There is a surprisingly cute forest animal with a pretty cute face and a very beautiful fur coat. He lives in the taiga. There are so many varieties of it. About one of them can be found in this article. This barguzin is an animal (sable family). Consider and compare the species of sable living in the Russian open spaces.
Sable in nature: species
Sables are divided into subspecies. We give a brief comparative description of some of them.
The Tobolsk sable has rather large sizes: the length of the body together with the head is from 370 to 510 mm (males are larger than females), the tail length is from 130 to 170 mm. This is the brightest of all the sable species. Distributed in Western Siberia from the Urals to the river. Obi.
A bit smaller and darker than Tobolsk is the Kuznetsk sable. The body length is 375-480 mm, the tail is 120-162 mm long. The color of the fur is lighter than the Altai sable. Habitats - the western slopes of the Alatau (Kuznetsk region) and the Tom system.
The Altai sable is distinguished by a larger body and skull size and a darker color. Its body length reaches 380-490 mm, tail - from 120 to 176 mm. The color of its fur varies from yellowish to dark brown. It lives in the taiga areas of Altai. Barguzin is also found here - an animal acclimatized in these localities. It is a cross between Altai sable.
A huge variety of subspecies of this fluffy animal lives throughout the north-eastern part of Russia. Yenisei, Angarsk, Tungus, Sayan, Vitim, Chikois, Yakut, Kamchatka, Far Eastern, etc. With their names they speak about their habitats.
It should be noted that the rarest fur in the world is the white sable skin, which is occasionally found in the deaf Siberian taiga.
Barguzin (animal): description
Barguzin is a subspecies of sable, distinguished by its relatively small size and darker fur color. According to these characteristics, it is second only to the Vitim sables. Its habitats are: the coast of Baikal (eastern), the Barguzinsky ridge from tributaries of the r. Barguzin (right) to the watershed from the river. Hangar (top). Very modest and quiet animal Barguzin. Its dimensions are very small.
The body together with the head has a length of about 395-420 mm in males and 360-410 mm in females. The length of the tail of the male is from 122 to 155 mm, and the females from 120 to 145 mm.
Sable inhabits Baikal forests.
A bit about the Barguzinsky Reserve
Typically taiga fauna is represented in the Barguzinsky reserve. There are some features associated with the mountainous terrain and the location of Lake Baikal nearby.
Terrestrial vertebrates here are represented by more than 40 species of mammals, 280 species of birds, 6 species of reptiles, 3 species of amphibians, more than 40 species of fish, and 790 with more identified insect species.
Of all mammals, more than 80% are forest dwellers (among them, the Barguzin is an animal that causes quite a lot of interest). There are animals in these forests that are rare for these areas: flying squirrels, shrews (more common in Asia and in northern Europe).
Among the East Paleo-Arctic species (except for the Barguzin sable) are: Siberian salmon, musk deer, Asian forest mouse, chipmunk and lemming. Palaearctic species - deer (deer) noble. Alpine pike and vole are also present. Wolves, foxes, weasels, wolverines, ermines, lynxes, blue hares, brown bears, elks, etc. constitute a significant proportion of forest dwellers. The species of the Beringian fauna live here: the black-capped marmot and the beautiful reindeer.
Varieties of sable-barguzin fur, its value
The nature of the Barguzin sable bestowed on valuable and warm fur. The animal has a fur that varies in color from dark to light brown. Moreover, there is a bright spot on his neck.
It should be noted that the darker color of the skins is valued higher. The Barguzinsky sable living in the forests of the Baikal region is the darkest of all the animals of this species found in Siberia. Its fur in many of its characteristics exceeds the quality of the skins of its fellows. It is soft, thick, silky and light.
In this regard, a great interest is made by a cute Barguzin - an animal whose fur is of great value at international fur auctions.
Moreover, variations of color of fur have their own special names: fur is the lightest color (fawn or sandy-yellow) and cheap, the head is the darkest (almost black), more valuable and expensive.
Intermediate shades are: keratal (brown tone with a dark stripe on the back), podgolovka (lighter sides and a large bright throat spot).
The appearance of the beast
What does the Barguzin sable look like? The color of the animal is uneven and depends on the part of the body. For example, the darkest shade is observed on the head, almost black, the body is light, from yellow sand to a calm fawn, or brown with darkening along the back and a rich spot on the throat. The first option is called fur and is used as the main raw material for various products. The second one is used for the manufacture of shawls, caps and other items of clothing. From it often sew collars to the main product.
