Demodicosis is an invasive disease caused by a microscopic mite. It is characterized by dermatitis, local alopecia. Accompanied by pustular, papular skin lesions, and immunodeficiency. Demodex mite is localized not only on the skin, but also has the ability to penetrate into the subcutaneous tissue and even the lymphatic system.
Forms of the disease
There are the following options for demodicosis:
- squamous (scaly) - the formation on the scalp and limbs of scaly scales of copper-red color,
- pustular - formation of skin bubbles filled with pus,
- generalized - simultaneous manifestation of the first and second forms of the disease with the defeat of significant areas of the skin.
Introduction to Therapy
The treatment of generalized demodicosis is a long-term process, difficult to predict and requires tremendous patience from the owner of the dog. In each specific case of the disease, an individual approach is important, since there is no definite scheme for getting rid of the tick that helps absolutely every pet.
In any case, to begin with, differential diagnosis is carried out, excluding the following diseases: true food allergies, versicolor, sarcoptosis, sifunculitis, dermatitis.
The principle of therapy is on two pillars: the complete destruction of the tick population and the elimination of all predisposing factors (poor maintenance, weak immunity, improper feeding, etc.).
During therapeutic measures to achieve the maximum effect will require:
- do not self-medicate: the whole process should be carried out under the strict supervision of a veterinarian with the exact implementation of all recommendations for the dosing and use of specific drugs (many of them are toxic and can cost the life of the dog),
- therapy should take place against the background of hepatoprotectors to protect the liver,
- you will need to abandon the use of hormonal corticosteroids (dexamethasone, kenalog, prednisone, etc.),
- organization of conditions of detention as close as possible to sterile ones
- additional antibacterial and fungicidal therapy, developing fungal and staphylococcal skin lesions,
- use as an auxiliary symptomatic therapy of external preparations that soften the skin, relieve itching and have a beneficial effect on the regeneration of the skin (sulfur, fatty acids, Pihtoin, etc.),
- use of immunoparasitans and other immunomodulators to stimulate the body’s defenses,
- organization of the correct diet of the dog - it should consist of easily digestible food (ideally use special dietary hypoallergenic food or prepare natural food. Of course, you will need to completely eliminate spicy, salty and fried food,
- the use of an additional source of vitamins and trace elements.
Given the cunning of demodicosis, the main strategy is not to relax and not stop there!
- deep skin scraping is required every 3-4 weeks from the start of treatment,
- We continue treatment until three consecutive negative results of microscopy for the presence of ticks, regardless of the visible improvement in the appearance and condition of the dog.
It is in first place on the effectiveness of the victory over demodicosis in dogs.
The principle of treatment and dose:
- dogs with long hair are cut short and washed with keratolytic shampoo containing sulfur,
- the drug is diluted with warm water according to the instructions, the animal is bathed in the resulting solution, allowing it to dry naturally or dried with a hair dryer (you can not use a towel for drying),
- each time they use only a new solution
- the treatment is repeated every 10-14 days until three consecutive negative results are obtained from skin scrapings (in most cases 6 treatments should suffice),
Chronic course may require a longer course of treatment with large doses of amitraz, but in this case there is a likelihood of side effects such as poisoning, depression of the nervous system, decrease in body temperature, increase in blood sugar levels, in addition, there were deaths among Chi-hua .
In the absence of a therapeutic effect from the use of the usual dose, it is increased by two, sometimes three times, and the number of treatments is adjusted to 1 time per week.
All decisions to change the dosage should be made only by a specialist. It is advisable to carry out the treatment in the clinic to immediately reanimate the animal if necessary.
Amitraz prescribed with extreme caution:
- dogs with diabetes,
- puppies under 4 months,
- animals with pronounced pyoderma, the presence of drainage channels (purulent fistula) - treatment with amitraz in this case is possible only after a course of antibiotics.
It can be put on the second place on the effectiveness of therapy.
Basics and dosage:
For treatment, both an injectable form of a medicine for subcutaneous administration (approximate dose 0.4 mg / kg) and tablets (approximate dose 0.6 mg / kg once a day) are used. On average, the duration of treatment is about 5-6 weeks, after which there is a significant improvement in the general condition of the animal.
Preparations of the avermectin series, as a rule, are prescribed to those dogs that lack positive dynamics from treatment with amitraz. Unfortunately, long-term administration of high doses of drugs in almost 100% of cases causes a hepatotoxic effect, which should not be forgotten. Therefore, a course of therapy is followed by monitoring the state of the liver and taking hepatoprotectors in order to minimize the risk of developing hepatitis.
- not recommended for puppies younger than 6 months of age,
- It is forbidden to use collie and its mixtures, bobtails (these breeds have a high degree of penetration of the active substance of the drug into the central nervous system and its accumulation there, which significantly increases the toxic effect on the body).
In the recent past, organophosphate preparations (chlorophos, ronnel, etc.) have been used to combat demodicosis, but recently more and more veterinarians have refused this treatment method due to the high toxic effect of these drugs.
Nevertheless, a relatively safe cytoate is attributed to this group. The drug is available in the form of tablets and is designed to get rid of fleas, but perfectly destroys and adults (mature) ticks.
