Calcivirosis viral disease in cats is expressed by infection of the upper respiratory tract and oral cavity. The virus is dangerous for all breeds of cats, can infect both domestic and wild species. There are about 40 different strains of calcivirosis, the pathogenicity and severity of which differ significantly from each other. The disease is quite common, infection with the virus occurs through saliva and discharge from the nose and eyes. An infected cat sneezes, spraying the virus over a fairly long distance.
Calcivirosis virus is able to survive in a contaminated environment for 7 days, even longer in a humid environment. An animal can become infected when it comes in contact with a particular patient or when it touches contaminated things. The owner of the cat, touching the infected objects, can also become a carrier of the virus. The disease is more severe in small kittens.
Danger of the virus to humans
Calcivirosis virus can only infect cats. The disease is not dangerous for humans and other animals. You can safely, without fear to care for your pet, do not worry about the health of children, members of seven.
Although a person does not suffer from calcivirosis, it can become its carrier. The owner can bring home viruses along with dirt on his shoes, on his hands, as is the case with an infection of a pet that does not leave the house with worms.
What organ - system infects the calcivyrosis virus in cats?
Calcivirosis in cats is characterized by the fact that it affects the upper respiratory tract, causing sneezing and pulmonary edema. Virus infection is manifested by wheezing in the chest, shortness of breath, pneumonia and bronchitis. In severe cases, the calcivirosis virus can affect the brain, disrupting coordination, as a result of which the animal becomes aggressive, loses orientation in space, and convulsions are observed.
The chronic form of the disease is manifested mainly in adult cats and is no less dangerous for the pet. With a slight failure of the immune system, calcivirosis becomes acute.
A particularly severe form, a virulent calcivirus-related ailment, is characterized by palpable organ damage, swelling of the limbs and muzzle, hair loss and other pathogenic signs. Such a defeat by the virus leads to an increase in the percentage of mortality in cats, but is recorded infrequently.
The virus can also affect the intestines of the pet, leading to the development of arthritis, due to the defeat of the musculoskeletal system. The causative agent of the disease is the FCV virus, which can mutate and cause diseases of varying severity. Experts identify another type of disease - virulent systemic calicivirus disease (VS - FCV). This virus provokes a particularly severe form of the disease, spreads more easily and more intensively than with the chronic or acute form of calcivirus. The pathological condition caused by this virus affects a large number of internal organs. Mortality from this disease is greater in adult cats than in kittens. The virus is resistant to many disinfectants. The risk group includes cats that live in a poorly ventilated room, without the necessary hygienic procedures. Uncontrolled contact with stray cats is also dangerous.
The animal's visual apparatus is also affected, the virus provokes acute serous conjunctivitis, an ulcer and corneal inflammation in a cat.
In combination with bacteria, fungi, the disease can cause the death of an animal.
Incubation period and duration of the disease
The latent period lasts 5 days, after the pronounced symptoms, progressing with each day. The duration of treatment is up to 24 days. after this, the stage of recovery begins, possibly the carrier state of the virus during a long period of time or whole life. The infection is transmitted by airborne droplets and has the specificity to maintain vital activity up to 1 day outside the cat's body. Even after complete cure, the cat may continue to release the virus into the environment for 2 months. Symptoms of the disease may not occur in the animal itself, but at the same time the cat will be dangerous for the surrounding cats for about 30 days.
When a cat is ill with an uncomplicated type of illness, the illness disappears within 14 to 20 days, without intervention.
Features of the course of the disease in kittens
In small cats, the disease is more pronounced and has a rather severe course, with dangerous consequences. Adults who have already been vaccinated and with no health problems can pass on the infection without the external manifestation of the disease.
- In a kitten, the disease begins with a strong fever. There is an increase in body temperature up to 40 degrees. The condition lasts for 3 days, after gradually normalized.
- Increased temperature is accompanied by secretions from the eyes, nose and mouth of the baby. The chest and chin of the cat is constantly wet.
