Short description: Covinan is a hormonal drug based on the synthetic analogue of the natural sex hormone progesterone, proligestone. The drug is able to inhibit the function of the ovaries and prevent the development of heat in the female animals. It also inhibits proliferative processes in the uterine endometrium and in the mammary glands. At the same time, proligeston has minimal estrogenic, androgenic, and corticosteroid activity, therefore, its negative effects when using therapeutic doses of the drug are not manifested. According to the degree of danger to warm-blooded animals, the drug is classified as a low-hazard substance. It is not toxic, sensitizing or irritating.
For whom: Covinan is designed to suppress or prevent estrus in cats and bitches, as well as to prevent or treat false pregnancy and its associated pseudolactation.
Vacation form: The product is produced in the form of a white sterile suspension, which is packaged in 20 ml each in glass vials with a cap. 1 ml of the drug contains 100 mg of proligeston.
Dosage: Covinan needs to be injected only subcutaneously. With pseudolactation or false pregnancy, the dose is 1 ml of the drug for every 20 kg of weight. To inhibit estrus, cats weighing less than 7 kg are given an injection of 1 ml of the drug, and with a weight of more than 7 kg, the dosage is increased to 1.5 ml. For dogs, the dose is also calculated depending on the mass of the bitch: with a weight of up to 5 kg, administration of 1.5 ml of the preparation is indicated, with a weight of 5-10 kg - 2-2.5 ml, with a weight of 10-20 kg - 2.5-3 , 5 ml, if the dog's weight exceeds 20 kg, then the volume of the injected medicine is increased by 1.0 ml for every 10 kg. The first injection of the drug is made in the period of sexual rest (but in females it is possible to administer the drug on the first day of estrus). The second dose of the drug is administered after 3 months, and the third - four months after the second. The following shows the injection of the drug every 5 months. But if there are signs of starting heat, an extraordinary administration of medication is possible.
Limitations: in rare cases, animals after injection may cause inflammatory or proliferative diseases of the reproductive system. The drug is contraindicated for administration to cats or dogs that have previously had diseases of the urinary organs or who have vaginal discharge of an obscure nature, and also receive estrogens. With extreme caution, the drug is used in animals with metabolic diseases.
Release form and composition of the drug covinan
Release hormonal drug in glass vials with suspension for injection injection.
The structure includes the active component - proligeston and such additions:
- propyl parahydroxybenzoate,
- methyl parahydroxybenzoate,
- sorbitan palmitate,
- potassium dihydrophosphate,
- sodium citrate two-water,
- injection water.
Indications for use and mechanism of action
The drug is also used for the treatment and prevention of false pregnancy in cats, pseudolactation.
When ingested, the active substance (proligeston) penetrates the uterine mucosa, increases the viscosity of natural mucus, thereby preventing the egg from implanting. Among other things, the active component of the drug has the ability to inhibit the growth of follicles, to reduce the intensity of production of secretion of endocrine cells, both in cats and cats. Auxiliary substances included in the composition of Covinan, contribute to a better penetration and absorption of proligestone by the body.
Instructions for use
The subtleties and nuances of the procedure involve the participation of a specialist who can correctly calculate the dose and make an injection.
The dosage is determined by taking into account the weight of the animal and the purpose of using the product:
- for suppressing sexual desire - 1 ml of the suspension to cats whose weight is less than 7 kg, 1.5 ml of the preparation - to larger specimens,
- for the treatment and prevention of false pregnancy - 1 ml without taking into account body weight.
To achieve a stable effect, it is supposed to introduce it according to the scheme:
- the first procedure is performed after estrus or a month before its intended start,
- the second is repeated after 3 months,
- the third - 4 months after the previous injection,
- the fourth and all subsequent ones must be entered at intervals of 5 months.
Dosage for dogs is calculated differently:
- weight up to 5 kg - 1 ml,
- 5-10 kg - 1.5-2.5 ml,
- 10-20 kg - 2.5-3.5 ml, etc.