This furry animal is in fact a very clever and ruthless predator who likes to settle in cedar forests, thickets, stone placers, headwaters and rocky areas. Sometimes he climbs up to the crowns of trees. The Barguzinsky sable moves with the help of jumps that are 30 to 70 cm long. Thanks to the structure of the paws, it does not fall into the snow and deftly climbs along the branches of the trees. The animal has an excellent sense of smell and hearing, but the vision is weaker. The sound that makes this fluffy predator, can be called a rumbling, vaguely resembling a cat's purr.
The Barguzin sable, the photo of which can be seen in our article, feeds mainly on various rodents. Among them, red vole, pika, as well as squirrels and hares. In addition, the animal loves to eat birds, such as grouse or wood grouse. Sable hunting mode depends on the feeling of hunger. Despite the fact that the main activity occurs at night and at dusk, the predator also often goes to the fishery in broad daylight. In addition to food of animal origin, sable loves to eat nuts and berries, such as lingonberries, blueberries, mountain ash, currants, blueberries, wild rose and bird cherry. Thanks to a varied diet, the Barguzin sable, whose photo shows the animal in all its glory, boasts a silky and shiny fur.
Puberty and Pregnancy
In the wild, predator settles nests in hollows of trees, in placers of stones, as well as in burrows among rhizomes. Reaching sexual maturity in two to three years, these representatives of the weasel breed for 10-11 years. The cycle of reproductive activity ends with a maximum of the 15th year of life. Predators mate in summer, the main months are June, July. Pregnancy lasts about 8 months, more precisely 250-290 days, as a result of which between one and seven babies are born. On average, this number is 3-4 puppy. The female produces offspring in northern latitudes, beginning in May, in the southern regions - earlier than one month (from April).
Where in nature are found?
The Barguzinsky sable lives on the territory of the Siberian taiga, in the Urals, in the northern limits of forest vegetation on the Pacific coast, on the island of Hokkaido in Japan. Every year the number of this predator decreases due to the great value of its fur. A large population density was recorded in the mountainous regions of the Sayan taiga and the Kuznetsk Alatau. Often there is a sable in the central part of the region, for example, in the primary and forest-steppe lanes, also in Chulym.
The number of these animals is unevenly distributed across these territories. Southern latitudes, including Priangare and most of the Yenisei district, can also be called densely populated regions. Indeed, a lot of sables are observed in dark coniferous lands. For example, in Baikit and Turukhansky districts, as well as in the Yenisey taiga. In more light-coniferous thickets, the number is considered average. In the northern part of the taiga expanses, the Barguzin sable is a rare “guest”. In the forest-tundra belt to Nikolsky and Potapov, as well as in the eastern region to the rivers Kotui and Fomich, the settlements of the Künykh are observed sporadically.
The smallest number, if not the complete absence of these predators, was recorded in the southern strip. The reason for this, of course, is a thriving poaching. Depending on the habitat region, there are Tobolsk, Kuznetsk, Altai, Yenisei, Sayan, Angara, Tungus, Ilimi, Vitimsky, Chikoy, Yakutsk, Far Eastern, and Kamchatka sables.
Hunting for sable brings great benefits to the edge. When fishing is legal, and the number of animals is carefully monitored by the commission, there are no problems. But there is such an activity as smuggling. Expensive fur is exported as raw materials abroad, after which it enters the foreign market as finished products. The cost of coats, coats and sable caps is very high compared to the price of skins.
The champion on the value of fur is, of course, the Barguzin sable. Interesting facts show that in the history of Russia there were times when a product from a given animal was given an amount equal to the cost of an entire manor. When the demand for sable fur reached its peak, it was faked with marten and other members of this family. After all, with high-quality raw materials, the unenlightened buyer will not notice the difference.
The value of the fur is still high now. Russia is the only supplier of sable skins on the world market. The number of animals on the territory of other states is disproportionately small, which makes it impossible to produce raw materials on an industrial scale. However, this does not preclude poaching.
The market value of the finished product depends on the color of the Barguzin sable. The highest price has a rich, dark fur. Most often it is obtained from areas of the Baikal forests. The sable living in this area has the darkest fur.
In the world of fashion, products from this raw material are valued primarily because of their beauty and strength. A good fur coat will last for many years, warming its owner during frosts. However, the world's fashion houses do not focus on practicality. Today, the black Barguzin sable is a sign of status and wealth. He makes a pair of dresses and dresses from famous couturiers.
For the first time, world-class designer Marc Jacobs introduced innovation to the public. His products were made of shorn sable fur, which further increased its cost and reduced service life. After all, fur coats made from undercoat are quite susceptible to wiping. However, ladies from high society are not particularly worried about this. After all, chic coats and capes were worn exclusively on expensive techniques, where it was impossible to freeze. Products performed more decorative function.