- On the palate, tongue, lips and tip of the nose, boils form, with a clear liquid content.
- Often, the kitten has diarrhea, alternating with constipation. There are cases when an animal has vomiting at the very beginning of the disease, once.
- The cat coughs, it is difficult for it to make swallowing movements, the act of swallowing can be broken. In this case, you should feed the baby liquid food, if you refuse to eat, you can feed with a syringe.
- The inflammatory process affects the gums and pet. They swell, redden.
- Over time, all the alveoli are opened and ulcers form on their places, which are difficult to heal, causing pain and discomfort to the crumbs. Such open wounds are dangerous from the point of view of penetration into the body of other infections. It should be regularly disinfected ulcers special means.
- Together with the appearance of lethargy and general weakness, from the mouth of the animal begins to stink of a rotten smell.
At the first symptoms, an urgent need to consult a doctor and undergo the whole course of treatment prescribed by him, otherwise a cat with a reduced immunity may die if the disease recurs.
During the period of illness of the baby, you need to give more fluid, support the body with vitamin, mineral supplements and stimulants to increase the body's resistance.
One of the signs of calcivirosis is thick yellow and purulent discharge from the eyes.
Characteristic of a pet infected with calciviosis are the following symptoms:
- Increased temperature and general malaise of the pet,
- The formation of ulcers in the oral cavity, in particular on the lips, tongue, hard palate, also on the nostrils, mainly on their middle slit,
- Shortness of breath, difficulty in breathing, which indicates damage to the lungs
- Purulent discharge from the sinuses, lacrimation,
- Disturbance of orientation in space, convulsions, lameness,
- Depressing smell from the mouth,
- Diarrhea, vomiting.
Treatment of Calcivirosis in Cats
For the organization of proper and targeted treatment, you need to conduct a medical examination of a pet in a veterinary clinic. Certain studies are conducted, analyzes are taken:
- Blood test. With calcivirosis, the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood decreases.
- DNA test. Is carried out after ineffective treatment with antibiotics.
- Immunofluorescence analysis. Allows you to identify antigens and antibodies of microbes.
- If necessary, held X-rays of light.
It is not necessary to take up the treatment itself without prior investigation from a veterinarian. Often, the owners confuse calcevirus with distemper, and improper treatment and lost time can cost a cat a life.
A veterinarian prescribes treatment based on the results of examinations. Apply certain groups of drugs.
- Wide-range antibiotics,
- Sulfa drugs,
- Vitamin B 12, E,
- Medications with a targeted action against nasopharyngeal edema,
- Painkillers, immunostimulating and anti-inflammatory drugs.
Apply dropper from dehydration.
Preparations for the treatment of calcivirus in cats
An antiviral drug often used is Cycloferon. The drug is seamlessly combined with all symptomatic agents, activates the effects of antibiotics and prolongs their action. Injection is made by the subcutaneous method.
In severe forms of the disease, Dexamethasone is used to reduce edema, allergic detection and elimination from shock.
Infection may be accompanied by conjunctivitis in a pet. In order to alleviate the condition of the sick cat, eyelids are washed, then Tsiprolet is instilled - eye drops for cats.
The drug has antibacterial effects. A great option against inflammation and pathogenic microbes - medicine Tsiprovet for cats.
Since calcivirosis can provoke arthrosis in an animal, use Stride + for cats. The drug prevents the damage of cartilage tissue, violation of the integrity of the surface of the joints, stimulates metabolic processes.
When choosing an antiseptic, you need to pay attention that many of them have a bitter taste and a sick cat, who has vomiting and dislike of food, can take medicine very difficult, and then, fearing from discomfort, refuse food.
- Tylosin and Tetracycline antibiotics for the prevention of chlamydia and the treatment of pneumonia,
- Naphthyzinum solution is instilled into the nasal passages, which facilitates breathing and eliminates abundant currents from the nose of the animal,
- For the treatment of open wounds and mouth apply Miramistin or other disinfectant drug,
- In order to prevent dehydration in cats make an injection of saline or glucose.
