If the chicken has sat on eggs and has shown the best maternal qualities, under it it is possible to put someone else's eggs, which are far from motherhood. Copies suitable for incubation in the household are obtained at a ratio of 1 to 12, where - 1 is the number of roosters, and 12 is the number of potential chicks.
Eggs must have the following characteristics:
- demolished no more than 5 days ago
- the age of the little tree giving offspring should not be more than 8 months
- size - medium, shape - oval,
- the shell is thick without spots.
To keep the copies selected with the help of an ovoscope, it is necessary at a temperature from 15 to 18 ° C. If placed in a horizontal position, it is necessary to turn them every 12 hours for the safety of the embryo.
Eggs that will enclose do not recommend washing.
How many eggs to lay
After the chicken has sat down on eggs, what to do next is a matter of concern to many beginning poultry farmers. The number of eggs must be odd, up to 17 copies are allowed in one nest. In addition to chicken, farmers enclose up to 11 duck or up to 7 goose eggs. In the cold season, the amount is reduced by 2 times.
You can lay eggs in several ways:
- in several stages, as this optimizes the care of the hatched chicks,
- one time
- first put the trompe l'oeil, and then replace the same number of these eggs.
Lay the layer near the nest, wait for it to sit in it, and then make adjustments to the laying.
Looking for the right mom
With the arrival of spring, the breeding instinct wakes up in birds, but not all quills wake up responsible for the further fate of the offspring. Planting eggs on eggs, explaining how to incubate them and create comfortable conditions for both mother and baby birds is the primary task of the poultry farmers who have refused an incubator. When deciding on whom to impose responsibility, you need to look at the options available and make a choice.
Chicken, able to become a hen:
- stays in perch after laying an egg
- often cackles
- pulls out feathers for the nest,
- stops laying,
- shows aggression when trying to get in touch with her.
In birds seeking to prove themselves as a mother, the comb and earrings are reduced in size, and the skin of the abdomen is also exposed.
You can find out who will be more suitable by the following parameters:
- Chickens universal and egg directions, especially mongrel, easy to put in the roost. Some breeds, such as the White Leggorn, are not genetically capable of becoming good grains.
- Calm temper and perseverance. A phlegmatic layer will try harder to provide adequate care than restless individuals.
- The chicks hatched in a natural way will be great moms. Incubator instances are practically not amenable to learning.
Important! So that the chicken does not make a lot of annoying sounds, experienced farmers came up with one interesting method. It is necessary to pour a layer of ice water and put it in a closed box for several days, releasing it only for meals.
Even if the female clucks, it does not mean that she wants to prove herself as a mother. Why such incidents occur, and how to keep the hens away from the habit of escaping responsibility will help the following recommendations:
- when the bird has settled down on the perch, remove and plant it on the floor: if the layer has not moved, it will sit on the clutch,
- make artificial eggs and put it under the crochet: if it takes care of the dummies for 3 days, then it will be able to take care of its own,
- approach the nest with a menacing look: if the chicken spreads its wings and hiss, it will protect the offspring in the future.
After the selection process, it is necessary to check the birds for the presence of parasites. Ticks and lice will distract the bird. If harmful insects are detected, it is necessary to treat the plumage of the hen with any disinfectant liquid and place a reservoir filled with sand and ash in the hen house. These 2 components will be the best prevention.
Before planting, a few days the birds need to be abundantly feed and drink plenty of water. It is better to plant a chicken in the nest in the evening: a sleepy, tired bird will respond to a similar innovation more calmly.
Making the chicken sit in the roost can be forced. To do this, you must do the following:
- prepare the nest and place it in a dark place,
- choose the appropriate wedge, preferably the one that has already been carried,
- put a crochet on the perch and cover it with a basket,
- remove part of the plumage on the abdomen.
If, within 4 days, the female does not begin to blubber, the chicken should be replaced.
The following tips will help make the nest comfortable:
- Volume and compactness: the bird should feel comfortable, and eggs should not roll out. For the organization of the nest, baskets, boxes and sieves of 40x40 cm are suitable. The bottom should be insulated with a layer of turf, down and straw. Do not recommend using wet straw.
- It is necessary to provide an inlet.
- To protect against parasites, the bottom should be sprinkled with ashes.
- To prevent fights in the hen house, nests are placed at a great distance from each other.
When the hens leave their houses for eating, they change the litter if necessary.
Klushka sitting on a clutch, you need to provide maximum attention and care. In the first few days it is important to control whether the chicken goes for walks and feeding. If the hen refuses to leave the nest, it should be carefully removed and kept away from the perch for 15 minutes. If she walks for a long time, you need to return the female back to the nest.
