Reproduction of goldfish
Reproduction and breeding goldfish
Goldfish is one of the most ancient aquarium fish. Their story begins in the first century AD and Ancient China. Even then, emperors of the east and Buddhist monks began to maintain, breed and select goldfish.
Actually, therefore, at present there are a great many aquarium goldfish, and their cost can vary from 2 dollars to several thousand dollars.
So, if you want to feel like a true goldfish breeder, emperor or Buddhist monk, then this article is for you!
However, goldfish are not guppies and in order to get offspring you still have to work hard and be patient. In addition, you need to have a sufficient number of aquariums or ponds.
Goldfish breed independently, without any hormonal injections or without creating too specific conditions. Actual, good maintenance and proper feeding is the criterion and incentive for spawning producers. All types of goldfish can spawn in aquariums of a small volume of 30 liters. However, better results can be achieved in larger aquariums or in ponds.
Spawning of goldfish can occur at a temperature of 16 degrees Celsius, but it is better to maintain the temperature of aquarium water at a level of 22-24 degrees Celsius. After replanting manufacturers increase the temperature by 2 degrees. The water level in the spawning pond should be 20-25 centimeters, the water should often be replaced with fresh and aerated.
Unlike many other spawning aquariums, spawning for goldfish should be well lit all daylight hours. If it is a pond, then the sunlight should be scattered, and the pond should be equipped with shelters in the form of floating plants.
Producers are planted in a spawning aquarium in the ratio of 1 female to 2-3 males, they are abundantly fed with live food (bloodworms, earthworms, daphnia, etc.). At the same time, they try to select manufacturers based on their size. Especially females - the bigger they are, the more eggs they sweep out. And vice versa - small females throw less eggs. The aquarium is equipped with vegetation richie, duckweed, perististochnik, etc.), and the bottom of the aquarium is not strewn with anything - on a clean bottom the eggs are better preserved and do not die, but some aquarists set a separate grid. Sexual maturity in fish comes to a year of life. In this case, the males appear on the gills white bumps and the so-called "saw" on the front paired fins, and the females are fattening caviar, their body is bent. See more details: HOW TO DETERMINE THE FLOOR OF GOLDEN FISHING.
A female matured for breeding emits a special substance that has a characteristic odor and is particularly concentrated in the genital organs. Actually, this smell attracts males and is a signal of a female's readiness for reproduction. Under the action of this secretion males begin to swim for females.
Under pond conditions, spawning manipulations are recommended in March - April, with the expectation that spawning will begin in May - June. It is believed that this is the most successful time for the successful ripening of caviar. In addition, at this time it is easier to provide the eggs and fry the necessary comfort.
If the courtship of the males began before March - April and the spawning is to be delayed, the producers are seated and also the water temperature is lowered to the desired period (period).
The peak of reproduction of goldfish is accompanied by violent courtship of the males - they chase the female around the reservoir, and on the day of spawning, these courtships look like a frank pursuit.
The spawning begins with the first rays of the sun and lasts six hours. Gold spawns can every month until October. During one spawning, the female can sweep up to 3000 eggs. At home, spawning goldfish can sometimes occur continuously - year-round. However, this leads to the exhaustion of manufacturers and in this case they should be given rest, transplanting in different aquariums.
Photo Caviar Goldfish
Caviar ejection occurs gradually. - the female driven by the males touches the vegetation or the walls of the aquarium and releases 10-30 eggs, which the males immediately fertilize - watering the eggs with seed.
Then, sticky caviar falls to the bottom or sticks to the plants.
Eggs on the first day are slightly orange and slightly flattened, the diameter of eggs is up to 1.5 millimeters. On the third day, the eggs are straightened and discolored, and therefore they are difficult to detect.
Immediately after spawning, the producers are removed from the spawning tank, otherwise the offspring will be eaten.
The water level in spawning caviar is reduced to 10-15 centimeters, protected from overheating and excessive illumination. Aquarium intensively aerated.
The appearance of fry from caviar depends on the water temperature. At a water temperature of 22-24 degrees Celsius - the incubation period is 4-5 days, but at a temperature of 14 degrees Celsius it can reach 7-8 days.
On the second day after the appearance of the young in the aquarium, it is recommended to launch snails (for example, coils) so that they eat the dead and unfertilized eggs. You can carefully assemble yourself, but it is more difficult. It is very important not to kill the young. At the same time, leaving the dead calf is fraught with - live larvae do not tolerate "dirt" and can get sick.