Restrictions on the use of cytotates:
- absolute contraindication for use in greyhanuds (there is a likelihood of muscle tremors and increased excitability),
- can not be pregnant bitches, emaciated animals,
- dogs after stress,
- with anemia.
Apply twice a week for 45 days (10 mg / kg).
As mentioned above, there is no uniform scheme for getting rid of the subcutaneous tick and all appointments should be made by a professional. In extreme cases (for example, when it is not possible to see a specialist), the most common treatment options can be considered. They are not a dogma, much less a guide to action for self-treatment.
Suitable for the treatment of generalized form of demodicosis, complicated by staphylococcus and / or fungus.
- Nystatin with tetracycline - 10 days, after a week Trichopol - 10 days.
- Simultaneously with chemotherapy, marasasd is used externally every three days, three times. Marasasd - a mixture of purified sunflower oil and ASD-3, has a bactericidal, fungicidal property with a weak acaricidal effect, accelerates the process of regeneration of the skin, promotes rapid hair growth.
- Keratolytic zoo shampoo for softening crusts before applying oil emulsion.
- Ectomin (an acaricide in the form of an emulsion) for washing patches of baldness.
- Dietary feeding.
The following variant of complex treatment gives quite good results:
- Subcutaneous administration of ivomek twice with an interval of 7 days - a dose of 0.2-0.3 ml per 10 kg of live weight.
- Sulfur tar ointment for external use in the affected areas for the first 7-10 days daily, then 1 time per week.
- Alimentary (food) sulfur (5 mg / kg) - give at least 1 month.
- Feeding a new or similar product (Ivomek, Baymek, Ivermag, Ivermectin), the dose should be calculated based on the body weight of the dog.
- Antibiotics to suppress the development of secondary microflora.
- Imaverol - antifungal agent for the treatment of affected areas of the body.
- To reduce itching and reduce inflammation tea tree oil.
- Chlorhexidine (Miramistin) for disinfection and removal of crusts.
- Every 5-7 days wash with any medical shampoo for dogs.
Good results in the fight against demodicosis obtained from intramuscular injection of immunoparasitans. It is used every 4-5 days with a gradual increase in dose according to the attached instructions. Treatment with this drug is carried out on the background of dietary feeding, the use of hepatoprotectors and vitamin therapy. After a course of antibiotics, the course "Procolina" is shown.
Please note that veterinary medicine does not practice the treatment of demodicosis with folk remedies, highly effective medicines are always required against the tick.
Demodex mite is located on the skin of each dog and is considered an integral part of the normal skin flora. That is why the development of the disease occurs not only after direct contact with infected animals, but also against the background of a fall in its own immunity.
Demodecosis of dogs begins to manifest itself only when a large colony of ticks is collected in the body. This becomes possible when adult parasites begin to multiply, and this is possible only under certain favorable conditions - a decrease in local skin immunity and a general immune response of the whole organism. The initial stage is usually nothing but an itch, no longer manifested.
Most often the disease is recorded in the winter-spring period. Analysis of demodicosis looks like a microscopy of a deep skin scraping.
Demodecosis has three forms of manifestation, on which the symptomatic signs of the disease and its spread throughout the body depend:
- The focal form (local) is considered relatively harmless and the easiest. Externally, it is manifested only in individual areas of peeling and itching of the skin. There is no systematic positioning over the body (randomly) - ears, on paws, croup. Typically, such lesions in the body from 3 to 5 (maximum - 7). Self-healing is often observed. However, it is impossible to guess whether the body will cope with the disease itself or not, therefore a visit to the veterinarian is required.
- Generalized demodicosis is considered the second form of development - up to 10% of cases of the local form are transferred to it. It differs from the first one by a larger area of damage to the surface (more than 5-7 spots) and intensity of damage. Internal organs and mucous membranes can be affected (for example, demodecosis of the eyes is characterized by a symptom of "glasses" around the eyeballs due to a lesion). Dog's skin gets an unpleasant smell. With the wrong treatment approach, the animal may die, because the tick can seize the surface of the whole body, the dog’s immune system will start to fail, various associated infections of the skin and organs and systems will begin to accumulate.
- Juvenile demodicosis is the third form of the disease, which bears this name because of the age of the sick dogs. Young dogs under 1 year of age usually suffer. In such cases, it is a hereditary predisposition. Treatment in such cases is carried out not only sick puppies, but also their parents (mostly mother).
All forms of dog demodicosis have similar symptoms with approximately the same treatment regimens.
What should notice the owner:
Demodecosis in dogs is manifested by the following symptoms:
- The dog is much and often itches. Usually it is a muzzle, places around the sockets, ears, paws, spine, chest. The appearance of black dots, resembling acne comedones, which can not be squeezed out.
- At the base of the hair there are reddening and slight swelling right in the place where the hair bulbs are “planted”.
- Sequential stages of skin condition change: the appearance of bubbles with dark contents (brick-clay color), which burst in 3-4 days, and the liquid is poured out with an unpleasant, offensive smell.
- Over time, the outflows dry out and on the skin are formed foci of alopecia with scales resembling fish scales, falling out along with the coat. Also in some places is noted - a feature of demodicosis - gluing wool at its base (follicular casts).
- When ododemodekoze affected outer ear. The auricle itches, hair falls out around the head, black, bad-smelling crusts appear.