While the birds are not in place, you need to remove the damaged specimens and change litter. When the process is properly organized, they disinfect the room once every 5 days and examine the birds for the presence of parasites. Once a week, check the stage of maturation of the embryo, if necessary discarded specimens. It is possible to determine when small chicks appear by the behavior of the female: she shows signs of anxiety and becomes anxious.
To get the chicken to sit on the eggs and raise a good quota, you can listen to the national signs:
- You can not take the neighbor's hen,
- Wednesday, Friday or Saturday are the best days for hatching,
- Monday and religious holidays are not suitable
- to plant a hen in a nest is necessary during a young month
- do not recommend to put in a roost when outsiders
- in the place where there is a twig, it is forbidden to whistle,
- Straw after Christmas Eve helps improve productivity and develop maternal instincts.
It is undesirable to place the first egg laid in a nest or specimens with a thin shell. Chicken, hatched with a caring chickens, will later turn into a healthy and strong pullet, pleasing the owners with high productivity.
Makarov Ivan Vasilyevich
Hereditary poultry farmer, owner of a poultry farm, graduated from St. Petersburg State Agrarian University with honors, the author of articles in specialized publications
Mouth hens: how to choose or recognize a layer
If you want to achieve the highest possible rate of incubation of chicks, this process should be carried out only in the spring, because the conditions for growing future chickens and males are most favorable during subsequent periods, namely, the summer-autumn period.
In order to choose the chicken that is most suitable for chickens, it is necessary to take a close look at the bird that runs around the hen house.
In a chick with a vivid incubation instinct of incubation, certain external signs are observed (in fact, the behavioral type changes completely):
- the bird often and long cackles,
- briefly and reluctantly leaves the nest,
- often plucks own down and feathers for arranging a warm and cozy nest,
- in chickens that are ready to incubate eggs, the scallop shrinks and gradually changes its color to pale pink.
Council By the way, chickens ready to hatch eggs often show little interest in food, so you need to periodically force them to eat, otherwise they will simply begin to rapidly lose weight.
Chickens that are being prepared / ready to chickens are often located for a long time in the most distant corner of the hen house: in a basket in a dark corner or deep box. This is due to the fact that the hen seeks to hide his nest away from public viewing.
How to help the chicken chat
If there is not a single bird in the chicken coop ready to incubate, you can try to make a hen forcibly by force. Here are some proven and simple ways to help get chicks without an incubator:
- Put some bogus eggs in the improvised nest and watch the behavior of the hens during the week. Perhaps at least one of them will be interested in them. If a brooding instinct works in a bird, the chicken will sit on the eggs. A few days later, when the chicken has already become accustomed to hatching, you should very carefully replace the tricks with real eggs. This can be done by carefully placing real eggs under the tail of a chicken, or by replacing the eggs at a time when the chicken is not in place.
- This option is very similar to the previous one. The only difference is in the approach to the choice of chicken. As in the first case, the nest is prepared in a secluded corner of the hen house, after which you do not need to wait for the bird to come, but choose the one that has previously hatched the eggs, and plant it in the nest.
Finally, the importance of proper arrangement of the nest for incubation of chicken offspring. Take care that the place is secluded and preferably darkened. As a nest, you can use a cardboard box or a box made of wood and carefully lay it out with straw. At the same time, it is undesirable to construct too large a nest: the optimal dimensions should not exceed the scheme of 55x35 cm.
Try to also organize the most comfortable conditions for the future hen. Firstly, in the hen house there should be an optimal temperature not exceeding +12 degrees. The humidity should be moderate. It is advisable to treat the nest with a special compound to protect the bird from insects. For these purposes, the usual lime is quite suitable.
Take care also that the chicken has access to food and water (put them near the nest). If she does not show interest in walking, take the bird out to the street every day for at least 15 minutes. If it lingers for a longer period, bring it back to the nest.
Do not forget to pay attention to the choice of eggs for incubation: they must be of medium size, with a strong shell, always fresh (demolished not later than 5 days before incubation).
That is, in principle, all you need to know about how you can quickly and effectively make a chicken sit through the eggs. As you can see, it is not so difficult. Good luck!
How to plant chicken eggs
Buying chickens in the bazaar is not so profitable. Of the 10 purchased, only 2 can remain, it depends on the fact that already processed chicken is put up for sale, and they do not tolerate changes in the situation and the type of food. And because many housewives hatch chicks at home.