Young goldfish in the first days is weak and harmless, in fact, it looks like a reed with eyes and a yolk vial in the middle (the yolk bladder is necessary for obtaining nutrients in the first days of life). Fry move in spurts and can stick to the stop.
After about 2-3 days, they begin to blithely float around the reservoir, and from this point on, the young need to be fed with starter feed: living dust, the finest algae, and other feeds ground to dust. After 2 weeks, you can give larger feed. At the age of one month, juveniles are capable of taking a small bloodworm. As a starting feed, egg yolk is also used, finely ground in water, as well as soaked oatmeal grated in dust. The fry are fed abundantly, but in portions - little by little, but often.
photo larva Golden Fish
We can recommend the following feed for young goldfish. TetraMin Baby is a qualitatively sifted mixture of highly nourishing and functional ingredients to support healthy growth in the early stages of fish life.
After two weeks the fry are planted in 30 liter aquariums at the rate of 250 fry per aquarium. Aquariums flush or replace water frequently. Without purging aeration, it is recommended that 120 fry be planted per aquarium. So they contain up to 2 months of age, gradually sorting by size and reducing their number. Fry are caught not with a net, but with a saucer or other container. So they are easier to get and count.
Sorting carried out on the principle of rejection. Harvested juveniles with defects, juveniles lagging behind in growth, etc. Ultimately, get pedigree goldfish.
Defective and non-standard young, unfortunately kill. Firstly, because it, as a rule, does not survive itself, and secondly, even if it survives, nothing good comes out of it. With its further content, you risk getting outbred offspring - bastards, well, and if you go further, then the fish will simply degenerate into a silver carp.
At first, the scaled juveniles of goldfish have a silver-gray color, like the progenitor of the goldfish. Coloring appears only at the age of 3-5 months. To improve the brightness of the fish color, it is recommended that “sunbathing” light should be diffused. In an artificial reservoir, no shading is needed, on the contrary, the aquarium is intensively illuminated with lamps. It is worth noting that the color of goldfish can vary in fact a lifetime.
Scaleless fry do not go through the aforementioned period of silvery color and at the age of two weeks begin to turn into their final color.
Young goldfish are very capricious and prone to disease. To avoid mortality of offspring, you should regularly monitor the purity of the aquarium, aeration and filtration. Constantly monitor the population - do not forget to settle as they grow.
When breeding goldfish need to strictly observe the species crossing. All goldfish can interbreed with each other (for example, veiltails with comets).
Summing up, you can make a short list of what you need for breeding goldfish:
- one-year-old males: 1 female, 2-3 males.
- aquariums: the main from 150 liters, spawning from 30 liters, aquarium for youngsters,
- aquarium soft-leaf plants,
- of course: aeration, filtration, thermostat,
- feed for fry,
- improvised aquarium equipment,
- tests for NH4, NO2, NO3.
There are over 125 varieties of goldfish. One of their most popular and unusual representatives is the goldfish orana. It was bred in China, from where it was spread throughout the world. Because of the large red growth on the head, this fish has received another name - the red cap fish.
Fish live 10-15 years, and in ideal conditions can live to 20 years.
This fish outwardly stands out among other species of goldfish due to the huge red growth that is located on the crown. The nest begins to form at the age of 3 months. At the age of 1-2 years, it becomes visually noticeable, and finally formed at the age of 3-4 years. The fish has an oval large body, all fins, except the spinal, are paired. This fish belongs to the voilehtail, it has long beautiful fins. The scales of the fish glitter in the light, although there are also matt varieties.
Oranda goldfish can be one-colored or wear different color combinations. Color combinations usually include the following colors:
More recently, the breeders was derived blue coloring fish. One of the most popular colors is white with a red hood.
The body length of the fish is 5-18 cm, and it depends on the volume of the aquarium. In the pond, it can reach even more impressive sizes. The record was recorded in Hong Kong, where the fish reached 38 cm in length.
Features of maintenance and care
The Oranda goldfish is very demanding of conditions. That is why a newcomer can not cope with it. Her cap is vulnerable to infections and bacteria, so in an insufficiently clean environment the fish immediately starts to hurt. The oranda is important for them to have plenty of space. When choosing an aquarium, you should pay attention that the fish need a rectangular tank with a large surface area of water. One fish needs an aquarium of 100 liters. Then for each subsequent individual it is necessary to add 40 liters to the total area. Goldfish produce a lot of waste, which is why they need large volumes, because they pollute more slowly. A powerful filter must function in the aquarium.