Before the injection, the animal must be examined by a veterinarian to exclude contraindications. If the cat is pregnant, you can not use the drug. Pets diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are under constant supervision by a specialist and breeder. The active component of Covinan can increase the level of glucose in the blood, so you need to regularly monitor the indicator.
After applying Covinan, the behavior of cats, if it changes, is for the better. The animal becomes more docile, obedient. Therefore, it is not necessary to sound the alarm about the excessive sleepiness of the pet or increased appetite.
Consumables and syringe are used exclusively sterile.
Contraindications for cats and dogs
There are restrictions on the use of:
- diseases of the genitourinary system
- period of pregnancy and lactation,
- in the first heat
- at the final stage of the forerunner.
Most often, side effects are manifested in the form of:
- hypertrophy of the mammary glands,
- weight gain (obesity),
- increased appetite
- adrenal suppression,
- endometrial hyperplasia.
Covinan is not prescribed for use in productive animals, as well as in combination with estrogens and progestogens.
Storage conditions and shelf life
Until the opening, the solution bottles are stored for 3 years (to be guided by the production date, which is indicated on the packaging).
It is also important to protect the bottle from direct sunlight, for this ideal place in the closet.
When working with Kovinan should follow the general rules of personal hygiene and safety
After the lid is uncorked, the product is immediately used, after 28 days the medicine loses its properties, therefore it cannot be suitable for use.
Price and analogues
The cost of one bottle with a capacity of 20 ml in different outlets ranges from 1956 rubles. up to 2155 rub.
If necessary, Covinan can be replaced by another drug of similar pharmacological action.
Most popular analogues:
However, after the termination of the drug intake, the hormonal background of the animal is fully restored, which can be considered the main advantage of the drug.
A drug that improves blood circulation and brain metabolism. It has a complex therapeutic effect, improving the blood supply to the brain and the rheological properties of the blood.
Vinpocetine has a neuroprotective effect: it reduces the negative effects of cytotoxic reactions caused by stimulating amino acids. The drug inhibits potential-dependent sodium and calcium channels, as well as NMDA and AMPA receptors. The drug enhances the neuroprotective effect of adenosine.
Vinpocetine stimulates cerebral metabolism: it increases the uptake of glucose and oxygen and the consumption of these substances by the brain tissue. The drug increases the resistance of the brain to hypoxia, increases glucose transport - an exceptional source of energy for the brain - through the BBB, causes a shift in glucose metabolism towards an energy-more favorable aerobic pathway, selectively inhibits calcium-calmodulin-dependent cGMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzyme, increases cAMP level, ATP concentration and ATP / AMP ratio, strengthens the metabolism of norepinephrine and serotonin in the brain, stimulates the ascending noradrenergic system, it has antioxide Antenna activity, as a result of the effects of all the above effects, Vinpocetine has a cerebroprotective effect.
Vinpocetine improves microcirculation in the brain: the drug inhibits platelet aggregation, reduces pathologically increased blood viscosity, increases red blood cell deformability and inhibits adenosine uptake, improves oxygen transport in tissues by reducing oxygen affinity for red blood cells.
Vinpocetine selectively increases blood flow in the brain: the drug increases the cerebral fraction of the cardiac output, reduces vascular resistance in the brain, without affecting the systemic circulation parameters (BP, cardiac output, pulse rate, CRPS). It does not cause the “robbing” phenomenon, on the contrary, when using the drug, the blood supply in the affected ischemic areas with low perfusion increases first of all - the phenomenon of the opposite “robbery” effect.
Indications for use
- in neurology: insufficiency of cerebral circulation, accompanied by neurological and mental disorders (including conditions after a stroke, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, vascular dementia, cerebral atherosclerosis, post-traumatic and hypertensive encephalopathy),
- in ophthalmology: chronic vascular diseases of the eye (lesions of the choroid and retina, including thrombosis, occlusion of the central artery or vein of the retina),
- in otorhinolaryngology: treatment of senile deafness in acute vascular pathology, toxic (drug) or other origin (idiopathic, due to noise exposure), Meniere's disease, tinnitus.
