The Aberdeen-Angus breed of cows is one of the most popular beef cattle in the world. These hornless animals differ quite average requirements for the diet and conditions of detention. But despite this, they provide high meat productivity, which brought the breed world-wide fame.
History of origin
Angus breed of cows was bred on the basis of several British varieties of hornless cattle. Such animals were actively bred in the counties of Angus and Aberdeen, which are located in Scotland. These regions are known throughout the country for their vast meadows and mild climate.
It is known from official written sources that purposeful breeding work on the breeding of Aberdeen Angus began in 1775. Breeders set a goal to improve the meat productivity and precocity of aboriginal breeds of cattle. And they managed to achieve this only in 1835, when the breed line was approved as a separate and created the first breeding book.
In 1873, several representatives of this species of cows were first exported outside the country. This merit belongs to George Grant, who purchased a small livestock for his farm in Kansas (USA). Meat qualities, fast ripening and the right exterior attracted attention to such cattle. More and more breeders from North America purchased it in their farms.
Subsequently, the Anguses also spread throughout Canada, New Zealand, and Australia. Often they can be found in the UK. Animals were imported to Russia and neighboring countries only in 1958. Gradually, their livestock in the country grew. To this day they are often used in breeding work to increase the meat productivity of local Russian breeds of livestock.
In terms of physique, the Aberdeen clearly shows the meat direction of productivity. The body has a rectangular shape. The height of the animal is from 1.1 to 1.3 m. With such a small growth the body length reaches 1.7 m.
One of the main features of the appearance of the Angus is komolost, which is transmitted to subsequent generations in almost 100% of cases. As for the other features of the exterior of the breed line, these include:
- large rectangular body with developed muscles,
- straight back, sacrum and loin,
- correctly set short limbs with a developed ham,
- short volume neck
- deep chest (depth up to 67 cm)
- small head with a short muzzle
- The skin of such cows is elastic with a thick layer of subcutaneous tissue.
On top of the body of the animal covers a shiny coat. It is designed to protect livestock from sunlight and wind. Coat color is most often black, but brown is also sometimes found.
Udder in angus cows is small. It can be completely white or black.
The breed of Scottish black angus cows is raised by breeders exclusively for the production of quality beef. The average weight of a mature female is 500-600 kg, and in the case of targeted fattening up to 700 kg in compliance with the basic recommendations. The mass of bulls reaches 1000 kg. Slaughter meat output from adult livestock ranges from 60 to 70%.
It should be noted that the weight of the young immediately after birth is 22-28 kg. With proper feeding, the average daily weight gain is 1000 g. At this rate, the half-year-old calf weighs already 180 kg. And by 3 years, this figure increases to 420-430 kg.
Aberdeen Angus meat is highly valued for its marbling, exquisite taste, tenderness and lack of large fibers. The backbone of the entire carcass is about 17%.
With regard to milk production, the average annual milk yield from one individual is only 1400-1700 kg of milk.
Maintenance and care of the breed
Despite the high rates of productivity, Angus cattle is completely undemanding on the conditions of detention. Animals of this species feel well in regions with cold, hot and temperate climates. Due to its high resistance to various climatic conditions, such cattle is suitable for open content.
But in areas where there is frequent rainfall, and the spring is wet, it is better to take care of a special shed or shed. Excessive dampness in places where cattle is kept leads to a significant decrease in productivity. It is not necessary to warm the cowshed for this species of living creatures. Cows and so easily survive the winter. Indoors, animals are kept loose. Between themselves livestock gets along and may well find their own place to rest.
But with the maintenance of such livestock should be borne in mind that he has a rather wild disposition. If the herd is constantly kept on free grazing, the cows quickly wean themselves from interacting with the person. Therefore, upon contact, they may exhibit aggressive behavior. This is especially true of females who feel threatened by their calves.
Important! Do not allow too long independent finding of animals. And if possible, periodically return them to the barn, where the staff is constantly working.
As for the nutrition of this type of cow, it largely depends on the characteristics of the content. If the breeder can provide animals with enough free space, then such cattle can be fed only with pasture from pastures. This will be quite enough to achieve the above mentioned gains.
In addition to the basic calf diet, add:
- combined feed
- fine grain,
- various mineral supplements.