The optimum water temperature for orande is 18-22 degrees. When the temperature drops below 16 degrees, the fish may die. Orands love to dig in the ground, and besides, they can easily hurt their luxurious fins on convex and sharp decorations. For them, it is worth picking up simple smooth backgrounds with no sharp ends. For the soil it is better to use finely rolled gravel.
Oranda goldfish do not like to jump out of the water, so you can do without the cover over the aquarium. They also do not need lighting, which is important only for algae in the aquarium.
Water changes in the aquarium should be done every week. It should be updated at least 30% of its volume. In a small aquarium, water replacement should be done much more often. It is very important to monitor the cleanliness, clean the glass surface, the soil and the decorations in time.
This is quite voracious and unpretentious fish. They will eat as much as the food you give them. It is worth remembering that it is better to feed a small fish than to overfeed. Fish are prone to obesity, from which they often die. The daily diet should not exceed three percent of the weight of the fish. Feed to the aquarium should be poured as much as the fish can eat in 10-15 minutes, the rest must be removed from the tank. If the fish suddenly begin to swim, leaning to the side, this may indicate overeating. To avoid the death of a pet, you do not need to feed the fish for two days.
The diet of the fish (Little Red Riding Hood) should be varied. It should include dry and live food. From live feeds you can offer: daphnia, tubule, bloodworms, worms. For feeding aquarium fish, it is important to use special adjustable live food, and not caught in nature. Otherwise, infection with infections and parasites is possible. Feed the young need twice a day: in the morning and late in the evening. An adult fish is enough for a single meal.
The oranda goldfish swims poorly, and besides, it has the reputation of being a scavenger. She can easily become a victim of even smaller fish. For example, guppies often eat its fins. Flickering back and forth fish will cause concern to the awkward orana goldfish. Difficulties may arise in feeding, as you need to carefully monitor that the fish do not overeat. Although this is a peaceful inhabitant of an aquarium, it is better to settle it in a separate container from other species. It is permissible to settle with other types of egg-headed fish: telescopes, lion heads, etc.
Goldfish species are very diverse - for a long time, breeding managed to bring about 300 different variations, surprising variety of colors and shapes. We list the most popular ones:
- Common Goldfish - suitable for indoor aquariums and open tanks. The look most of all reminds a classical silver crucian. Reach 40 cm, the color of the scales is red-orange.
- Butterfly dzikin - the name was due to a forked fin, resembling the wings of butterflies. In length reach 20 cm, divorced only at home.
- Lionhead - has an egg-shaped body, up to 16 cm in size. The head is covered with small growths, which gave the name to the species.
- Ranch - has a flattened body and short fins, dorsal absent, the color can be very diverse.
- Ryukin is a slow-moving fish with a curved spine, which makes its back very high. Loves warmth, reaches a length of 22 cm.
- Vualehvost - slow and quiet, with slightly enlarged eyes and a long beautiful tail.
- Telescope - has very large eyes, the shape of which can vary depending on the variety.
- Bubble-eye - the species got its name due to large bags located around the eyes and filled with liquid. The size of these formations can be very large - up to 25% of the entire pet size.
- The comet is a very active fish with an oblong body shape. They have a long tail of various shades.
- Pearl - the name received due to the unusual shape of scales that resemble halves of pearls.
- Oranda - different bizarre outgrowths on the gill covers and head. Very large individual - reaches 26 cm and more.
Goldfish content extremely unpretentious. The only problem with which there can be problems is to provide enough space for it. For one individual need an aquarium from 50 liters.
General requirements for water:
- Temperature is from 20 to 25 degrees.
- PH from 6.9 to 7.2.
- Stiffness should not be below 8.
On the ground should pay special attention, as the fish love to dig in it. To exclude the possibility of ingesting grains, they must be either very large or too small.
Be sure to land the plants - the fish eat greens. Many aquarists believe that this is how pets get the necessary vitamins and plant plants specifically. It is recommended to plant them in pots so that the fish do not damage the roots during digging. Suitable types of greenery: duckweed, rogolopolnik, anubias, bakopa, javanese moss, lemongrass.
It is necessary to equip the aquarium filter and compressor. Aeration should be around the clock.
Decorations and decorations reduce to a minimum. Fish do not have the habit of hiding, and large objects will prevent them from swimming and may even hurt them.
Feeding and care
Goldfish care primarily includes feeding. Food is provided twice a day. An amount that pets can eat in 5 minutes is chosen. The diet of fish includes special dry food, which can be found in any pet store, plant and animal food. The recommended proportions are 60% vegetable and 40% dry and animal.