The simultaneous use of vinpocetine with beta-blockers (chloranolol, pindolol), clopamide, glibenclamide, digoxin, acenocoumarol, or hydrochlorothiazide in clinical studies was not accompanied by any interaction.
With the simultaneous use of vinpocetine and methyldopa, in rare cases, there was some increase in the hypotensive effect (with a combination, regular blood pressure control is required).
Despite the lack of data from clinical studies confirming the possibility of drug interactions, it is recommended that vinpocetine be prescribed with caution at the same time as centrally acting drugs, antiarrhythmic and anticoagulant drugs.
Cavinton's solution is chemically incompatible with heparin, therefore their introduction in one syringe is prohibited. However, if necessary, the simultaneous use of anticoagulants and Cavinton is permissible.
Due to the chemical incompatibility for the dilution of the Cavinton solution, infusion solutions containing amino acid cannot be used.
The drug is administered only as a slow intravenous drip infusion at a rate of no more than 80 drops / min.
The initial daily dose is usually 20 mg in 500 ml of solution for infusion. This dose can be increased to 1 mg / kg of body weight per day, within 2-3 days, depending on the tolerability of the drug. For patients weighing 70 kg the average dose is 50 mg / day (50 mg in 500 ml of solution for infusion).
The average duration of therapy is 10-14 days.
Have patients with kidney or liver disease no special dose selection is required.
The drug can not be administered in / m. The drug should not be administered in / in without dilution.
After completion of the course of infusion therapy, it is recommended to continue treatment with the drug in the form of tablets Cavinton ® forte (1 tab. 3 times / day) or Cavinton ® (2 tab. 3 times / day).
After completing the course of intravenous therapy, it is recommended to continue the treatment by prescribing the drug orally in the form of tablets Cavinton ® forte (1 tab. 3 times / day) or Cavinton ® (2 tab. 3 times / day).
Cavinton ® for injection can be used saline or solutions containing dextrose (salsol, ringer, rindeks, reomacrodex). Infusion solution should be used within 3 hours after preparation.
Indications for pregnancy
The use of the drug during pregnancy and lactation is contraindicated.
Vinpocetine penetrates the placental barrier, while the concentration of the drug in the placenta and fetal blood is lower than in the mother's blood.
Teratogenic or embryotoxic effect of the drug was not detected.
Vinpocetine is excreted in breast milk. When taking a single dose of vinpocetine within an hour, 0.25% is excreted in breast milk. Clinical data on the effect of vinpocetine on the body of the newborn is not available.
AT experimental studies It is shown that Vinpocetine does not affect the fertility of females and males of animals. Also not detected teratogenic and embryotoxic effects. The high-dose administration of the drug in some cases caused bleeding from the placenta and spontaneous abortion, apparently as a result of an increase in the placental blood supply.
With the on / in the introduction of pregnant animals, the toxicity of vinpocetine was higher. Peri- and postnatal studies did not reveal changes in the offspring due to toxicity.
In studies using a radioactive isotope, the radioactivity of breast milk was 10 times higher than that in the blood of the maternal organism.
Infusion of Kavinton should be carried out only after assessing the ratio of benefit and risk of treatment in patients with increased intracranial pressure, with arrhythmias, long QT interval syndrome, against the background of the use of antiarrhythmics.
When Cavinton is used in patients with prolonged QT interval syndrome and at the same time taking medications that prolong the QT interval, ECG monitoring is required.
The drug contains sorbitol, therefore, if the patient has diabetes, it is necessary to periodically monitor the level of glucose in the blood.
The drug should not be used in patients with a deficiency of the enzyme fructose-1,6-diphosphatase.
Influence on ability to drive motor transport and control mechanisms
Data on the effect of Cavinton on the ability to drive vehicles and control mechanisms are not available.