You can breed domestic chicks two ways:
- The first method is the most popular and easy - this is when the chicken sits on the eggs.
- The second is also in demand, but it requires a lot of time and effort - an incubator method.
So, consider the first method.
The natural way to breed chicks
The chicken that sits on the eggs to hatch them is called hen. It should be immediately noted that problems may arise with the hen, as not every chicken can sit down to evaporate the chickens. But there are also such cases that she begins to evaporate, but for unknown reasons, stops doing this and if she does not find a replacement in time or put in an incubator, the chicks that have not yet hatched can be lost.
In general, domestic chickens do not do this, but the ones hatched from the incubator rarely sit on the eggs and attempts to make them with hens will not be successful.
It is better to plant chickens in the nest in the spring, since it is at this time that they appear natural maternal feelings and more likely that the chicken does not throw chicks.
Moreover, those chickens that hatched in spring are much more resilient than autumn ones. During the warm summer days they will have time to get stronger and grow, which will give them the opportunity to easily wait out the winter.
Choice of hen
In order to choose a real hen will require experience and observation.
Chicken, which showed maternal instinct, it will be very restless, constantly crying and sitting on the nest for a long time and you will not be able to force it. And also, she can pull out fluff in her to make the nest soft and warm, which is necessary for chickens.
Other indicators of a good hen are small and light scallops. And also, a hen ready to become a brood hatch will walk ruffled to protect herself from the rooster, since she is already ready for posterity and is preparing for this process.
Should take the one that older than eight months, since young animals have very weak embryos in the eggs.
If under such parameters not a single hen has got, then you should use bed eggs - plaster casts and watch who wants to hatch, after a week at least one chicken, sit on a clutch with eggs and hatch. After that, it will be necessary to change the models to real eggs, only to make it so that the chicken does not notice the change.
It is not necessary to take weak birds for a hen. Since they can not cope with this. It is advisable to take a chicken that was already a hen and perfectly brought out the chicks.
That chicken, which, after it has laid a lot of cackles, and when a person approaches, it will not run away from the spot with a very good chick and will not need to be taken.
Special preparation of the chicken does not require, most importantly, proper nutrition. To the usual diet you can add granules and animal feed, as well as vitamins and minerals, to strengthen the shell. A lot of substances are also harmful, as a thick shell will not allow chickens to get out into the light.
If you chose this method, then for a successful brood you need to prepare everything you need:
The nest must be small. This can be any box size 60 * 60. If this was not found you can use an unnecessary basin. To fix the nest you need away from the feeders, so that other chickens could not get there. And also it should be done above the usual nests so that rats and other pests could not penetrate there.
But also, you can make a nest in the form of a house, and at the entrance hang ragsso that she feels calm and lonely. There should not be light on the nest, but a small darkness is needed so that the hen does not have the desire to leave its place.
At the bottom of the seat should lie half straw, and outside it is necessary to process the nest with lime so that for a long time parasites do not start there.
Eggs should not be shoplifters, as there they are not fertilized. They must be from the domestic chicken and term demolition no more than 10 days. A single hen can hatch up to 12 eggs, if it is large in size. For this purpose it is necessary to use only hens of egg breed
After everything is prepared in the nest, you can lay eggs prepared for evaporation and plant chicken on them.
They should be warm and fresh. It is impossible to put eggs from the refrigerator in any case.
After the chicks are hatched, you must carefully to clean nest and then can be reused.
Plant eggs to incubate eggs in the evening. After planting a hen to hatch on the nest, it is necessary to cover it with a basket, but so that it passes air.
Once a day it is necessary to release the chicken for feeding. In the first days it is necessary to feed her only grain and drink clean water. After five days, the chicken can be removed from the basket, since it will not go away by itself.
She will quickly drink, eat and return to the nest again. If after five days crushed eggs were found, they should be removed, but only on these days. During the entire incubation period, the eggs should always be warm, and for this, the chicken turns each egg over with its paws.
Without eggs, eggs can be kept for several hours, and after two weeks they can be without a hen for about a day.
After 3 weeks, the chicks will start to be biting.
Periodically it is necessary to monitor how the process of incubation. A young and inexperienced chicken can bite at the egg, where the chicken is located, while damaging it. In this case, if the chicken is alive, it is necessary to carefully remove it from the nest, without damaging the umbilical cord and carry it to the house, putting it on something warm, try to feed the chick.