During treatment, the cat must be fed liquid food. If the pet refuses to eat, feed it with a syringe.
After infection you should:
- Provide a cat with high-quality food, coordinating the regimen with a special veterinary diet,
- Clean the tray with special products
- Watch for secretions from the eyes, nose, clean them with a clean cloth,
- In the feed add vitamins and minerals prescribed by a doctor.
In case of not severe forms of the disease, it is possible to organize the treatment of a cat at home. It is necessary to isolate the cat from other animals. Every day it is strictly prescribed by the doctor to use drugs, also to clean the nose and eyes with antibiotics, sanitize the oral cavity, wash the ulcers with drugs and decoction of chamomile.
Be sure to inject Ringer's solution, sodium chloride or glucose if there are signs of dehydration.
It is necessary to follow the pet's diet, as rich in vitamin composition, gentle feed guarantee a quick recovery of the pet.
Complications after calcivirosis
Frequent complications (in 30% of patients with cat calcivirosis) are:
- Secondary bronchitis
- Increased nervous excitability,
- Jerking of limbs, convulsions,
- Weakening of immunity
- Brain damage.
Early treatment will reduce the likelihood of serious complications that are a threat to the life of your beloved fluffy.
Vaccination against calcivirosis after illness
To prevent the development of an infectious disease - calcivirosis, a pet is annually vaccinated with special preparations, first consulting with a veterinarian. Kittens are allowed to be vaccinated at 9 - 12 weeks of age. Vaccinations very effectively protect the animal from serious consequences. If the cat was not promptly vaccinated against calcivirosis infection, then there is a high probability that she can give birth to dead kittens when she is ill during pregnancy.
Revaccination is carried out once a year, the vaccine helps to protect the pet from severe viral disease by forming its immunity. Calcivirosis in a vaccinated cat is more symptomatic and mild, without causing serious harm to the pet's health.
- It is necessary to minimize the contact of a pet with other cats, especially to ensure that it does not have the ability to contact with homeless animals.
- It is necessary to regularly air the room, periodically carry out wet cleaning. Wash the pet tray with soap and disinfect it every 7 days with special products.
- You need to feed the cat with special dishes, regularly disinfecting and a cat bowl.
- If another cat (or several) has appeared at home, it is necessary to withstand the quarantine period, at least 10 days.
- If any pathogenic symptoms appear, the sick cat should be isolated from other pets.
- Maintain calm and familiar surroundings sick animal. It is necessary to relieve the cat from unnecessary stress, as against the background of nervous and emotional disturbances the disease can recur.
Calcevirus is quite a dangerous disease, which is fraught with serious consequences. Timely diagnosis, well-organized treatment and care, regular vaccinations according to the schedule, will help to avoid irreversible consequences for the beautiful fluffy friend-cat.
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How to treat calcivirosis
Urgent treatment of calcivirosis in cats is required. The scheme depends on the strain of viral infection (40 of them have been identified). You can treat at home.
1. Fosprenil, injections. Relieves the symptoms of the disease. Antiviral drug, activates the immune system, blocks the development of the virus in the digestive tract and the spread of toxins. Also, the contents are washed eyes and buried in the nose for the treatment of ulcers on the nasopharyngeal mucosa. Injections are made at the rate of 0.2-0.3 ml per 1 kg of cat weight.
Wrap your cat in a cool cloth before rubbing his eyes and burying his nose - to neutralize his claws. An animal that is not used to treatment and is irritated by the disease will break out and defend itself.
2. Maxidine - 0.15% used for wiping watering eyes and instillation.
3. For the treatment of eye infections (including kittens) is used Tsiprovetcontaining antibiotic. Apply 4 times a day for 7-14 days. Drops are also suitable. Leopard or Dekta-2.
4. Ciprovet tablets can be used instead of Fosprenil. Pound the tablet into powder, dissolve in water and pour it into the pet's mouth through a syringe. Dosage: 1 tablet per day for 3-5 days, depending on the form of the disease.