The results of experimental studies
Studies on the acute toxicity of the drug were carried out in mice, rats and dogs. Dogs could not determine LD50 when administered orally, since animals vomited after administration of the drug at a dose of 400 mg / kg.
In the study of subacute toxicity in rats with a / in the introduction within 14 days of symptoms of toxicity was not observed during the use of the drug in doses up to 8 mg / kg, in dogs - on the background of / in the introduction of the drug for 28 days at a dose of 5 mg / kg With the introduction of the drug in higher doses, salivation, an increase in heart rate and respiratory movements were noted. In rats, good tolerability was observed even with the use of the drug in a dose of 25 mg / kg.
In the study of chronic toxicity (for more than 1 year), no clinical, laboratory or histological changes were found. Oral administration to rats at a dose of 100 mg / kg for 6 months did not cause systemic toxic effects. At a dose of 45 mg / kg when administered orally, dogs showed a deterioration in appetite and vomiting. In / in the introduction of Cavinton in a dose of 5 mg / kg to dogs for 90 days was accompanied by a decrease in appetite, the appearance of spasms, increased pulse and respiration. At the same time, laboratory parameters and histological results remained unchanged.
When conducting several special tests it was shown that Vinpocetine does not have a mutagenic effect.
According to the results of biennial studies, it was concluded that vinpocetine is not carcinogenic to humans.
Description of the drug Kovinan
Covinan (Covinan) is a hormonal drug for cats and dogs used to regulate sex hunting and false pregnancy in females. The drug was developed in the Netherlands pharmacological company Intervet (Intervet International B.V.).
Kovinan is a popular veterinary drug that is sold in almost any veterinary pharmacy.
Intervet was established in 1949 in the city of Boxmeer (the Netherlands). The purpose of the creation was the development and production of vaccinations for birds. The demand for manufactured goods was great, so a small firm developed rapidly. In 1969, it became known as Intervet International B.V. and became part of the largest pharmacological organization Akzo Nobel. Gradually, the brand "Intervet" became known throughout the world and the unit entered the top three world leaders in the production of veterinary vaccines. Once again, Intervet became a separate organization in 2006, and a year later it became a division of Schering-Plow, which is part of Merck & Co (Merck Animal Health or MSD). In Russia, this company is called LLC Intervet. MSD Animal Health.
Form of release Covinana
Covinan is available in the form of a suspension for injection. It is poured into bottles of dark glass. Each bottle (20 ml) is closed with a rubber stopper and rolled in with a metal cap. All units of the drug are individually packaged in cardboard boxes with an annotation. Packing with 1 bottle can cost from 1700 to 1900 rubles.
Внешне Ковинан представляет собой мутную белую жидкость, которая при хранении может расслаиваться. Это легко устраняется при интенсивном встряхивании.
Раньше на упаковке Ковинана был указан производитель MSD, а на современных указан — Intervet (но в ветаптеках можно встретить обе модификации)
The composition of the drug
The composition of the hormonal drug includes the following substances:
- proligeston (active ingredient),
- nutritional supplements E-214 and E-218,
- polysorbate (surfactant),
- lecithin and sorbitan palmitate (emulsifiers),
- sodium citrate duhvodny (food supplement E-331),
- potassium dihydrogen phosphate (salt used to make isotonic solution),
- macrogol 4000 (substance causing laxative effect),
- water for injections.
How to store Kovinan
The instructions for use say that Kovinan must be stored in the following conditions:
- in the closed packaging of the manufacturer,
- separate from food and feed,
- out of the reach of children
- in a dry place protected from direct sunlight
- at a temperature from 2 ° C to 25 ° C,
- within 3 years from the date of production.
Important: the suspension should be used immediately after opening the bottle. Unused medicine should be disposed of immediately. Also, do not use expired or spoiled medicine (for example, a dark suspension).
A first aid kit is the perfect place to store Kovinan and other veterinary drugs.