- What does demodecosis look like in English / American Cocker Spaniels? Most often, their paws are affected. Demodecosis of the lower extremities looks like intensely reddened, balding skin with signs of furunculosis (inflammation of the hair follicles) and purulent phlebitis of the paws (purulent inflammation of the veins).
- In advanced cases, purulent inflammation of the skin develops, since joins a secondary infection.
- With a prolonged generalized form, the animal becomes depressed, the appetite decreases and the body temperature drops to 37 ° C.
Externally, demodecosis is very similar to some other infectious parasitic diseases. Only a specialist can distinguish them, so a visit to the vet cannot be postponed.
How to cure demodicosis? Immediately warned - the treatment is complex and long, and the generalized form is completely incurable. In addition, all drugs are to some extent toxic, so only the veterinary specialist should paint all the dosages of the drugs and the schemes for their use! When a dog has diagnosed demodicosis, treatment at home is advisable only after discussing all the nuances with the veterinarian, who will tell in detail what to do. Trying to overcome a disease on your own can be dangerous to a pet's life.
Treatment of dogs with demodicosis is difficult due to the fact that most drugs kill only adult ticks, and nymphs, larvae and eggs that can be spread throughout the body are not affected. Also, the tick itself can be localized in the subcutaneous tissue and lymphatic system, where drugs do not reach. With the active treatment of nymphs and larvae hibernate, and after treatment they are activated, turn into mature individuals, begin to multiply, and the disease returns to the same extent as it was before the start of treatment.
The basic principles of therapy:
- complete removal of tick-borne populations from the body,
- elimination of all adverse factors contributing to the deterioration of the condition (poor feeding and conditions of detention, hypovitaminosis, reduced general immunity compared to other diseases, etc.).
General terms and conditions of treatment (All drugs are given solely for information, not for self-therapy.):
- You can not self-medicate if the diagnosis is made accurately. How to treat demodicosis in dogs - only a veterinarian decides! Any manipulations with animals during the period of therapy should be carried out under the supervision of a specialist with the exact execution of all his prescriptions and dosages.
- Dogs with intense damage and long hair must be cut. Before treatment with ointments or acaricidal solutions it is recommended to bathe in any antimicrobial and / or antipruritic shampoos with thorough rinsing.
- Necessarily treatment of demodicosis is accompanied by hepatoprotective drugs, since almost all acaricidal agents are hepatotoxic:
Causes of demodicosis
Ticks live on each dog's coat, but they do not lead to the appearance of diseases. This is due to the fact that the animal's immune system is able to overcome parasites. Every healthy dog produces antibodies in the blood that hinder the development of red scabies. But due to various factors, the body can greatly weaken, and as a result, demodecosis will begin. Most often this happens in autumn or spring, when the animal's body is in dire need of vitamins. Some dog breeds are particularly prone to the occurrence of this disease. Among them are German Shepherd, Pug, Shar Pei, Terrier, Bulldog, Bull Terrier. These are the main causes of demodicosis in dogs.
Ways of infection
Demodecosis does not belong to infectious diseases and cannot be transmitted from one animal to another. The only thing worth paying attention to is that newborn puppies can become infected from the mother by eating her milk. This disease is also safe for humans, since it cannot be transmitted from animals. Now it becomes clear whether demodicosis is contagious in dogs.
The factors that can provoke the appearance of demodicosis can be safely attributed to the following:
- The presence of malignant tumors.
- Conducting a course of treatment that involves the use of hormonal drugs that can greatly reduce the immune system.
- Наследственность (может быть врожденное отсутствие антител против красной чесотки).
- Нарушения в эндокринной системе.
- Ожирение собаки часто приводит к такому результату.
- Собаки, которые принимают антилимфоцитарные сыворотки, могут заболеть демодекозом.
- Non-compliance with the rules of hygiene, as well as too frequent water procedures can lead to the appearance of such a disease.
- Often, demodicosis occurs in dogs that are already in old age.
- There are a number of diseases that greatly reduce the dog's immunity.
- A dog that eats too little decreases immunity and there is a risk of infection.
- And the last factor is too long therapy with the use of antibacterial drugs.
Ticks are especially comfortable in rooms with high humidity, as well as on the wet skin of an animal.
The manifestation of the disease begins with the time when the parasites begin to multiply actively. Depending on the symptoms, there are several forms of the disease:
- Juvenile (manifested mainly in puppies).
Further more detail about each stage of demodicosis in dogs and its symptoms.
First of all, the localized form manifests itself in the form of bald areas of the dog's body. They can appear anywhere, but are most often visible on the head, paws, abdomen and chest. The skin in these places is strongly modified, it becomes more coarse, even thickened, may be covered with scales, and in more advanced forms - ulcers. Over time, these areas appear strong redness and folds. Vaccinations and stresses have some effect on these symptoms. They can aggravate them, and they can make them disappear altogether. This is the stage when it is worthwhile to seriously take care of your pet, since there is a real chance to completely heal the dog. If you do not start treatment of demodicosis in a dog now, then the localized form turns into a generalized one.
There are already more serious symptoms that simply cannot be ignored:
- The affected places are very concerned about the dog because of the itch, it constantly combing these areas.
- The number of bald areas gradually increases.
- The skin of the animal begins to smell unpleasant.