You can give spinach, lettuce, boiled cereals (buckwheat, millet, oatmeal) and vegetables, as well as fruits from greens to fish. You can specifically grow for these purposes duckweed. Eat fresh and frozen bloodworms, artemia, and daphnia. Sometimes it is recommended to give pieces of liver and meat.
Dry food before use must be soaked for half a minute in water taken from an aquarium, and frozen food must be defrosted. Раз в неделю полезно устраивать разгрузочный день.
Уход также включает подмену одной трети воды раз в неделю и очищение аквариума. Со дна нужно убирать остатки корма и другой мусор.
С кем уживется?
A goldfish in an aquarium can only live with its own kind. But there are some exceptions. There are a lot of varieties of them, and it is better to choose neighbors in size, since behavior depends on it. Large individuals are highly active, while small ones are very passive. In one aquarium, they will begin to feud. This can result in damage to the fins, scales and simple malnutrition.
The only exception to this rule is soma. Here they get along perfectly with any kind of goldfish. It is only necessary to be careful with sharing the same species as Botsia Modest and Bai, as they tend to be aggressive and can bite.
How demanding goldfish to conditions?
Opinions on this score are opposite. Some believe that this is a patient, practically unkillable, fish that survives in any conditions, suitable for beginners and people who do not want to invest in the aquarium a lot of effort and money. Others, on the contrary, argue that the content of gold must comply with a number of fairly stringent conditions, and they are, without a doubt, right. A goldfish should not be started by someone who is not ready to make efforts for its comfortable existence. And the most important condition for the maintenance of these fish is an aquarium of a sufficiently large volume.
Volume and shape of the aquarium
In Soviet literature of the last century, it is stated in aquaristics that one goldfish should have 1.5-2 dm 3 of water surface, or 7-15 liters of aquarium volume (15 liters per fish is considered to be a small landing density). These data migrated to some modern guidelines. However, it should be noted that the Soviet books were written about goldfish of domestic breeding, which for many generations lived in aquariums, and as a result of breeding were adapted to such conditions. At the present time, the vast majority of goldfish comes to us from China, Malaysia and Singapore, where they are massively bred in ponds. Accordingly, they are not adapted to life in small volumes of water, and even to a sufficiently large aquarium they need to be adapted, and a volume of 15-20 liters means death for them within a few days.
Experts working with goldfish brought from Asia have empirically established:
In large aquariums (200-250 l), with good filtration and aeration, the density of planting can be slightly increased, so that the volume of water is 35-40 liters per individual. And this is the limit!
For any fish, life in a close spherical aquarium without equipment is tantamount to death.
Here, opponents of half-empty aquariums usually object that in zoos, for example, goldfish are stuffed in aquariums very densely and at the same time they feel great. Yes, indeed, this is the specificity of the exhibition aquariums. However, one has to keep in mind that several powerful filters with which this monster is equipped, the most severe schedule of water changes (up to half the volume daily or twice a day), as well as a regular ichthyopathologist, for whom there is always work, remain behind the scenes.
Regarding the shape of the aquarium, the classical rectangular or with a slight curvature of the front glass is preferred, the length should be approximately twice the height. In the old Soviet literature it was indicated that water should not be poured above the level of 30-35 cm, but as practice shows, this is not critical. Goldfish live well in higher aquariums, if they have the appropriate width and length (tall and narrow aquariums - screens and cylinders - are not suitable for keeping gold).
What types of fish are compatible gold?
The answer to this question is unequivocal - the best option would be a specific aquarium where only goldfish live. Moreover, even short-bodied and long-bodied gold lodging is often not recommended together, and representatives of other species of fish are out of the question. Either the neighbors will be disturbed by cinchies, damaging their eyes and fins, or the neighbors themselves will be uncomfortable, as the aquarium with goldfish is a very peculiar habitat. In addition, small goldfish can simply swallow.
Water parameters, design and equipment of the aquarium
Goldfish comfortable with the following indicators of water:
- temperature 20-23 °, for short-body forms slightly higher, 24-25 °,
- pH about 7,
- stiffness not lower than 8 °.
The soil in the aquarium should be chosen so that the fish, digging in it, do not choke - its particles should be without sharp, protruding edges and either larger or much smaller than a fish mouth.
In the aquarium with goldfish must certainly be living plants. Consuming nitrogen, they have a positive effect on the ecological balance, they are an additional substrate for bacteria performing biofiltration, and also serve as vitamin supplements for fish.
