Often the floor of the pet is crucial when buying it. But if it is difficult to determine the sex of a dog or cat, even for non-professionals, then it is much more difficult to determine the sex of the land tortoise.
Knowledge of belonging to a defined land tortoise can be useful if the owner plans to engage in their breeding, yes, and simply, when choosing a nickname and the choice of sharing the individual individuals.
Ground tortoise floor with great accuracy it is possible to determine when an individual is already at a mature age. This is approximately 1.5-2 years. Determine the gender can be on some external grounds.
If you carefully examine the paws of a reptile, you can see the difference between males and females. In males, claws are much stronger, thicker and longer than in females. This is due to the need to fix your body during the mating period. In females claws are small and blunt.
However, claw length is not a 100% sign for determining the sex of a tortoise. The claws of a reptile can grind during life. It depends on the conditions in which the turtle lives and how much coverage it has in the aquarium, as well as the duration of its location on land.
Determination of sex on the shell
Another way to determine the sex of a land tortoise is to inspect its shell - a plastron. If the turtle has a concave plastron shape, as well as outstanding growths of the skin on the thighs, the so-called femoral spurs, then this is a male. These skin growths are necessary for him to stay on the female during mating.
Samochek characterizes flat shell. In all females, concavity is almost imperceptible or completely absent. A male can be identified by a concave abdomen, and a female by a flat or slightly convex one.
Also determine the floor of the pet will help inspection of the back of the shell. The male armor in the tail strongly bent to the ground. The shell completely covers his tail. In females, the tail is small and fully visible from under the shell.
For females capable of mating, the presence of visible tubercles on the shell is characteristic. Males at an early age also have similar hillocks, but as they mature, these hillocks smooth out. In males who have reached puberty, there are no hillocks and the shell is smooth.
In addition, the shells of the male and female turtles differ in shape. In males, the shell is oblong. In females, on the contrary, the shell is wider and more round.
In males, the sexual organ is in the tail. The shape of their tail has some peculiarity. It is quite long and expands at its base. Females, on the contrary, have a thin and short tail.
The form of cloaca in turtles
The form of the cloaca will tell you about the land turtle field. The female turtles have a cloaca, in its shape resembling a star. It is located almost on the edge of its shell. In males, on the contrary, the cloaca is located at some distance from the shell and has the form of a longitudinal strip.
Other genital signs in turtles
The land of a tortoise can be determined by its size. In order for females to bear healthy offspring, nature has created them larger. The difference in size between the male and female is especially noticeable if several individuals simultaneously reside in the aquarium.
You can determine the sex of turtles by the color of their eyes. Most often, females have yellow eyes, and males have brown eyes.
You can also determine the sex of reptiles by their behavior. Particularly visible difference in the mating season. It is through the behavior that one can truly ascertain where the female turtle is, and where the male is.
Males, in order to make an impression on females, behave extremely actively and even aggressively with their kindred. They usually arrange fights and attack each other, biting at the same time their rivals for body parts that are not protected by armor.
Before females, male turtles demonstrate all their virtues. It looks like a kind of dance. Males begin to swing their front paws, intensively move their heads from top to bottom, actively move their tails and make attempts to climb females.
During a fight, the males turn on their backs and strike each other with clawed paws. This behavior is not typical for females. Females are always calm and unhurried, even in the mating season.
For each species of land turtles, and there are more than one dozen of them, besides the general signs of sex determination, there are individual features that are characteristic only for him. This may be the color of the eyes, nose or a particular shape of the tail. Determine the sex on such grounds only a specialist.
In addition, belonging to the female or male sex is already determined at sexual maturity, therefore, when buying a small turtle in a store, this will not be possible. Therefore, it is better to give a nickname to a pet that will suit him regardless of gender.
Signs characteristic of all species
The size. If you try to determine the sex of a turtle by its size, then you need to compare two individuals of the same species and about the same age. The size of the female is usually slightly larger, due to the need for reliable gestation of eggs.
However, this does not apply to such species of turtles as box and desert, American marsh turtles, Mullenberg turtles and some other rare species, where the male is somewhat larger than the female.