- The first signs that the internal organs are affected are also manifested. The dog loses strength, it is disturbed by convulsions, muscles tremble in it, vomiting appears, and foam can even be released from the mouth.
- Significantly violated coordination of movements.
The generalized form is curable, but it will take quite a lot of time and effort. An important role here is played by the age of the dog, since the older the dog, the more difficult it will be to cure it. If the treatment is not taken on time or not doing it at all, the animal will simply die from intoxication and exhaustion.
As mentioned earlier, the symptoms of demodicosis in dogs of the juvenile form almost always occur in puppies that have not yet turned one year old. This form of the disease is classified as hereditary. In puppies, the skin around the eyes falls out and is covered with scales. They are immediately excluded from the breeding program, and also sterilized on a mandatory basis in order to prevent the development of the disease in their children. Every second puppy is cured independently. The disease passes when the baby begins to grow up. If the puppy has a weak immunity, then juvenile demodicosis will develop into a generalized one.
They are no less dangerous than the disease itself, and can manifest themselves even after complete recovery. Especially common complications after the generalized form. This disease can affect your pet's stomach, gallbladder, intestines, and endocrine system. Such forms of the disease quite often lead to the death of a pet, so it is better to prevent the disease from developing into a generalized one.
Diagnosis of demodicosis
It will not be difficult for the veterinarian to diagnose demodicosis, since it manifests itself on the skin surface, and an analysis of complaints is carried out, the heredity of the dog is studied. Additional analyzes also include scraping for demodicosis in dogs, which is taken from the surface of the animal's skin.
This analysis is very simple. The animal's skin is very squeezed and scraped so that a few drops of blood come out. Earlier it was said that ticks also live on the body of a healthy dog, but the parasite's eggs can be found in the patient under the skin, as well as individuals that have not yet reached maturity. This is a clear sign that an active parasite breeding process is underway. It is possible that only one tick will be detected in the analysis. In this case, scraping will be repeated, but on another part of the body.
In dogs such as Shar Pei, scraping is quite problematic due to the many folds on the skin, but the treatment of demodicosis in dogs of this breed cannot be postponed. A biopsy is performed for them.
How to distinguish demodicosis from another disease
Sometimes it happens that demodicosis is confused with other diseases. As a result, the wrong therapy is carried out, time is wasted, which would be worth spending on the right treatment. Diseases that are confused with demodicosis:
- Ear Scabs During this disease, the skin of the animal is also affected, but a completely different group of ticks "works" here. And the affected areas cover only the ears of the animal, and not the whole body, as in demodecosis.
- Sarcoptosis Another disease that causes ticks, but with it is an incredibly intense itching that does not give the dog a rest. Sarkoptoznye ticks lodge directly under the epidermis, and demodectic ticks - in the follicles.
- Notoendrosis. It is also among the parasitic diseases, but mainly the head area is affected here.
- Ringworm. This disease already belongs to the fungal. With him, the dog also begins to lose wool, but in the bald areas it can be seen that the hairs seem to have cut off very shortly. And also the affected places swell noticeably.
- Allergy. Quite often, allergies are accompanied by severe itching. But with allergic reactions hair loss is not observed.
- There are some infectious diseases that are accompanied by wool loss. But they are also characterized by fever and many other signs of infection.
Treatment of the disease
The veterinarian determines the method of treatment based on the form of the disease and the extent of skin lesions. The first thing is assigned the right care and compliance with all necessary rules of hygiene. The owner should pay special attention to the level of humidity in the room. Any remedy should be taken only on prescription. Usually the treatment is carried out in several stages:
- The first step is to destroy the parasite.
- Next, you should improve the condition of the skin of the animal.
- At the third stage, the body is detoxified.
- Then you need to strengthen the immune system so that there is no re-infection.
- Symptomatic treatment is last carried out.
It is not necessary to self-medicate, since only a doctor will be able to prescribe drugs for demodicosis in dogs and the required dosage, based on weight, age and general condition of the animal.
A veterinarian is required to prescribe drugs in the form of tablets, and can also prescribe antiparasitic injections. Most often it is "Ivermectin" in injections or "Aversect". It is these drugs that can cause massive death of parasites. In addition, local funds are also assigned. These can be special drops for withers "Lawyer", "Bars Spot-on", as well as the solution that is used for washing the affected areas - "Miramistin". It is useful to apply ointments such as "Vetabiol", ichthyol ointment or sulfuric. All these tools are intended for external use.
In the early stages, you can try special shampoos: "Doctor", "Phytoelite". But they can be effective only in a localized form, and then their use simply does not make sense and is considered a waste of money.
Pustules may occur in the affected areas. In such cases, sulfonamides and antibiotics are prescribed. You should not use glucocorticosteroids, because they greatly reduce the immunity of the animal, which is contraindicated in demodecosis.
In particularly difficult cases, radiotherapy is prescribed. The animal is exposed to radiation for ten or fifteen minutes, and after that it is scraped with ticks. If, according to the results of the analysis, the presence of parasites is confirmed, then the procedure is repeated once more.
For the purposes of prophylaxis, you can use Artemon ticks collars. But remember that the collar can be worn only on a healthy animal, so that no invasion occurs. Already infected dog he does not help.
More than once it was mentioned that the disease of demodicosis in dogs occurs in animals with weakened immunity. Therefore, it must be strengthened. Veterinarians prescribe special vitamins that assist the animal in the fight against invasion.