Lemongrass, Anubias, cryptocoryne, Alterner, Bacopa, sagittaria, Javanese moss get along well with gold. It is recommended to plant plants in pots so that the digging does not damage their roots. And as a top dressing, specifically give the fish a duckweed, Riccia, wolf, and a hornpole.
Mandatory good round-the-clock aeration. At a minimum, an aerator on the filter should be turned on; it is better to additionally have a compressor. If the aquarium has a high density of living plants, a powerful light and the supply of carbon dioxide is organized (in such conditions the leaves of the plants must be covered with bubbles of oxygen emitted by them), then the aerator is turned on only for the night.
In the design of the aquarium should not use large objects of decor - snags, grottoes, etc. Goldfish do not need shelter, but the fins of the valehvostoy, telescope eyes, growths about them are easy to injure, besides the shelters occupy space for swimming.
Filtration and water changes
It is generally recognized that goldfish are a great biological burden on an aquarium. Simply put, they are dirty, producing a huge amount of waste. Their habit of constantly rummaging in the ground, raising the dregs, also does not add to the purity of the aquarium. In addition, goldfish excrement has a mucous consistency, and this mucus pollutes the soil and contributes to its rotting. Accordingly, in order to keep the water clean and transparent, a good round-the-clock filtration system is required.
The filter power should be at least 3-4 volumes of the aquarium per hour. The best option is a canister external filter. If you can not buy it, and the volume of the aquarium does not exceed 100-120 liters, you can get by the internal filter - always multisection with a compartment for ceramic filler.
Porous ceramics is a substrate for bacteria, which process poisonous ammonia released by fish into nitrites and then into much less toxic nitrates. In addition, the substrates for these bacteria, a stable amount of which is vital for the well-being of the aquarium, are soil and aquatic plants, especially small-leaved ones. Therefore, it is desirable to have a lot of plants, and to make the soil fraction is not too large.
In order for the colonies to not collapse when cleaning the aquarium, some rules must be observed: the sponges of the filter are washed in the aquarium water (the sponges are washed quite often, about once a week), the ground siphon is also weekly, done carefully, without mixing it layers, ceramic fillers for biofilters are always partially changed.
Even with high-quality filtration in an aquarium with goldfish, it is necessary to do weekly from a quarter to a third of the volume of the aquarium, and more often if the density of fish landing is violated. The fishes of this species tolerate fresh water well, so there is no need to defend it for more than a day.
Now that we have dealt with the main, most difficult and costly in keeping goldfish, we can talk about how and what to feed them.
They are usually fed twice a day, giving the amount of food that fish are able to eat within 3-5 minutes. Dry flakes and granules are recommended to alternate with vegetable foods - spinach leaves, lettuce, boiled vegetables and cereals, fruits (orange, kiwi). Sometimes you can feed pieces of meat or liver, as well as frozen motils. It is necessary to take into account that the pellets of dry food before giving them to the fish, it is better to soak for 20-30 seconds in aquarium water, and thawed frozen food. Very useful regular feeding live daphnia, which you can grow at home. In addition, as mentioned above, it is always better to have special food plants in an aquarium. Once a week, fasting days are arranged.
Goldfish diseases are a subject for a separate article, but here we briefly consider only signs that may indicate that the fish are sick or have severe discomfort:
- loss of appetite,
- lowered dorsal fin,
- bulging scales, red or black spots quickly appearing, ulcers, rashes, mucous or cotton-like plaque,
- distended abdomen and bulging eyes stronger than usual
- unnatural behavior: the fish stays in the corner of the aquarium for a long time, lies at the bottom, rolling over on its side, or swims near the surface, swallowing air from it,
- rolling over while swimming.
It should be noted that with the correct content of health problems in goldfish are quite rare. If you initially create good conditions for these animals (a spacious aquarium with live plants and powerful filtration), then care for them will be available to the beginner or even to the child, and for many years they will delight their owner with bright appearance and funny behavior.
What are goldfish, you can learn from the video:
Goldfish - description, description, structure.
A goldfish is a fish with an elongated, laterally compressed or short rounded body. All representatives of the species are characterized by large gill covers, the presence of solid notches on the first rays forming fins, and pharyngeal teeth. The size of the scales of goldfish depends on breed variations and can be both large and small, up to a complete absence in some areas.
The color of goldfish varies widely: it can be red-gold, pale pink, dark bronze, fiery red, yellow, black with a blue tint, and so on. However, one feature remains: the color of the abdomen is always a little lighter than the main color.