5. At high temperatures may be dehydrated. In order to replenish the balance Ringer-Locke solution.
What drugs for calcivirosis can be combined:
- Lozeval (solution) + Ciprovet drops.
6. If the cat is tormented by pain, colitis is an anesthetic - sold in a veterinary pharmacy - Nalbuphine or Butofranol. Often, veterinarians use No-shpu in injections. But the injection is painful.
From medicines intended for the treatment of people, it is possible to prick the cat anesthetic Meloxicam.
7. Calcivirus infection provokes the formation of mouth ulcers. When stomatitis applies Stomorgil. The course is 10 days.
Calcivirosis in cats, the symptoms and treatment of which we considered a dangerous and insidious disease. Consequences: against its background secondary diseases develop, from which the cat languishes, and pneumonia, which is dangerous for pulmonary edema. If a brain infection has occurred, the animal has cramps and lameness. We recommend that the cat be vaccinated against this ailment so that in case of infection the disease is mild and does not threaten the life of the pet.
When cats develop a Calcevirus infection, they refuse to eat. This is due to inflammation of the nasal membranes and temporary loss of smell. It is imperative to feed the cat: Crush the food in a blender, add the broth and gently inject it through the syringe.
Signs of Calcivirosis in Cats
Mouth ulcers - the first sign of calcivirosis
A characteristic sign of the disease is the appearance of ulcers in the oral cavity, on the tongue and nasal mirror. If for some reason there is absolutely no way to go to the clinic for the necessary treatment, and you want to help the animal, you can try to improve the condition of the house.
High fever cats - the first sign of a beginning infection!
Calcivirosis, like other viral infections, manifests with non-specific and specific symptoms.
Nonspecific symptoms always occur in the form of fever (the animal is hot to the touch), refusal of food, lethargy, weakness, apathy. The cat can hide in dark and distant places.
Specific symptoms - these are the same ulcers, which are mentioned above, and an increased salivation can also be observed, which is poured out of the mouth and stains the chin.
Hypersalivation (an increased amount of saliva) is associated with an inflammatory process in the mouth. Также появляются истечения из глаз и носа, сопровождающиеся чиханием. Кошка может кашлять.
Гиперсаливация у кошки
Иногда наблюдается суставная форма инфекции – в этом случае кошка хромает, область поражённого сустава болезненная.
Болезнь может проявляться любой комбинацией вышеперечисленных симптомов. However, very often a viral infection for a long time can "express" its presence only by ulcers on the mucous membranes.
Moreover, a calcivirus infection can occur in combination with other viral diseases, resulting in the accumulation of other symptoms, such as diarrhea or vomiting. The possibility of the development of a secondary bacterial infection due to a weakened immunity, which can lead to pneumonia, is not excluded.
Treatment regimen for catarcivirosis
The initial stage of calcivirosis
The approach to the treatment of cats with calcivirosis very much depends on the state of the animal and the duration of the process. Cats that are sick for a long time, may die from exhaustion. Young animals, especially those that have just lost their maternal antibodies, suffer from the infection.
Weakened animals need infusion therapy to improve their condition.
Put the drip cat at home will not work. Also, animals need to be forced to feed, since prolonged starvation for cats is very dangerous . A course of antibiotics will help prevent the development of a secondary infection. Different supporting drugs will help the body to more easily transfer the disease and get better.
If there is no opportunity to go to the clinic, and the animal is in serious condition, he has almost no chance of survival . If the condition of the cat is quite stable, you can try to fight the infection.
Forced feeding and dehydration control
If the cat does not eat, you need to put her drip.
First of all, you must not forget about the forced feeding. Food needs to choose the most nutritious and soft, for this purpose suitable pates, which are used for weak animals. They are high-calorie and convenient to ask the animal through the mouth.
In order to combat dehydration, solutions can be injected subcutaneously instead of a dropper.