How does Covinan work
Hormonal in Kovinan is only the active substance - proligeston. This is a synthetic steroid component that affects the secretion of hormones in the pituitary gland. Without these hormones, follicular production in the ovaries is disturbed and viscosity increases in the uterus. As a result, the fertilized eggs can not be fixed, and the secretion of the mammary glands is also disturbed. This explains the contraceptive effect of the drug. But with the abolition of the drug the level of hormones in the blood is restored.
Proligestone accumulates in the body, therefore, after discontinuation of the drug, its action does not end immediately. Most of the substance is removed from the faeces, as it enters the intestine along with bile. The rest of proligeston is excreted in the urine.
Features of use in cats
Covinan must be administered subcutaneously. Do not allow intracutaneous administration, as well as the ingress of drugs in the subcutaneous fat layer or scar tissue. It is recommended that the injection site be treated with alcohol or an alcohol-containing solution. Shake the suspension thoroughly before use. To successfully apply and achieve the desired effect, you need to correctly calculate the dosage and draw up a treatment regimen.
Covinan application scheme
If you want to prevent a sexual hunt once, then you need to do 1 injection in the dormant period (within 3-4 months after the last heat). But in the case when it comes to constant use, you need to follow the schedule:
- the first injection in the dormant period,
- second shot 3 months after the first injection
- the third injection 4 months after the second injection,
- then the drug is administered every 5 months.
Once my mother was going on a long train, and she had no one to leave the cat (Dusya) with. It so happened that at that moment I had a stranger cat in my overexposure, and we did not plan to knit Dusi. When they brought her, I noticed signs of a precursor (there were discharges, but she did not let the cat to her). I had no choice but to take the animal to the vet. Douce was shoved by Kovinan, and the cat no longer pestered her. True, the first couple of days I had to look after the animals, but the rest 2 weeks the cat quietly coexisted with a cat.
There are several rules that should not be forgotten when working with the drug:
- before and after contact of the hand should be washed with warm water and soap,
- in case of accidental contact of the drug with the skin or mucous membranes of the eyes, they must be washed,
- people with hypersensitivity to the components should avoid direct contact with Covinan,
- in the case of allergies or in case of accidental ingestion of the drug in the human body, you must immediately contact the medical facility,
- empty medication bottles must not be used for domestic purposes; they must be disposed of with household waste.
To avoid direct contact with the medicine, rubber gloves and other personal protective equipment can be used.
Possible side effects and contraindications
Covinan can not be used by the following animals:
- pregnant and lactating cats,
- cats during estrus,
- cats with pathologies of the genitourinary system,
- cats, which have a long time observed discharge.
Some veterinarians do not recommend the use of Covinan in diabetes mellitus, but this disease is not a contraindication. In such cases, the drug can be used under the supervision of the attending veterinarian, as it requires constant monitoring of blood sugar levels.
In some cases, the cat may experience side effects:
- pain at the injection site (immediately after the suspension),
- the hair may brighten at the injection site (rarely hair loss occurs on this part of the body),
- the cat may gain excess weight (hormonal failure),
- gluttony or, conversely, indifference to everything
- increase of milk glands,
- inflammation of the uterus (pyometritis, endometritis, etc.).
The likelihood of undesirable effects when using Kovinan is not high - up to 0.6%.
I asked the vet why the instructions indicate possible side effects if they might not occur. A veterinarian replied that it was done for security reasons. For example, if a cat has a sudden swelling of the mammary glands, this does not mean that the medicine did not help. This phenomenon can pass without intervention (of course, it’s still advisable to show the cat to the vet). But if this effect is not specified in the instructions, then the owners can make wrong decisions (for example, inject another dose of the medicine) and harm the cat.
The use of hormonal drugs can lead to undesirable consequences, so before treating a cat, consult a veterinarian.
The combination of the drug Covinan with other drugs
Covinan can be used in conjunction with other veterinary drugs, except for the following:
- estrogens (estrone, estradiol, etc.),
- progestins (Proligestone, Mepregenol, etc.).
The combined use of Covinan with other hormonal agents is fraught with increased side effects.