The shape and size of the lateral fins as well as the tail of the goldfish are different. They can be small forked, rather long and developing, like the lightest veil, or have another bizarre shape. The eyes of goldfish may have typical sizes and structure characteristic of all fish, however, in some breeds they have a different degree of convexity.
The length of an aquarium goldfish is unlikely to exceed 15 centimeters, although in special ponds the sizes of fish often reach 45 centimeters without tail.
The lifespan of a goldfish depends on the shape of the body. Goldfish with short rounded bodies live for 13–15 years, fish with a long, flattened body live for about 40 years.
Goldfish aquarium species, photos and names.
For many years of targeted breeding, approximately 300 breeds differing from each other have been bred, which amaze imagination with a variety of shapes and colors. Among aquarium lovers, the most popular are such breeds and types of goldfish:
- Common Goldfish (lat. Carassius auratus auratus) suitable for breeding in aquariums and in open water. This breed is closest to the natural form of the goldfish. The fish is characterized by an elongated, compressed body on the sides, the length of which, under good conditions of maintenance, can reach 30-45 cm. The straightened rounded tail fin in size does not exceed 10 centimeters. The paired fins, located on the abdomen and chest, are also rounded. The scales of the goldfish are painted in red-orange shades, however, breed variations with red-white coloring are found.
Author photo: Yucatan
- Goldfish Butterfly Dzikin (telescope butterfly, butterfly tail) (eng.Butterflytailgoldfish) - breed of goldfish, obtained as a result of long-term selection. A distinctive feature of this breed is the characteristic shape of the forked caudal fin, resembling spread butterfly wings. The body length of the jokin butterfly does not exceed 20 cm. The fish is used only in aquarium breeding and easily tolerates the rather cool temperature of the water. In this breed, variational varieties of goldfish stand out, which differ mainly in the color of the scales. The color of goldfish can be silver, red with white spots, orange, black and white or red with black fins. Variations appeared with markedly elongated tail fins.
The following goldfish belong to the dzikin butterfly breed: print butterfly, black and white panda butterfly, orange butterfly, red and white butterfly, black butterfly, red and black butterfly, pompon butterfly.
Photo by: Syberspace
- Lionhead (eng.Lionheadgoldfish) - an unusual species of goldfish with a characteristic short body up to 15 cm long, resembling a large egg. Her head is covered with a kind of velvety growths that give it a resemblance to a lion's head or raspberry. These growths cover the eyes of the fish, which are no longer so large. One of the features of the breed is the absence of the dorsal fin, as well as the short, sometimes forked goldfish tail, which is slightly raised upwards. The head and fins are bright red. The body is covered with scales of large size. The color of the lionhead can be orange, red, black, red-white, black-red, and with the presence of three colors: red, black and white.
- Ranch Goldfish (eng.Ranchugoldfish) with short, egg-shaped, flattened body and short fins. This breed is characterized by curvature of the spinal column in the tail section. Like lionheads, ranch fish have growths on their heads and do not have dorsal fins. The triangular tail of these fish was formed from two accrete tail fins. Modern pedigree variations of the ranch are characterized by a large variety of color scales, in which there are orange, white, red and black colors. But the greatest value for aquarists are goldfish, which have brightly colored side and pectoral fins, nose and gill covers, with practically no pronounced body color or with partial coloring of the tail, as well as with fine uniform spotting.
- Ryukin (riukin, nymph) (eng.Ryukingoldfish) - Slow and thermophilic aquarium breed of goldfish with a characteristic spherical body and high back, formed due to a curved spinal column. The body length of fish can reach 20 cm. The fins are massive, rounded, of medium size, but there are species in which the length of the fins is increased. Dorsal fin strictly vertical. The tail of a goldfish is forked, up to 15-30 cm long. The head of a Ryukin is large, with rather large eyes. The color of the fish of this breed is different. There are instances with red, pink, white, and even colorful color scales.
- Voilehvost (eng.Veiltailgoldfish) - a very beautiful goldfish, calm and slow aquatic inhabitant with an egg-shaped or spherical body, whose length reaches 20 cm. A small head smoothly passes into the body. The size of the eyes of the voilehtails is somewhat increased. Their iris can be colored in any color except green. A distinctive feature of this breed of goldfish and its variations is a lush long tail that looks like a ribbon. Its length exceeds the size of the body several times. There are varieties of tail tails, which is formed from several fins, which are a fluffy thin veil. Depending on the ratio of the length of the fins and tail to the size of the body, there are two varieties of this breed: ribbon and skirt veil tails. The color of fish scales may be different, ranging from the rich red-cinnabar color of the back and sides with a golden belly, ending with a monochromatic black color. There are variations with fins of red color and white or light yellow scales.