This will in no way replace the drip, but a positive effect may have some effect. For this purpose, use solutions of sodium chloride, ringer, glucose . The dosage depends on the weight and condition of the animal, and can vary from 5 to 20 ml per day, or even more. Large volumes can be broken down into several approaches. Solutions are introduced into the withers - the so-called area above the shoulder blades, where the most elastic skin.
In the event of a high temperature, in no case should cats be given medicines from their own first-aid kit - you can only make it worse, or even cause poisoning. It must be remembered that paracetamol cats cannot be categorically . It is best to use veterinary drugs for this purpose. It is important to know exactly what the temperature of the animal. Temperature is measured rectally. It is not necessary to have an electronic thermometer for this purpose, a mercury thermometer will also work, but it will have to be kept longer.
Fighting infection in the eyes and nose
Calcivirosis on the nose and eyes
It is necessary to fight the infection in the eyes and nose. Drops are used for this purpose, for example, Tobrex or something based on ciprofloxacin .
It is impossible to use drops with hormones - corticosteroids lower immunity, and it is extremely necessary for a cat with a viral infection.
Before instillation you need to clear the nasal passage and eyes. You can rinse the nose and eyes with a normal saline solution (thereby, sodium chloride, which is injected subcutaneously) with a syringe under pressure, removing the discharge with a napkin or tampons.
Flush mouth chlorhexidine better not worth it - it is very bitter, and cats are extremely sensitive to bitter taste. For the rehabilitation of the oral cavity is perfect chamomile decoction, prepared according to the standard instructions on the package.
Duration of treatment for calcivirosis
The duration of the course depends on how weak the cat is and how severe the symptoms appear, on the strength of immunity, age and many other factors. It is very individual, so if you take up the treatment of a cat, you need to be patient.
Roughly speaking, treatment should be carried out until the last symptoms disappear.
The above treatment regimen does not provide a 100% guarantee for the cure of the animal. Consultation with a veterinarian is necessary for quality control of calcivirosis. This treatment information is provided only for cases of extreme need. Remember: the best treatment is prevention. Inoculate the animal once a year with a comprehensive vaccine, and in the interval between vaccinations the cat will be fully protected.
How does the infection occur?
Calcivirosis virus is called Feline Calicivirus, or abbreviated as FCV. It has similarity with the human flu. The virus provokes the development of diseases of the upper respiratory tract of a cat. It constantly mutates, so even in animals that have been ill, mild symptoms of calcivirosis can appear during re-infection.
The FCV virus is transmitted from a sick cat to a healthy fast. It enters the body through the mouth, eyes or nasal passages. When sneezing, the virus enters the environment and spreads among animals.
A healthy cat can become infected in several ways: through direct contact or inventory (bowls, bedding, clothing, etc.). Also sources of infection are feces, human hands, food, water.
REFERENCE! At risk are weak animals and cats that live crowded (shelters, nurseries, etc.).
If the cat has signs of calcivirosis, it should be isolated and shown to a doctor. The doctor examines the pet, assesses the general condition, measures the temperature. The doctor must examine the mucous membranes of the cat's mouth for ulcers, since this symptom is characteristic of calcivyrosis.
After a general examination, serological examination is prescribed. It consists in the study of serum. When calciviosis in it increases the titer of neutralizing antibodies against FCV. In the blood test, you can detect a decrease in hemoglobin by 30%. Also there is lymphopenia or a decrease in the level of white blood cells.
It is very important to differentiate (distinguish) calcirovirus from other diseases that are similar to its symptoms. These diseases include chlamydia, bordetellosis, feline rhinotracheitis, herpes virus.
Calcivirosis in cats: symptoms and treatment
The incubation period, i.e. The period during which the symptoms do not yet appear, but the animal is already infected, lasts up to 6 days.
With calcivirosis in cats, the symptoms are as follows:
- Small and extensive sores on the oral mucosa, in the throat, around the nose.
Sluggish and apathetic condition.
Inflammation of the articular tissue and the appearance of lameness.
Severe shortness of breath and heavy breathing.