Most often used such vitamin preparations:
It is known that all antiparasitic drugs are toxic, and this means that the animal's stomach is in dire need of protection. Therefore, the owner will have to spend money on probiotics, enzymes, hepatoprotectors.
Widely applicable and traditional methods of treatment, which prove to be effective, but only in conjunction with medical treatment. And you can use any of the folk remedies only after consulting with the attending veterinarian.
Besides all this, a dog with demodicosis needs a diet. If the pet eats ready-made feeds, then there should be no allergic substances in them, and the presence of dyes and flavor enhancers is completely excluded. Any food must be fresh and of high quality. The use of cheap food is not allowed. If the dog eats natural food, then any fatty foods should be excluded. During this period, it is especially beneficial for a pet to eat boiled meat, cereals and vegetables, eggs, and various dairy products.
Demodecosis is a complex disease that is not so easy to cure, so it is better to do everything to prevent its occurrence. There are a few simple rules that will help keep your pet healthy:
- Be sure to follow all the rules of hygiene for the animal.
- Pet must be provided with adequate nutrition.
- You must purchase a special antiparasitic zoohampoo with birch tar and periodically use it while swimming.
Modern medicine allows you to make a vaccine against demodicosis, to forget about this disease forever. Her name is "Immunoparasitan". This drug is equally well tolerated when administered to puppies and adult animals. But to vaccinate a dog that is already sick with demodicosis is not worth it, because it can lead to increased symptoms.
Symptoms of demodicosis in dogs
The first signs of the disease occur when ticks begin to multiply massively. In this case, the symptoms may differ, depending on the clinical form of demodicosis.
Symptoms of the disease are divided into localized (focal), generalized and asymptomatic forms.
- Localized demodicosis in dogs is characterized by the appearance of zones of baldness in certain areas of the body (usually on the head and limbs). The skin on these areas thicken, shrink, become grayish or reddish-red, covered with small scaly elements. Pustules may appear - light pink nodular rash, which eventually darken and degenerate into ulcers. Pustules filled with pus, burst, resulting in their secreted content, which dries up, taking the form of gray-brown scabs. Damaged integuments grow coarse and red, folds appear on them. In severe cases, general intoxication and exhaustion develops, as a result of which the animal may die.
- Generalized demodicosis in dogs occurs with extensive lesions of the skin, with the involvement of almost all parts of the body of the animal. The disease penetrates into the deeper layers of tissues, and internal organs are also affected. Signs of general intoxication come to the fore:
- muscle tremors and cramps
- vomiting reflex,
- nausea (salivation),
- the appearance of foam from the mouth,
- coordination disorders.
If in the near future not to help the dog, the disease can be fatal.
- Asymptomatic demodicosis occurs without visible changes on the skin, but with a thorough examination you can detect Demodex ticks.
Juvenile demodicosis in dogs
Juvenile form of demodicosis can occur in puppies up to one year old. Puppies are infected from a sick mother in the first days after birth. The main factor contributing to the development of the disease is weak immune defense, which cannot withstand the reproduction of parasitic mites. Treatment of juvenile demodicosis begins only when the animal grows up. In some cases, the disease disappears on its own or when using exclusively external preparations.
A special form of the disease is also distinguished, such as generalized juvenile demodicosis. This form is considered hereditary and is caused by an autosomal recessive gene. It is difficult and long to cure such a disease; moreover, after the cure, such dogs are sterilized.
Treatment of demodicosis in dogs
The treatment regimen for demodicosis in dogs is prescribed depending on the extent of the damage to the animal. With a localized course, spontaneous healing is possible, and with a generalized course, such an outcome is impossible.
First of all, attention is paid to competent care, hygiene and living conditions of the animal. A sick dog must be kept in a warm and dry room, with proper nutrition, which we will discuss later. If the general state of health is unsatisfactory, then it will be rather difficult to cure demodicosis.
Antibiotics and other pills for demodicosis for dogs are prescribed only by a veterinarian. Such drugs must act in several ways:
- tick parasite destruction,
- skin restoration,
- strengthening the animal’s own immune defense,
- acceleration of elimination of toxic substances from the bloodstream,
- elimination of unpleasant symptoms.
- Tablets for demodicosis for dogs:
- Ivermectin is a known antiparasitic agent, is available in tablets of 3 mg, is used for oral administration in an amount of 200 μg / kg of animal weight. The duration of admission - 1 week.
- Milbemycin is an anthelmintic drug that is also used to get rid of Demodex mite. Assigned as follows:
- dogs weighing up to 1 kg - half a pill "for puppies",
- dogs weighing up to 5 kg - the whole tablet "for puppies"
- dogs weighing up to 25 kg - the whole tablet "for adults",
- dogs up to 50 kg - two tablets "for adults",
- dogs up to 70 kg - three pills "for adults".
Do not use Milbemycin to treat puppies under 14 days old and weighing less than 500 g, as well as in pregnant and weak animals.
- Bravekto - insektoakaritsidny preparation. Appointed before meals at the rate of 25-56 mg / kg body weight of the dog. A pill is given in its entirety without crushing or breaking. It is permissible to take this veterinary drug for pregnant and lactating animals.