Photo by: Bkrhodesva
- Telescope (eng.Telescopeeyegoldfish) - a kind of goldfish, bred for keeping in aquariums. It is characterized by a short ovoid body and elongated fins. But its main feature is the eyes of large size. Their shape, size and direction of the axis vary widely. The eyes of a goldfish telescope can reach a diameter of 5 cm and have a spherical, cylindrical or conical shape. Often, the axes of each eye are perpendicular to the surface of the head and directed in different directions. There are varieties of goldfish with eyes pointing upwards. They are called stargazers or the celestial eye. Among the variations that make up the breed, distinguished fish with scales and scaleless. Their coloring differs a big variety. Она может быть как однотонной, так и пестрой.
Автор фото: Lawrencekhoo
- Пузыреглаз (анг.Bubbleeyegoldfish) – малоподвижный аквариумный вид золотых рыбок с телом яйцевидной формы и головой, плавно переходящей в спину. Длина тела пузыреглаза может достигать 15-18 см. В отличие от большинства золотых рыбок, хвост у этой породы не свисает вниз. У пузыреглаза отсутствует спинной плавник, глаза довольно большие, смотрящие вперед. A distinctive sign of the breed are peculiar, filled with liquid, bubbles growing near the eyes, the size of which can reach 25% of the body size of the fish. The color of the goldfish is mostly monochromatic, sometimes with fairly large patches of contrasting color. There are individuals of red, white, golden or orange color.
- Comet (eng.Cometgoldfish) - active and fast aquarian breed of goldfish with an elongated body, the length of which can reach 18 cm. The comet resembles an ordinary silver carp. This fish differs from it in coloring and in greater length of fins. Depending on their size, simple comets, in which only the tail is elongated, and veil breed variations with fins and tails of an increased size, are distinguished. In purebred representatives of the breed, the length of the tail may be three to four times the size of the body. The most valuable are goldfish comets with silver-colored scales, eyes of bright red color and a lemon-yellow tail.
- Pearl (ang.Pearlscalegoldfish) - breed characterized by a swollen egg-shaped body of medium length (up to 15 cm) with short lateral and pectoral fins. A distinctive feature of such fish are convex scales, resembling pearls cut into two parts. New goldfish scales that grow when pearl pearls are damaged, unfortunately, do not reproduce the original original shape and texture. Small fishes of this breed do not differ in a color variety of coloring. Most individuals are orange, red or white. Recently, pedigree variations of three-color and black coloring have appeared.
- Oranda (ang.Orandagoldfish) – one of the most unusual and variegated in color of the breeds of artificially bred aquarium helmet goldfish. The Oranda is a type of voiletail and differs from it in spectacular growths on the head and on the gill covers (in black varieties, the growth is colored to match the body). Because of such an interesting "headgear" aquarists often call representatives of this breed a "red cap". Moreover, the larger its “cap” in the fish, the individual is considered more valuable.
The color of orande can be the most diverse - from scarlet and white to black, blue, lemon yellow or multi-colored spotted. Depending on the color, the orange fish is divided into variable types: red-white oranda, chocolate orana, blue oranda, dark gray oranda, calico orana and others.
The fish has a rather large size: its length varies from 15 to 26 cm (sometimes more). Unlike other helmet-shaped species, the oranda fish has an unpaired dorsal fin. All other fins are drooping, slightly bifurcated. The tail fin of a goldfish often makes up 65-70% of the total length of a barrel-shaped and rather short body, and according to certain criteria, the breed must be in the form of a skirt and not have a fork-like shape. Oranda goldfish is a long-lived among aquarium inhabitants: with proper care, it is able to please the owner with her beauty for 13-15 years.
Author photo: Lawrencekhoo
Where do goldfish live in nature?
Due to the fact that goldfish appeared as a result of long-term selection, it is impossible to meet them in natural conditions. Breeding of such pets in open artificial reservoirs is possible only in regions where the water temperature does not fall below +15 o C throughout the year. In aquariums, with the maintenance rules, goldfish can live on any continent and in any country.
How and what to feed the goldfish in the aquarium?
Difficulties in the choice of products for feeding aquarium pets their owners do not feel, because goldfish are almost omnivorous pets. For a complete nutrition of goldfish, you can use:
- special multi-component fish food,
- live food that contains a large amount of protein - bloodworm, tubule, coretra, daphnia, artemia, rotifers, earthworms,
- vegetable food: duckweed, naiad, wolfia, riccia, hornpole, wallisneria,
- sliced lettuce, nettle, spinach, dandelion, cabbage, plantain, parsley, dill,
- fresh melted vegetables (carrots, pumpkins, zucchini, cucumbers).