Barguzinsky sable: animal breeding
The quality of the skins depends on the conditions in which the animal resides. The highest rates are, of course, sables grown in the wild. Their fur is the most expensive. Therefore, many became interested in breeding the Barguzin sable in captivity. There are a lot of nuances here. For example, with all the requirements and recommendations for the maintenance of these animals, only a quarter of the total number of females is capable of conception. In nature, sables are easier to adapt to changes in temperature, they lack the concept of stress. According to statistics, content in captivity contributes to later puberty. As a result, not all biological processes proceed in sable as it is laid by nature. Many females due to the low temperature in the enclosures do not have time to mature the follicles, which leads to problems with fertilization.
Also, the peculiarities of the content include the fact that individuals, depending on their sex, are located in cages separately. This is what affects the low threshold of fertilization in captivity. The reason for this is an interesting fact in the life of sables. The fact is that in early spring, females, as a rule, are in an interesting position. After mating, the male is close to her in nature. During this period, called the hungry, he brings the prey to her pregnant “girlfriend” so that she can refresh herself and gain strength for the future offspring. In captivity, due to a separate stay, such a process of courtship is impossible, which fundamentally changes the whole cycle of generation and the emergence of a new offspring along with its terms.
Temperature control also makes it difficult to breed. In the wild, temperature fluctuations depending on the season occur more smoothly. Animals quickly adapt even to sudden cold. In enclosures, nests are arranged in wooden boxes, where the temperature regime directly depends on weather conditions. Therefore, the breeding process requires many years of skills, knowledge and hard work.
The cost of the Barguzin sable differs depending on gender. For example, males have large body size and long hair. This makes it necessary to focus on breeding males. However, without maintaining the number of females, this is impossible, if we also take into account that the sable breeds more difficult in conditions of bondage.
The quality of the skins also strongly depends on the lighting conditions. You can not keep sable in the absence of ultraviolet radiation. Although it involuntarily happens when animals are in cages. In the wild, these predators practically spend most of their life cycle under the open sky. Under any weather conditions, this provides the maximum dose of ultraviolet radiation, which makes the fur velvety and shiny. In captivity, it is necessary to provide animals with natural sunlight.
Nutrition sable should be balanced. The diet of animals by two thirds consists of meat, the rest should be taken from milk, cottage cheese, vegetables, fruits. It is obligatory to take vitamin preparations.
Unfortunately, the amazing beauty and quality of sable fur served its owner a disservice. Skins of animals, obtained by Siberian hunters, were brought to Europe by tens of thousands. Their price was so high that the money they received formed the basis of the budget of the Russian state in the 17th century. Sable was mined by anyone who could and wanted, everywhere. As a result, by the early 1930s, this taiga miracle in many places was almost gone. The sable survived only where it was specifically guarded.
Now the situation has changed. Protection, a temporary ban on hunting, the fight against poachers led to the fact that the disappearance of sable is not threatened. In addition, in nature, it is now mined much less frequently, since they have learned to breed on fur farms.
Experts believe that today "Barguzin sable" is a more commodity-learning term than a biological one. The reason is that by the end of the 20th century the animal inhabited almost all the taiga places suitable for it, from Western Siberia to the Far East. This resulted in both protection measures and regular releases of sables into nature, in the territory where they were exterminated earlier. The species range has become almost continuous, and it is no longer possible to single out the area where the Barguzin sable lives as a separate subspecies.
Sable is a taiga animal. He is well in the dark coniferous forests, where cedars, fir trees and spruces grow. He lives in light larch forests, and in pine forests, everywhere preferring cluttered areas with a large number of fallen trees, scatterings of stones, and dense shrubs. The climber of sable is bad, although he will climb a tree if he is in danger. The beast prefers to run on the ground, deftly darting among the trunks. There, under the twisted roots or in the hollows of fallen trees, he arranges his own refuges. A cozy warm nest, lined with dry grass, he uses very carefully: the toilet is located in another place, in a special hole nearby.
According to their habits, this small predator is also unusual. He chooses a certain part of the taiga and lives on it for 2-3 years, equips permanent holes and temporary shelters. Moreover, it is settling down, and not doing it himself: the sable masterfully uses voids under its roots, old hollows or caves in stones.