If, when hatched, the chicken pushes the eggs away, it is not necessary to put it back, this means that there is no germ in this egg and it is necessary to rid the hen of it. This method is very convenient, since it is not necessary to monitor the temperature, as it is done in working with an incubator.
But we should not forget that when a bird sits on a nest, care is also needed. The chicken should periodically go out and clean its feathers, and for this you need to equip the old bathroom, which should be poured ash. Делается это для того, чтобы очиститься от паразитов, живущих под оперением у них.
Additional care is the maintenance of the nest. At a time when the bird will leave the nest for eating, the nest needs to be cleaned, cleaned of dirt and droppings.
How to make a chicken sit on eggs
Sometimes such moments happen that the chicken does not want to sit on the eggs, but do not despair, it can be forced.
If the chicken does not want to sit on the eggs, it means that something is missing. It is necessary to add vitamins and minerals to food, which contribute to a greater strengthening of the eggshell. And it is also necessary to monitor the temperature in the hen house, it should not be below 20 degrees.
If you follow these and the above rules, you will not have to force the eggs to hatch, since the hen will surely be found by itself.
Incubator mode of chick appearance
If, however, for various reasons, it was not possible to force the chicken to sit on the eggs, then you can use the artificial method of hatching eggs, namely the incubator one.
You can buy it at the livestock store or at an extended veterinary pharmacy, it can also be delivered to order.
This method is a little more difficult, as it is necessary to monitor the temperature and humidity, otherwise all efforts may be in vain.
And finally, a little advice: when several hens are hatching, nests should be made far from each other, otherwise they may confuse the nests afterwards with which a fight may arise. All these simple tips will help you to separate your own household and enjoy the natural products of your own production.
How a hen incubates eggs
Modern technologies make it possible to produce a large number of chicks by incubating chicken eggs. However, this method is suitable for farms with a large population of birds. In small farmsteads, chicks are still being used for incubation. For this purpose, certain types of chickens are selected. In addition, they must be in the period of “the desire to sit on the clutch”. This state is indicated by a number of characteristic features by which it is possible to select the desired bird.
After checking for perseverance in the nest of the hen, eggs can be laid. With proper behavior, the birds will start hatching on days 19-21. To simplify the task, to facilitate the care of the hen and offspring, it is better to engage in chick raising during the period of the end of spring - the beginning of summer.
Why chickens do not rush read this article.
Choice of hen hen
Not every hen is suitable for incubation. Some birds have weakened maternal instinct or do not possess it at all. They are absolutely not suitable for such purposes, as at any time they can leave the nest, or the chicks. Conventionally, all chicken breeds can be divided into three categories:
- Birds with a well-developed instinct to incubation. They perform their tasks without any problems and take good care of their offspring.
- Bird with weak maternal instinct. Initially, they sit well on the clutch, but at any time can leave it.
- Bird without maternal instinct. Such chickens are absolutely not interested in chickens. Usually these are crosses and hybrids of industrial direction, as well as some breeds.
The best hens are Uheilyuyu's chickens.
Even breeds famous for their high maternal instinct may have separate birds without it. Laying clutches should be selected according to individual characteristics and personal observations.
Hen body temperature
The normal temperature of the chicken, when incubated, first decreases and then rises. In the first week - + 38-39 ° C, in the last rises to + 40 ° C. The temperature in the nest varies between +33.4 - + 38.8 ° C. If the bird leaves the clutch for a long time, the eggs may become supercooled, which will affect the quality of the brood. In the second stage of incubation, eggs produce heat on their own, so the chicken does not often sit on them, but stands in the nest above the clutch.
Mouths periodically turn the eggs with a beak and paws. This allows you to equalize the temperature difference in their upper and lower parts.
According to common observations, the most common outbred chickens are best for incubation. This is due to a strong natural instinct for the breeding of offspring, which they have not yet had time to lose, as well as the body weight, which makes it possible to close the eggs. Among the productive breeds, most often birds of meat and egg orientation sit on the laying. Identify future hen can be on the following grounds:
- frequent quacking,
- long stay in the nest,
- laydown reduction,
- featheringto increase body volume
- plucking down and laying their nests.
It should be understood that some of these symptoms may also indicate problems with the health of the bird.
Place for incubation is prepared in advance. After the process begins, the hen itself will remake the nest under itself. From the owners it is only necessary to periodically change the contaminated litter at the time when the chicken rises from the eggs. After hatching, the nestlings are cleaned, disinfected and dried. They can be reused for incubation.
How to build a brooder for broilers with their own hands, read here.
Nests should be placed on an elevation or in a suspended position, so that rodents could not reach the clutch.