Also used penicillin therapy or sulfa drugs for the treatment and prevention of purulent infections.
- Solutions and drops for dogs from demodicosis:
- Bars Spot-on is a veterinary agent for outdoor use, it is prescribed for the treatment and prevention of nematodoses and demodicosis. Contains Praziquantel and Ivermectin. The solution is applied to withers, pre-exposing the skin. The tool can also be used in puppies older than 2 months, from 1 to 5 pipettes, depending on the weight of the animal.
- Chlorhexidine (Miramistin) is an antiseptic external solution, which is used twice a day for washing. Duration of use of the drug - no more than 5 weeks. The drug is well disinfects and disinfects the skin, promoting rapid healing. Used without serious limitations.
- Injections for demodicosis in dogs:
- Aversect is used in the form of a 0.5% solution for animals weighing more than 10 kg, based on a ratio of 0.4 ml per 10 kg. For animals with lower weight, the dosage is calculated according to the 0.1 ml per kg scheme. Aversect is administered once in 6 days, p / k or / m. The course of treatment is long.
- Ivermectim - 1% solution, causing paralysis and death of ticks. It is injected subcutaneously, once, at the rate of 0.2-0.4 ml of dosage per 10 kg of weight. Do not apply Ivermectim in weak animals, puppies up to 6 months, 14 days before and 14 days after birth.
- Ointment from demodicosis for dogs:
- Sulfuric ointment - has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antiparasitic action. Ointment is applied under dressings, or in the form of applications once every two days.
- Vetabiol is a natural outdoor product derived from coniferous wood. The ointment is applied to the areas affected by demodicosis, every day up to 3 times a day. Covering the application area is not recommended. The duration of treatment is up to 14 days.
- Ichthyol ointment - a local remedy, which is applied under the bandage every 8-10 hours.
- Other remedies for demodicosis:
- Shampoo "Doctor" (Convet Company) - keratolytic, antipruritic and deodorizing drug, inhibits the growth of pathogens and inhibits the development of the inflammatory response. Содержит бензоилпероксид. Шампунь наносят на пораженные зоны, смывают и наносят повторно. Через 10 минут окончательно смывают чистой водой. Средство можно использовать 2-4 раза в неделю.
- «Фитоэлита» шампунь для собак – это натуральное средство с инсектицидным действием. It protects animals from various parasites, eliminates itching and inflammatory reaction. The tool is applied to a pre-moistened skin in a dosage of ½- 1 ml per 1 kg of dog's weight, avoiding contact with the mouth and eyes. Wash off after 4-5 minutes, the wool is dried. In addition, the phytoelite shampoo can be used to treat animal litter or blankets.
Treatment with hormonal (in particular, corticosteroid) drugs is contraindicated, since such drugs contribute to the aggravation of demodicosis and accelerate its transformation into a purulent form.
Advocate is a veterinary medicinal product from demodicosis in the form of an external solution, intended for the treatment and prevention of nematodoses, entomoses, sarcoptoidosis (including sarcoptosis and otodectosis) and subcutaneous tick in dogs.
A lawyer is prescribed for the treatment and prevention of the disease, otodecosis, sarcoptosis, entomoses, intestinal nematodoses (toxocarosis, toxascaridoz, uncinariosis, hookworm), and also for the prevention of dirofilariasis.
The drug is used by drip ("spot-on") application to dry, intact skin. Before using, remove the protective cap from the pipette and, having placed it vertically, pierce the protective membrane of the tip of the pipette (putting the cap on the back side), then remove the cap again. The preparation, spreading the fur, is applied to the animal in places inaccessible for licking directly on the skin between the shoulder blades at the base of the neck. When processing large animals, the contents of the pipettes are applied on the skin in 3 - 4 places. The minimum therapeutic dose for dogs is 0.1 ml / kg animal weight (10 mg / kg imidacloprid and 2.5 mg / kg moxidectin).
Ivermek with demodicosis has a pronounced acaricidal effect on larvae and mature specimens of sarcoptoid and demodectic mites. The drug ivermectin enhances the production of a neurotransmitter inhibition - gamma-aminobutyric acid, which leads to disruption of the transmission of impulses from nerve cells to muscle, paralysis and death of the parasite. Panthenol has a wound healing effect, and lidocaine has a local anesthetic effect with a pronounced antipruritic effect. Ivermectin is practically not absorbed through the skin and has an acaricidal effect on it, in the hair follicles and sebaceous glands for 5 to 7 days. By the degree of impact on the body, ivermek gel belongs to low-hazard substances. In the recommended doses it does not have a local irritant, resorptive-toxic, embryotoxic, teratogenic and mutagenic action. The drug is toxic to fish and bees.
In case of subcutaneous tick, sarcoptosis and notoedrosis, the preparation is applied in a thin layer on the affected areas previously cleaned from scabs and crusts at a rate of 0.2–0.3 ml per 1 kg of animal weight, slightly rubbing from the periphery to the center with a seizure of 1–2 cm borderline healthy skin. To prevent drug licking, animals muzzle (or close their jaws with a loop of tape), which is removed 15 to 20 minutes after application of the drug. The treatment is carried out 2-4 times with an interval of 5-7 days before the animal's clinical recovery, which is confirmed by two negative results of acarological research. Animals with extensive lesions are treated in two doses at intervals of one day, applying the drug to the affected areas, first with one and then the other half of the body. This is the treatment of demodicosis.