On its site, the animal lays trails, marks the boundaries. Alien males, as well as ermines, and especially the columns, are immediately banished. This is understandable, because these predators eat almost the same thing - why should they endure a competitor near by? Там, где за соболем вели специальные наблюдения (например, в прибайкальской тайге), ученые обнаружили, что до восстановления соболиной популяции колонок в этих местах был обычным зверем, а сейчас его днем с огнем не найдешь. А вот со своей ближайшей родственницей куницей зверек прекрасно сосуществует. Юркая хищница использует в основном верхний ярус леса, а соболь - землю, поэтому и делить им нечего, В местах, где живут оба вида, можно встретить даже их гибрид - кидаса.
Через несколько лет соболь может вдруг сменить участок обитания. Sometimes he leaves quite far, for 150-200 km, even overcoming mountain ranges, And again he masters a new place - a real fidget!
FOOD DOES NOT HAVE A LOT
According to the type of food, sable can be called omnivorous. Of course, the basis of its diet is live prey: voles, shrews, pikas, less often squirrels and chipmunks. Large males can catch a hare, and especially lucky hunters sometimes attack even taiga fanged deer - musk deer. Some animals successfully catch huge compared to their own dimensions grouse and black grouses, sleeping in snow holes. Do not disdain predators and carrion, happy to eat snoi fish, cast ashore.
At the time of ripening pine nuts, this vegetable, but very nutritious and nourishing food takes up most of the sable ration. Wild berries are also used: blueberries, lingonberries, cloudberries - and honey, often together with bees.
Hunting sable most often in the dark. If there is little food, then during the night the animal can run up to 20 km in search of food.
On the reproduction of sable is worth special mention. Previously it was believed that the pregnancy in females lasts 2 months. Scientists have made such a conclusion because at the end of winter a rut occurs in animals, and in late April-May sables are born. A closer look at the zoologists found that the winter rut is false, and fertilization does not occur at this time. Real “weddings” at the sable - in the summer. The fertilized egg remains for a long time in the female genital tract and only in the spring begins to divide. This phenomenon is called the latent phase of pregnancy, it is in some other animals.
The sable female touchingly takes care of the blind, naked and completely helpless babies. At this time, you should not come close to its dwelling - it will attack, without thinking, even a dog! On average, there are few cubs in the litter, 3-4, and they live in a shelter, under mother's supervision, for about 1.5 months. Later, funny clumsy little animals gradually begin to go out and get acquainted with the outside world. By July, the time of the next rut, they leave the family and begin an independent life.
IN THE APARTMENT AS IN THE FOREST
To tame this moving nimble animal is quite easy, but only if it gets to a man at an early age. Here are just sable habits for a city apartment are very uncomfortable. For example, the animal loves to hide "yummy" in the most unexpected places: under the owner's pillow, in his clothes or on shelves with food. And yummy, according to sable, is, for example, a piece of not quite fresh fish or meat. Can you imagine the reaction of the owner who found in his dress pants a foul "gift"? Flower pots, too, rarely experience sable games, as well as other things lying or standing on the shelves. So, perhaps, you should not start this animal at home, its place is in the taiga.
SABLE IN FOOD CHAIN
The sable has relatively few enemies. They can be eaten by feathered predators (for example, different species of owls, especially the largest of them - an eagle owl), a bear (accidentally digging a nest with cubs), a large marten - harza. The predator itself eats both mouse-like rodents, and other small mammals, and plant food (berries, nuts).
POWER OF SABLE
Forest shrub. Lingonberry berries and leaves have medicinal properties. They are used both in medicine and in cooking. Many forest birds and animals in the autumn are happy to eat tart berries. They began to cultivate lingonberries in the middle of the 18th century, and in the 20th its plantations appeared in many countries of the world, including Rossha.
The common name for several species of small mammals is the family of shrews. This animal is about the size of a small mouse, but does not resemble it in biological characteristics. Eats everything he can cope with: beetles, grasshoppers, even lizards for mice. Interestingly, the shrew does not have day and night: during the day it has up to 200 or more periods of activity, interspersed with a short sleep.
Mammal detachment lagomorpha. A small animal, no longer than 20 cm, with small round ears. Lives on stone placers, scree, near the outcrops of rocks. At the same time it is very demanding on the size of the blocks: too large or too small it does not fit. In winter, it makes stocks of hay and other fodder, which other inhabitants of taiga often eat: deer, musk deer, hares and even bears.
SIBERIAN. OR ASIAN, BURUNDUK
The only representative of the chipmunk family living in Eurasia. Sometimes his lady isolated in a separate genus. Chipmunk is easy to recognize by the black stripes on the back, running along the whole body. Like many other rodents, it stores food for the winter: nuts, dried mushrooms and berries, acorns and other grains, carrying them in cheek pouches. The sable not only eats the chipmunks themselves, but also robs their storerooms.