What conditions are needed
Nests should be located in a quiet, secluded and dark place. The size should be free for the bird, but not too large so that the eggs do not roll out from under the hen. The optimal parameters of the nest are 55 × 35 cm. Turf is poured at the bottom, straw is laid on top of it and fluff so that a cup-shaped depression is formed in the middle. The corners must be well covered, which prevents the eggs from rolling. Before entering the nest there is a light canopy for shading, but free for passing birds.
When in the same room several nests with chickens, they must be located at a sufficient distance, isolating from each other. This will prevent confusion and fighting in birds and pecking eggs.
Selected eggs to incubate chicks must meet the following requirements:
- The bird that laid the eggshould be healthy and mature.
- Fresh eggs should be taken for hatching. (not older than 6-7 days), which were stored at a temperature of 15-20 ° C.
- Contaminated and broken should be removed from masonry., and also to check on the ovoskop the presence of dark or blood inclusions. Such eggs are considered defective.
- Preference should be given to medium size. In small ones a bad embryo may turn out; large ones often have two yolks.
- The number of masonry ranges from 10-15 pieces.. It depends on the size of the bird, its build and breed. Eggs must be laid in one layer and completely closed by the bird.
Chickens are able to hatch the eggs of other birds - geese, ducks, turkeys, etc.
How to lay eggs under the hen
Before you put the chicken on real eggs, you need to check its perseverance on the tricks. In a few days the bird will come to the desired state, and the tricks can be replaced with real ones when the hen comes out of the nest to eat. This way will not traumatize the bird. To the hen less worried, it is desirable to lay eggs in the dark. In some cases, to secure the result, the nest is covered with a basket and for several days they release the bird twice a day just for feeding. About feeding the hens at home, read this link.
Egg hatching time
The process of incubation lasts three weeks. Chickens begin to hatch at 19-21 days after the hen has sat on the clutch. During this time it is necessary to conduct 3 inspections with the help of an ovoscope. This device allows you to identify abnormalities of embryonic development. Inspection is carried out on the 7th, 11th and 18th day from the beginning of hatching.
- During the first inspection Normally, the embryo should not be visible, only its shadow and blood vessels on the yolk. With poor development, the embryo is visible in the shell. Dead embryos have dark vessels in the form of a ring. Fully bright eggs are due to lack of fertilization.
- Second inspection healthy embryo shows a network of blood vessels in a bright field. Their shadow makes up the fourth part of the egg.
- At the third inspection the embryo is visible as a dark spot. You can also observe his movement at the blunt end of the egg.
All defective specimens must be removed from the laying, and the remaining ones should be placed closer to the center of the nest.
Even with the qualities of a good hen, the bird may, for one reason or another, refuse to hatch the chicks or, in a certain period, leave the clutch. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account all factors annoying the bird in advance. Also, some chickens that are not going to engage in incubation can, if necessary, be stimulated to this process. If in advance to take into account all the conditions and characteristics of birds, it is possible to virtually eliminate the possibility that the hen will leave the nest.
Why not sitting
A hen may refuse to sit on a clutch for a number of reasons.. The main one is the lack of maternal instinct. It may not be initially, or it disappears in the process of brooding. Often, in the absence of the necessary hens, poultry farmers artificially introduce certain birds into this state. And while at the same time trying to choose mature individuals that have already sat on eggs, the risk of abandoning brooding is still there. In addition, the hen may refuse to incubate due to unsuitable environmental conditions:
- bad nest
- noise and irritants
- strong lighting,
- presence of other hen near etc.
How to make and train a chicken
Not always at the right time the hen instinct manifests itself. Therefore, it can be called artificially. To do this, pick a bird with a hatching experience. It is placed in an equipped nest on artificial eggs. The nest is closed and held this way for 4-5 days. The bird is released a couple of times a day for feeding. With a good choice for this time, the hen begins to groan. If the selected chicken does not respond, it must be replaced with another and repeat the process.
What to do with chickens
After the start of hatching, chicks should be deposited in a “nursery” to exclude the probability of escaping the hen. Since babies are sensitive to temperature and drafts, closed containers (box, box) are used to keep them. A heating pad, lamp, cloth or old blankets for warming can be placed inside them. The temperature in the “manger” should be within + 30 ° C, but the air inside should not be too hot or cold. After the last chick hatching, the whole brood returns to the hen. The first feed for chickens is millet and boiled finely chopped egg. Also, the chicks must always have access to water or fresh herbal decoction (rosehip, chamomile).
This video is about the hen.