Young animals should be accustomed to any of these food components gradually. In addition, it is extremely important to monitor the amount of food fed to the animal. This kind of cattle is growing very rapidly for an extremely short period. If you do not adjust the poultry menu on time, she will quickly begin to develop obesity.
Important! In the summer, in addition to green fodder, it is necessary to install feeders with mineral dressing on the street. You should also take care of the free access of animals to the water.
Angus farm owners are often bred because of the high survival rate of the young. He has a high immunity, and there are enough minerals and vitamins from his mother's colostrum for full development.
Puberty in cows of this breed ends at 14 months. At this time, the animal is already fully prepared for mating. During successful mating, one calf is born, less often two calves. Usually the weight of a newborn is between 16 and 28 kg.
It is worth noting that this breed of cows strongly developed maternal instinct. The cow carefully takes care of the little ones and feeds them regularly. In addition, she constantly looks after the calf and can behave aggressively when trying to take away the young, so the mother and her offspring can safely be let out for free grazing.
The high popularity of the Angus is justified by the wide list of advantages that distinguish this species of cattle from others. These include:
- undemanding to conditions of detention
- strong immunity, which allows living creatures to easily endure cold periods and protects against many diseases characteristic of livestock,
- fast acclimatization in various climatic conditions
- accelerated puberty, which makes it possible for animals to mate when they reach 14-15 months of age,
- rapid weight gain in young animals, which with a properly planned diet can be up to 1 kg per day,
- high yield of meat products, which in most cases reaches 70% of the total body mass of a cow,
- high quality beef, which is highly valued in the market and implies thin fat layers,
- when crossing the Angus with other pedigree lines, a harmonious constitution, high productivity and black suit of Scottish cattle are passed on to offspring.
It is also worth noting that the Black Angus bulls are peaceful-minded and calmly coexist with humans and other animals. With constant contact with the man, the livestock learns to interact and listens to the owner without question.
Bulls black angus
The advantages of the breed include high survival of the offspring. Due to the natural immunity, most calves are born healthy and are less sick than the young of other varieties.
As for shortcomings, the most significant moment in this regard is the fragile skeleton of animals. This feature is complicated by the fact that cows are prone to obesity. But excessive weight with such a skeleton structure often causes injuries.
Thus, the Aberdeen-Angus breed is an extremely valuable acquisition for any cattle farm. But before breeding, it is necessary to study in detail the main features of the breed line. In addition, the owner must have access to extensive free pastures.
What to feed the Aberdeen-Angus cows?
To grow such animals at home it is not at all necessary to acquire all sorts of concentrates. Representatives of this breed is quite enough natural pasture forage base. These animals can be kept free-range all year round. Additional lure is introduced only in the winter, when cows are no longer able to independently produce food under a layer of snow.
It is desirable that forest or shrub thickets are located along the perimeter of the pasture, and there is a reservoir somewhere nearby. Animals grazing in such conditions do not need human supervision and do not require additional care. As for calves, their fattening begins almost from the first days of life. However, the situation is facilitated by the fact that they are grown on suction. It is thanks to maternal milk that the youngsters get all the vital nutrients. Therefore, Aberdeen-Angus calves practically do not get sick. Young animals can be fed with premixes, crushed grain and mixed fodder.
What is the difference between meat obtained from Aberdeen Angus cows?
According to most European breeders, high-quality marble meat can be obtained exclusively from bulls. Scottish farmers are confident that the product that was obtained from castrated gobies has the best taste. The muscle fibers of such animals are much thinner than those of ordinary individuals. Beef, obtained from Aberdeen-Angus, is considered truly elite. This extraordinarily soft and juicy marble meat has a thin evenly distributed fat layer.
To improve the taste of this product, it is recommended to withstand it for a certain time for aging or maturation. To do this, the meat is sent to a special room in which there should be no drafts. There is maintained a constant temperature on the verge of freezing the product. As a result, it becomes much softer, more nutritious, juicier. This is due to the fact that the connective tissue exposed to enzymes begins to decompose, enhancing the special taste of beef.
Aberdeen-Angus calves are born with relatively low live weight: heifers - 22-23 kg, bull-calves - 25-28 kg. The young growth differs in the increased precocity, gathering per day to 1 kg. Under the mother on the ground, babies are up to 8-10 months of age. By the time of weaning gain up to 250 kg body weight.