Shell shape can also tell a lot. If the males have an armor has an elongated shape, and its rear part is almost touching the ground, then the females mostly have a round house. In addition, females differ from boys in that the surface of their shell is uneven, as a rule. If we imagine how the pairing of individuals occurs, then such a characteristic feature becomes clear.
Plastron Shape - the lower part of the shell of the animal - is a very important sign of gender. In females, the plastron almost always has a smooth surface, it can even be slightly convex. As for the males, their plastron is always concave, which also corresponds to the position of the individuals during the mating period.
The shape and length of the tail can help in determining gender. The males have a relatively long and thick tail, where the sexual organ is hidden (located under the rear part of the shell). In females, on the contrary, the tail is slightly shorter, wider at the base and pointed at the end; it protrudes out from under the carapace.
Cloaca individuals also have differences. Turtles are egg-laying reptiles. For the careful and accurate laying of eggs, females are equipped with an asterisk cloaca. In males, it has the form of a short straight line.
Claws If they are long and slightly bent, then this is a sign of a male. The fact is that the claws help him to keep on the female in the process of reproduction of offspring. In females, claws are usually short.
Behavioral signs of gender
The behavior of turtles, especially in the mating season, allows determining their sex with maximum certainty. But this method is effective only when several pets are kept together.
Females are almost always calm, including in the mating season. Males at this time become very active and often aggressive towards their potential and obvious rivals. The manifestation of aggression is accompanied by an attack on other males, biting them on their paws, turning over onto their backs.
To attract the attention of female females, male individuals arrange so-called demonstrations: they actively move their heads up and down, swing their paws with long claws, release the tail from under the shell and demonstrate it, make attempts to climb back on the female. Due to this behavior, it is not possible to make a mistake in the gender of this or that individual.
Sex characteristics characteristic of certain species
Science distinguishes quite a few species of land turtles, and each has the characteristic features of sex, vividly or dimly expressed.
For example, the male of the Central Asian and Balkan species has a long and thick tail, which in a quiet position is gently bent under the back of the shell.
In individuals of another subspecies — the Caroline box-shaped — sexual characteristics can be distinguished by the color of the eyes of the individuals. Females have a pale red color of the eye iris, but the males have bright red eyes.
Individuals of the male yellow-headed indian have a pink nose, and in females it is of the usual pale gray color. And here, for example, in Spengler male turtles, the eyes are blue, just like in humans.
Thus, the correct answer to the question about the gender characteristics of these domestic reptiles can be given only when the individuals reach a certain age. If a baby land turtle is acquired in a pet store, then with the definition of sex you will have to wait and give some neutral nickname. By and large, it is not so important. The main thing is to love your leisurely and calm pet, isn’t it?
How to determine the age of the turtle
Sometimes a pet comes to us from an unknown owner, and there is no one to ask about it, but it is very important to know about the pet's age.
One way to find this out is to calculate the age arithmetically, assuming that each year a newborn reptile measuring 3 centimeters and weighing 10 g grows 2 cm. This is an average rate accepted for all representatives of land reptiles of medium and small size. Accordingly, a pet by 10 years will have a length of about 18-20 centimeters. But do not forget that some species of turtles are more active growth of females.
Another way is to study the horny shells of the shell, which every year become more and more rigid. For the first year, up to 2-3 light layers are formed, and after five years they tend to darken, after which such “rings” begin to appear in the turtles annually. You can distinguish an old bug by a pale shell, devoid of a bright pattern.
How many land turtle lives at home
The life span of land turtles depends on external and internal factors, in particular on the environment in which they live, as well as on the physiological characteristics of the organism of this species of animals.
Representatives of wildlife live about 150 years and the larger the individual, the longer its life span, the domestic turtles are able to live next to a person for no more than 50-60 years, although this is not a small period. Of course, the main role in this is played by the proper care, maintenance and nutrition of a small pet.
Scientists explain such a big difference by the fact that in the natural environment the animal, in fact, constantly being on a forced diet, while continuously moving in search of food. This gives her certain advantages, which, for the most part, their household brothers, literally fed to death, are deprived. This is why veterinarians regularly remind owners that the reptile should not overeat.
The age of the land turtle is not at all a hindrance to its active, cognitive activity, and it does not matter that the animal is not a model of speed - this amazing reptile can live and please its owners for quite a long time if the owner shows real care for his little unusual pet.