IMPORTANT! In severe disease, the symptoms appear clearly. The cat becomes lethargic, her mucous membranes may turn yellow as the liver suffers. The animal suffers from fever.
Calcivirosis in cats: treatment
Treatment of the disease includes the use of antibiotics, immunostimulants, drugs against viruses. In case of severe course of the animal, intravenous infusions of nutrient solutions are shown.
If a veterinarian diagnosed calcivirosis in a cat, home treatment is carried out according to the following scheme:
- Fosprenil. This drug stimulates the immune system in an animal, is injected intramuscularly at a dosage of 0.3 ml per kilogram of mass. It is used according to the following scheme: the first 4 days 4 injections, from 5 to 12 days - 3 injections, from 8 to 12 days - 2 injections, from 13 to 16 days - once a day.
Maxidine. An effective immunomodulator that is injected into a pet's muscle. The drug is recommended to be diluted in a ratio of 1 to 1 with novocaine. The course of application is from 5 to 7 days. Per day, do two injections at a dosage of 0.1-0.2 ml per kilogram.
Roncoleukin. This drug also supports animal immunity. Injected subcutaneously or into a vein for 3-5 days. Dosage for cats - 30,000 units per kilogram. Previously, the drug is diluted with saline (NaCl) in the ratio of 1 to 1. Intravenous Roncoleukin is administered in the event that the cat is in serious condition.
Gamavit Supports the work of immunity, normalizes metabolism, neutralizes toxins. Dosage for cats - up to 3 ml per animal. Introduced twice a day subcutaneously or with a drip, the course of application - up to 5 days.
Hemobalance. This drug can be replaced by Gamavit. It is administered only once a day at a dosage of 0.25 ml per kilogram. The course of treatment lasts no more than 10 days.
Tylosin. With catalysis in cats, home treatment can be performed with this antibiotic. Tylosin injections are given once a day, 5 shots are enough. Dosage - 0.2 ml per kilogram.
In case of a calcivirus infection, local treatment is also necessary. It consists in the treatment of mucous membranes affected by sores with Miramistin. This procedure is repeated three times a day. Lugol is also applied to the wounds once a day. Up to 3 times the oral cavity is treated with Dentavedin.
If a pet has sores not only in the mouth, but also on the nasal mirror, lips, under the eyes, the drug Acyclovir should be applied to them. For conjunctivitis or purulent discharge from the eyes, Bars drops are used. For the night for an eyelid lay Floksal ointment.
Care for a sick cat and predictions
A sick animal must be isolated from other cats. Also, the pet should be given a soft, cozy and warm litter. Diet is also desirable to change. It is recommended to transfer the cat to the medical canned foods Hills I / D or A / D, ProPlan CN and others for the period of treatment and recovery.
ATTENTION! Calcivirosis Virus Dangerous to Feline Only. People, dogs and other pets cannot become infected, so the owner can take care of the pet on his own.
It looks like the virus of catarrhivirosis in cats
The prognosis for calcivirus infection is favorable. If the animal has no complications (pneumonia, pneumonia, secondary bacterial infections, etc.), recovery with properly prescribed treatment occurs within 7-9 days. Adult animals suffer in a milder form than kittens up to 6 months.
Prevention of calcivirosis is as follows:
- Compliance with all zoohygienic norms, if the animals are contained in large groups (regular treatment of the entire inventory with bleach or other disinfectants, washing of beds, etc.).
Exclusion of animals suffering from chronic rhinotracheitis or calcivirosis in a chronic form, from breeding.
Regular vaccination and getting rid of cats from worms and external parasites.
If there is a new cat in the house, you must comply with quarantine for 2-3 weeks.
Calcivirosis is a highly contagious disease, but it responds well to timely treatment. A sick animal should be isolated from other cats as soon as possible, as the virus is easily transmitted through the air. The only effective way to protect your pet from this disease is regular vaccination.
Now you know all about this disease. Remember these symptoms and veterinary advice, but rather save.