Aversectin from demodicosis is a broad spectrum antiparasitic drug for intradermal injections, which in appearance is a clear yellow solution, contains 20% aversectin C and a solvent.
For the prevention and treatment of hypodermatosis, the drug is administered at a dose of 0.1 ml per 400 kg body weight of the animal, with other parasitosis at the rate of 0.1 ml of the drug per 100 kg body weight (which corresponds to 0.2 mg / kg in DV). A tubercle (pea) with a diameter of about 8 mm is formed at the injection site of the drug, which indicates the correctness of the drug administration. At the time of administration of the drug in order to avoid injury, do not move the nozzle relative to the injection site.
Usually does not cause side effects. Under no circumstances should a drug be taken in case of hypersensitivity to the main components of the drug. This is a serious tool that requires special advice before use. The therapeutic effect of the treatment of demodicosis in this way is achieved in a short time.
Vitamins for demodicosis in dogs
The feasibility of using vitamins in dogs with demodicosis is controversial: some experts prescribe vitamin preparations for all animals, without exception, and others are totally against it, considering that such means favor the development of ticks. Meanwhile, vitamins uniquely help strengthen the dog's immunity, which increases the body's resistance to infection.
Among the most common vitamin preparations prescribed for demodicosis, the following can be distinguished:
- "Vetzim" is a vitamin tablet drug based on brewer's yeast. Contains vitamins of group B and E. "Vetzim" has practically no contraindications and can be used for a long time. Usually prescribed from 2 to 4 tablets per day for a month.
- Midivet is a modern adaptogen containing a large amount of essential amino acids, fatty acids, macro- and microelements. Midivet accelerates the elimination of toxins, inhibits the growth of bacteria and viruses, activates skin regeneration, strengthens the immune defense, improves liver function. The drug is used in 1-4 drops per 1 kg of weight for 10 days. After 1 month, the treatment can be repeated.
Before you give your dog vitamin preparations, make sure that the animal is not allergic to the components of the selected agent.
The most effective folk remedy against demodicosis is birch tar. It is evenly distributed over the affected skin and left for 3 hours.
In addition, you can prepare various ointments at home:
- a mixture of pure turpentine with linseed oil or animal fat in a ratio of 1: 2,
- 1 part of celandine juice with 4 parts of vaseline,
- powdered sulfur with melted fat (1: 2),
- a mixture of equal parts of baked fat, grated green soap, powdered sulfur and birch tar,
- a mixture of dried chopped celandine herbs with heavy cream,
- a mixture of equal parts of ground bay leaf and animal fat,
- five parts of mustard oil and 1 part of minced garlic,
- one part of ground root devyasila, two parts of birch tar and 4 parts of ghee,
- two parts of melted fat, the same amount of rubbed soap, one part of powdered sulfur and one part of birch tar.
Also, wounds can be washed with infusions of such plants as buckthorn bark, root of elecampane, grass of the root canal, grass of dymyanki.
Food dogs with demodicosis
The treatment of the disease caused by Demodex should be comprehensive. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account such an important factor as nutrition. The dog should eat fully, natural and fresh food, free of chemical substances - flavor enhancers, dyes, etc. It is better if the food consists of meat products (boiled), as well as eggs, dairy products, vegetables, cereals.
Do not make the dog's food fat, salty, and add vodka to it. It is allowed to add vitamins to the feed, after consulting with a veterinarian.
Some manufacturers produce special dry food for the treatment of skin diseases in dogs. When buying such a product, you must make sure of the following points:
- good feed quality and manufacturer's reputation,
- positive feedback from buyers,
- no chemical ingredients in the product,
- hypoallergenic feed.
If the diet of the dog is chosen correctly, then the chances for a successful cure for demodicosis are noticeably increased.
Methods for the prevention of demodicosis include:
- restriction of communication of the dog with other diseased animals, as well as with stray dogs,
- observance of the rules of dog hygiene, timely washing and brushing,
- prevention of uncontrolled medication, especially corticosteroid hormonal drugs,
- complete fortified food,
- thorough examination of animals before the intended viscous.
Also one of the options for prevention is a vaccine for demodicosis in dogs. Impact on animal immunity and stimulation of anti-parasitic protection are the main purposes of vaccination. As a rule, for immunization using a veterinary agent Immunoparasitic, consisting of the elements of the parasite. After the introduction of the vaccine, the immune system works and inhibits the development and reproduction of ticks. Immunoparasitic used according to a special scheme, once every 5 days, in / m.
The prognosis may be favorable for localized demodicosis (90% recovery), and questionable - for a generalized form. The outcome of a generalized disease depends on the speed of the spread of the parasite and the degree of opposition of the animal. Also important factor is the timeliness of treatment to the vet for help. In advanced cases, due to excessive exhaustion and intoxication, the dog may die.
Demodecosis in dogs is a serious illness that can trigger the development of very unfortunate consequences. This happens when the pet's health is not given enough attention. If, however, to comply with preventive measures and timely visit the veterinarian, then the likelihood of demodicosis can be minimized.
Demodecosis in a dog
The manifestation of demodicosis in dogs.
The onset of demodicosis is associated with the penetration of endoparasitic ticks into the skin.
