dogs. Easy to maintain and care. Examine your ears and eyes frequently to avoid infectious diseases.
Designed to protect the herd. Are the smallest in size in their growth category, some attribute them to the category of mini shepherd dogs. Well amenable to training.
It is believed that the Polish shepherd was bred by shepherds in the 5th century. It was brought by shepherds from Asia. A large snow-white dog with an expressive neck and large hanging ears.
Calm, dedicated dog. Loves and respects family members. Workable, hardworking, non-aggressive, vigilant. Good for children. Always protect his master. Rarely shows aggression and rarely bares his teeth.
Thus, among the representatives of the species there is a high diversity. Each owner can choose a dog to his liking, focusing on the individual characteristics of the character and their own preferences.
What are the types
This is probably the most famous and common dog breed on the planet.
The combination of such qualities as exceptional loyalty, outstanding intelligence, incredible ability to memorize and train, absolute loyalty to people and outstanding diligence makes it truly universal.
The Germans are used in military service, as bloodhounds, guards, they are perfectly manifest themselves in search and rescue activities. It’s easy to handle them, so little serious service is without them.
So it makes sense to leave such a dog to protect a private house. Of course, they can be kept in an ordinary city apartment, but one should not forget about regular exercise and training, thanks to which the animal keeps itself in good shape.
In their temperament, they are distrustful, serious, brave. Type GNI: strong, balanced, agile.
Their whole life is at work, their work activity brings them no less pleasure than playing or petting ordinary decorative dogs. Perhaps the only difficulty that the owners sometimes encounter with their content is just their most positive quality: heightened vigilance and alertness.
There are a large number of species (breed lines) of this dog, because they were bred for many years for various purposes. However, the most balanced and well-known remained the classic version.
It is also known as classic or “exhibition”.
Originally from Germany, she has the most outstanding characteristics that allow her to actively use her natural abilities in the service of man.
Color: either black or black, with tan.
The disadvantages of the breed can be considered a violation of pigmentation, uneven back, as well as increased suspicion and aggressiveness, which is not always possible to control.
Another species that was first registered in the United States in the 70s.
The characteristics of this breed are more focused not on running or jumping, but on walking, and therefore there are no standards for hip height for it. They have a long and awkward, disproportionate body. Their temperament, in contrast to the previously mentioned members of the family, is much milder.
However, they do not have a particularly strong health and rather changeable nature, although this does not affect their relationships with people - they are still excellent companions. The color of the “American” does not differ from the classic West German.