The heifers are ready to mate by 14 months, the first calving occurs at the age of 24-30 months. Full puberty in bulls comes to 3 years. Cows have a strong maternal instinct and are very careful with offspring. Twins are not uncommon for this breed.
- height at withers: cows - up to 125 cm, bulls - up to 135 cm,
- live weight of adult animals (from 3 years old): cows - up to 700 kg, bulls - up to 1200 kg,
- weight of bulls at the age of 15 months - 500 kg,
- meat yield - up to 70%,
- The breed average is 1200-1700 kg.
Aberdeen-Angus bull calves are sent for meat at the age of 15 months. Due to the nature of the breed, after reaching a certain size, the growth of animals stops and the accumulation of body fat begins (obesity). In this case, the quality of meat is significantly reduced. With timely slaughter meat fibrous, thin, very delicate structure, filled with thin layers of fat - the classic marble.
Aberdeen-Angus breed of cows does not require any specific conditions of detention. Animals easily adapt to almost any climate. It is undesirable to breed animals in too damp climate and to graze on the overwetted soil. No need for warm barns.
Lactating calves must be fed with crushed grain, premixes, mixed fodder, gradually accustomed to lure. The fact that babies get plenty of mother's milk up to 8-10 months, has a positive effect on their immunity and health. They practically do not get sick.
After weaning, the youngsters of the Aberdeen-Angus breed are fed with a diet containing 50% hay (grass) and 50% concentrated feed. Be sure to add protein, vitamins, antibiotics, mineral supplements. For young calfs, the diet is made with an emphasis on grain - up to 60%. Free round-the-clock (sometimes year-round) grazing significantly reduces the cost of meat production. Moreover, the increase in live weight is not reduced. On pasture animals provide free access to water. Be sure to control the diet of adult animals, so he did not overeat. The tendency to obesity leads to lower meat quality.
Aberdeen-Angus breed of cattle (cattle) has a number of advantages, which make it so popular:
- high average daily gains - an average of 1000 grams,
- precociousness of young stock, heifers are ready for mating at 14 months, and bulls are ready for slaughter weighing up to 500 kg,
- high slaughter yield - up to 70%,
- there is a low percentage of bone in the carcass,
- fine quality marble meat,
- the ability to use the breed as an improvement for the local livestock (animals firmly pass on their qualities to descendants),
- Komolost breed reduces injuries of staff,
- withstands low temperatures without problems
- very well adapted to grazing,
- high and fast adaptation to new conditions
- excellent fecundity is ensured by the good reproduction of cows throughout life (93-95%) with its average duration of 28-30 years.
The above positive qualities of animals are very attractive for cattle breeding. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account some specific points in the content of the Aberdeen-Angus breed:
- limb sabularity is the most common flaw; with uncontrolled feeding, thin bones can break under the weight of a heavy carcass,
- the rapid growth of young animals leads to an early cessation of growth, errors in feeding - to obesity and a decrease in the quality of meat,
- Aberdines are better adapted for grazing, therefore large areas are needed for grazing,
- a long stay on the free grazing without people can lead to wildness and aggression on the part of the cows protecting their offspring,
- cows give very little milk, and to get additional profits from dairy products will not work.
Animals of this breed are bred in the USA, Australia, Canada, Argentina, Scotland, and many European countries. They got spread in the CIS. In Russia, Aberdeen can be found in almost all districts: the Far East, the Volga Urals, the North-West, Central and South. Russian breeders managed to bring new breed types: Volgograd and Volga. In Ukraine, animals of black and red colors are popular. Despite the absence of sufficiently large areas for grazing, keeping in pens (additional costs for feed and cleaning) remains a profitable business.
Buying purebred animals is a very expensive undertaking. Farmers have found a way out. The sperm of Aberdeen-Angus bulls breed local cattle. Select the best youngsters and continue to absorb the mating. In the fourth generation get a great herd of Aberdeen. They fully meet the breed requirements and quickly recoup the investment. Success is influenced by several factors:
- type and duration of fattening
- age at slaughter,
- the number of layers of fat
- tribal species (black or red).
Today, striving to breed animals of red color. Numerous studies have shown that the quality of their meat is higher than that of their black counterparts. With proper feeding, the ruin does not threaten the household, since marble meat in the world rankings is in the first place both in price and demand.