As an additional feed aquarium goldfish can be given:
- chopped seafood (squid, shrimp, fillet of low-fat fish),
- buckwheat, semolina or millet porridge, cooked without salt and well washed from mucus,
- the flesh of the bread.
Goldfish are quite voracious and can try to eat everything that they throw the owners. It is necessary to follow the basic rule of feeding - the entire portion of the feed should be eaten within five minutes, if it is dry food, and within 10-20 minutes, if it is live or vegetable food. The remaining food should be immediately removed from the aquarium so as not to contaminate the water.
It is recommended to feed goldfish no more than 2 times a day, in the morning and in the evening, alternating between different types of food. The optimal amount of feed is 1 pinch that fits between two fingers. Between periods of feeding it is better to observe a certain and constant period of time: so the fish will not have time to get hungry. In addition, it is better to underfeed the fish than to feed them. With proper and balanced nutrition, your aquarium goldfish will be healthy and vigorous.
Reproduction of goldfish (spawning).
Healthy and strong goldfish can multiply at the age of one year, but they will develop fully only by 2-4 years of life. During this period they can be used for breeding.
The time of spawning in goldfish begins in the middle or at the end of spring, it is then that the appearance of the pets changes. Gill covers of fish are covered with small pearly tubercles, similar to grains of millet, and the first rays of pectoral fins adorn sawtooth-shaped incisions. The abdomen of the females during this period becomes large. Mature males begin to show interest in females who are ready for spawning, driving them into open water in shallow waters and in places overgrown with dense aquatic vegetation.
If goldfish are kept in aquarium conditions, at this moment the female and two or three males are transplanted into a separate aquarium with well-settled water, an abundance of vegetation and a hard bottom. For the best spawning of goldfish, it is desirable that the aquarium be well lit with natural or artificial light, and the water level in it does not exceed 20 cm. To prevent fish eating deferred caviar, at a height of 2 centimeters from the bottom level they stretch the grid with large cells. Spawning lasts about five to six hours, after which the producers return to the main aquarium. During the entire spawning season, the female of a goldfish can lay up to 10,000 eggs.
Goldfish larvae emerge from the eggs already 2-6 days after spawning. This period may vary depending on the level of illumination of the aquarium, the temperature of the water and the degree of its saturation with oxygen. The first day of the livelihood of the fry is maintained by the yolk bladder, but soon the stocks are depleted, and the young begin to search for food. Rotifers, microscopic plankton, crustaceans or special foods can be used as feed for small goldfish. As fry grow, selection is made according to their breed characteristics.
Goldfish - care and maintenance in the aquarium.
The maintenance of goldfish in an aquarium requires compliance with certain rules, as they are quite capricious inhabitants.
The volume of the aquarium is determined depending on the size and shape of the body of the fish. For example, for long-bodied individuals, whose size may exceed 30 cm, aquariums with a minimum capacity of 200 liters of water are necessary. Such large pets need to be kept apart from their short-cousins. It is advisable to use classical rectangular aquariums, in which the height of the water column will not exceed 0.5 m.
Goldfish belong to the flock inhabitants, so it is important to determine in advance how many goldfish should be in the aquarium, that is, to calculate their number correctly. To do this, there is an unspoken rule that determines that at least 2 liters of water are required per inhabitant.
Goldfish do not get along with all the fish, so this fact is also worth paying attention to. Even among fish of equal size, one needs to carefully select neighbors for telescopes and bubble eyes, since the first ones can remain hungry next to the more agile inhabitants, and the second ones can simply be injured.
For aquarium goldfish is very important to observe the temperature regime. Long-bodied pets feel comfortable at a water temperature of 17 ° to 26 ° C, and for short-bodied goldfish, the temperature indicator ranges from 21 ° to 29 ° C. Therefore, sometimes additional heating of water may be required.
A prerequisite is good aeration in the aquarium, as goldfish are quite demanding on the oxygen content in the water. This also applies to fish living in open artificial ponds.
The decoration of the aquarium for goldfish should be approached with caution and not use stones, snags or shells with sharp edges, as this can lead to injury to pets. Plants used to create underwater vegetation should be with hard leaves so that the fish do not eat them. In some cases, when the content of the bubble-eyes or tails, decoration, except for aquatic plants, is not used at all.