Description and characteristics of the breed
Aberdeen-Angus cows have a rounded torso of medium length with short legs. The neck is short, wide, with well-developed musculature. Голова небольшая с хорошо выдающейся лицевой частью и выпуклым лбом. Спина, поясница, крестец, холка особенно мускулисты, имеют широкую прямую форму. Костяк хорошо развитой и крепкий. Кожа достаточно тонкая, рыхлая, имеет заметную подкожную клетчатку.
Скот этой породы комолый, т.е. безрогий. Относится к мясному типу. Масть — чёрная, но иногда встречаются животные коричного цвета. Externally, the cow is characterized by well-defined meat forms.
The height of an adult cow at the withers reaches about 1.1-1.3 meters, length - 1.7-1.9 meters, depth of the sternum - 60 cm, width-44-46 cm. The adult cow has a weight of about 550-600 kg, bulls - 800-850 kg. Cattle are distinguished by high precocity, for example, gobies reach a mass of 200 kg by the time of weaning.
Aberdeen-Angus cattle are of high quality meat. The intermuscular fat is evenly distributed in the carcass, and the deposition of subcutaneous and internal fat is moderate. Slaughter meat yield from one carcass is about 60-70%. Dairy qualities of cows are 1400-1500 kg per year.
Features and advantages of Aberdeen-Angus cattle breed
Concerning features, you should pay attention to the following points:
- High meat productivity. Meat from cattle of Aberdeen-Angus breed is of high quality and tasty. Fat, in the form of a layer, is evenly distributed along the so-called. marble meat, which is great for making top quality steaks.
- Heavyness and size. Cattle of this breed is growing rapidly and gaining weight. It is important to pay attention to cattle nutrition and housing conditions in order to avoid early obesity.
- Komolost - actively transmits when crossing.
- Precocity. Despite the fact that calves are not born large, the weight of bulls is about 25-26 kg, heifers-22-23 kg, the growth process ends quite early.
- Rapid acclimatization - adapts well to different weather conditions and climatic zones.
- Good transfer of their meat qualities, when crossed with other breeds.
To main merits The cows of this breed include the following characteristics:
- Fertility. Reproduction of cows lasts for almost the whole life and reaches 93-95%. The first insemination of heifers is carried out at 14-15 months.
- Longevity. The average age of livestock is 28-30 years or more.
- Easy calving. Due to the fact that calves are not born large, calving, as a rule, passes without any complications.
- Excellent transmission of the characteristics inherent in this breed. These include fleshy, precociousness and komolost. This advantage applies to both bulls and Aberdeen-Angus cows.
- Rapid ripening. Already by 2 years, bull-calves reach the necessary parameters for slaughtering.
Farms engaged in the breeding of Aberdeen-Angus breed cattle
In Russia, the Aberdeen Angus breed was introduced in 1932. Since then, cattle in most cases are bred for the purpose of crossing with breeds of the milk-meat and meat direction of productivity. Among the farms engaged in the breeding of Aberdeen-Angus cattle, the following should be highlighted:
Characteristics of the breed
The Aberdeen-Angus breed of cows differs from other species by a proper physique, body with rounded forms and average size. Cattle have relatively short legs, a wide cervical region and well-developed muscle mass. The head of the cows is small with a fairly strong frontal portion extended. The musculature on the back, the lumbar part and in the area of the withers is especially developed.
The cattle also have a very strong musculoskeletal system, and the skin has a loose and thin structure with subcutaneous fiber. Breed of cattle, and if more precisely, then hornless cattle, is beef. The color of animals with a predominantly black saturated shade, much less often - brown. According to external features, the animal can be immediately distinguished by pronounced meat forms.
Sizes and weight of Aberdeen-Angus breed
Height of mature animal at withers
Calves at the time of weaning
As previously reported, Aberdeen Angus livestock differs from other varieties in its high taste qualities of the meat product. The structure of the meat has evenly distributed fat layers of minimal thickness. As a result, slaughter goes up to 70% of the meat product. As for milk, in the year of the cow give 1450-1550 kg of product.
Advantages and disadvantages
Cows and bulls of the Aberdeen Angus breed have individual advantages and disadvantages. The advantages of animals are in the following factors:
- increased meat productivity and good quality of the product, suitable for making juicy steak,
- rapid maturation - at birth, livestock has a small mass of 22-26 kg, but the achievement of the maximum weight stops early enough,
- good acclimatization to any climatic conditions and zones,
- high fecundity - female reproduction lasts throughout life, reaching 94-96%, and maturation occurs 14 months later,
- simple calving - due to the fact that calves are born quite small, females often give birth without complications.
Also, the benefits should be attributed to the early maturation of the bulls, by two years they are already considered suitable for slaughter.
The animals are perfectly adapted to pasture living, but very quickly run wild and forget the owner - they are the undisputed leaders in terms of the “losses”
As for the shortcomings, they are more related to the build of cattle. In the photo you can see that cows are too developed mouse mass, which has a direct effect on the bone system. The backbone of the Aberdeen Angus breed, though strong, is not capable of withstanding an excessively large mass without complications. With obesity, break legs. This reason does not allow fattening cattle.
In the barn on the floor must be a thick layer of hay or straw. Laying down, the animal literally falls first on its knees, and after that it already assumes a comfortable posture. In order not to break the cups and not to injure, and need such an interlayer.
Also in this regard, problems may arise in pregnant heifers who, in addition to their mass, still harbor calves. With regard to the difficulties in growing, then the disadvantages include the need to prepare a large space for walking. The territory is required to inspect the absence of pits, clean of forbidden plants that Aberdeen Angus can eat. Keep livestock required in farming or hunting conditions.
VIDEO: Young and Aberdeen Chicks
Recommendations for keeping Aberdeen Angus cows
Aberdeen cows do not require the creation of special conditions for the content, because they easily tolerate various weather conditions. Therefore investments for the equipment of the place of residence will be minimal.
Cattle are allowed to grow in regions with cold, moderate and even hot climatic conditions. It should be noted that during adaptation to a new place in the bulls of the Aberdeen of the Angus breed, the gain in weight does not decrease. It is enough to build large shelters with a shed and provide them with a good ventilation system so that there are no favorable conditions for the reproduction of bacteria.
Initially, the Aberdines were a pasture variety, and now they need a lot of walking space.
The only condition that must be observed when keeping animals is to provide them with enough territory for walking. You also need to monitor the level of humidity in the room. Increased dampness may adversely affect cow health.
Fattening young bulls and calves is required from the first days after birth. But at the same time, weaning of youngsters from the mother is not recommended, so he will gain weight faster, and his bony system - the fortress.
The animal feeds regardless of age:
- crushed cereal mixtures,
To accustom calves to feedings should be gradually, introducing into the diet reduced portions.
Mature individuals Aberdeen Angussians are predisposed to obesity, so you need to correctly calculate the amount of daily food volumes.
Problems in raising animals can arise from their wildness, which especially develops with long-term free-range. The cattle quickly wean from people, after which it shows aggression even towards the owner. When running wild, cows regularly try to escape, so they require constant monitoring and care.
Females have a well-developed maternal instinct, even when trying to feed calves, chicks can rush to the breadwinner in order to protect the young. To solve the problem will help the return of the animal to the common barn, where people will constantly appear.
A bit of history
For the first time the breeding of Aberdeen Angus cows began to be engaged in Scotland, it happened one century after the breed was bred. Breeders created a variety in the 18th century in the county of Aberdeen, from which the name of the species was formed. Aberdeen cows are the result of mating of hornless Scottish black cattle, so it would be a little wrong to classify animals as cattle.
In 1873, George Grant sent four first calves to Kansas. Young stock turned out after mating of Angus with Texas Cattle. Calves were able to easily move the cold season and by the spring to gain enough weight. The Americans were greatly impressed by the breeding of the breed and by 1883 more than 1,200 individuals were included in this species. By 1886, the first batch of volumes of the Aberdeen breeding book was released.
Animals have got on the territory of the Russian Federation relatively recently, this event occurred in the period of 1958-75, during the times of the USSR. But at that time individuals were used exclusively for pure breeding. A little later, the species began to cross with other breeds of cattle.
Today, breeding heads can be purchased in existing livestock farms in the Tver region, Bryansk, Moscow and Voronezh. The price of an Angus cow varies depending on the thoroughbred and external characteristics.
VIDEO: Pros and cons of beef cattle