This disease leads to dermatitis and keratosis, and a long course without appropriate treatment causes exhaustion. Upon accession of a bacterial infection, the animal dies from septic infection of the blood. Therefore, it is important to respond in time to the symptoms that occur and to treat the disease.
Causes of illness
Demodex mites can be detected on the skin of absolutely healthy dogs. . The immune system, working without failures, is able to withstand the onset of a small number of ticks, with no signs of illness. If immunity fails, the body loses control of ticks and their population increases dramatically, causing skin problems.
Mite demodex under the microscope.
There are several reasons why the disease begins to progress:
- Decrease in protective forces.
- Hormonal disbalance.
- Oncological disease, which undermines the immune system and gives impetus to the development of demodicosis.
- Treatment with strong chemicals can also trigger tick infection.
At risk puppies.
Usually the disease develops. puppies or old dogs . Certain breeds of dogs suffer from demodicosis more often than others - these are pugs, shar pei, bull terriers, rottweilers, and bulldogs. The disease usually occurs in autumn or spring. It is during these periods that immunity decreases.
Pugs suffer from demodicosis more often than other dogs.
Is it contagious to humans?
The disease can not be called infectious to humans.
Demodecosis can not be infected by a dog.
A dog's skin is parasitized by a specific type of ticks, which do not pose a danger to the human body. Ticks can migrate from mother to puppy, from sick dog to healthy. But this does not mean that infection will occur.
Methods and treatment regimens
As first aid for an infected dog, you can use fish oil. All balding patches of skin are richly lubricated with this fat. In addition, the diet should be reviewed and enriched with vitamins, especially retinol.
Fish oil lubricates balding skin.
When visiting a veterinary clinic will be selected treatment of the animal. It will vary depending on how much the disease has spread.
If there are some balding spots on the pet's body, then we are talking about a localized form. Moreover, in the absence of treatment, the disease is very quickly transformed into a generalized stage, when the entire skin is covered with scales, wounds, and the wool is almost absent.
Approximate treatment regimen:
- With isolated areas of pet baldness bathe using antibacterial agents for bathing animals. Then a special ointment or lotion is applied to the affected areas. In the course of treatment, it is recommended to visit a veterinary clinic and take scrapings from the skin in order to monitor the disease. How often to take the analysis will advise the doctor. It usually takes 2-3 visits to the vet during the month of treatment.
- If the disease is started and has passed into the generalized stage, we will need complex treatment.. Some drugs will be directed to the destruction of ticks, while others - to the elimination of adhering bacteriological infection. Preparations for internal and external use should be selected by a specialist, while taking into account the breed of a sick dog.
- Ademodecosis is effectively treated with Amitraz solution (20%) diluted with mineral oil in the ratio of 1: 9. The tool is applied externally, rubbed into the affected areas daily.
Effective drugs for demodicosis in dogs
Sea buckthorn oil relieves itching and irritation on the skin.
Comprehensive treatment involves the use of intravenous or intramuscular injections, external means.
- A course of treatment Immunoparasitic carried out as follows: every fourth day intramuscular injection of the drug is used. In this case, treatment takes about 1.5 months. In case of a complicated course of the disease after treatment with Immunoparasitic, injections are used into Ivomek vein, Amitrazin.
- Advocate and Stronghold are used for topical treatment. . Some experts use the old-fashioned way chlorophos, but it is due to the presence of phosphorus compounds in it, its use is dangerous to the health of the pet and may cause unforeseen complications.
- To neutralize staph infection, prescribe antibiotics whose spectrum of action includes staphylococcus.
- To stimulate hair growth in a pet, it is necessary to enrich it. daily ration of drugs containing sulfur . Cyclone or Amitraz can be rubbed into the affected skin.
- To remove the feeling of itching and reduce skin irritation, you can use sea buckthorn oil, adding vitamin A.
- To enhance the immunity of the animal, it is recommended to drip a few drops of iodine solution into the food.
- Permanent combing allows the skin to free itself from dead skin particles. After the procedure, it is recommended to treat the animal with an antiseptic agent, for example, with a solution of salicylic acid or Fucorcin.
- Long-term use of antibiotic therapy should be held in conjunction with the use of hepatoprotective agents. You can choose Kars, Heptral, LIV-52. Preparations will help protect the liver and restore its functions.
- If the disease has arisen in a dog in a generalized form, it is necessary to sterilize it to prevent the appearance of infected offspring. But bitches waiting for offspring, shortly before birth, carry out the prevention of demodicosis with the help of Ivomek. This procedure ensures the birth of healthy puppies.
Home treatment with folk remedies
When a tick-borne disease is detected in a domestic dog, it is possible to use for the treatment not only veterinary preparations. Home treatment can be carried out with the help of folk remedies. Consider some recipes:
- Honey wormwood decoction - a great way to get rid of various parasites. Preparing a decoction of wormwood, add a small spoon of honey to it and give the dog a drink. For 250 ml of water, use 1 tablespoon of wormwood, boil for about 15 minutes and allow to infuse. Then filtered from the residue, add honey and unsolder the animal every 2 hours.
- As an external agent is used ointment from the roots of celandine . This will require 3-5 plant roots and 500 ml of refined vegetable oil. The roots are crushed and poured with oil, then in an enamel pot the mixture is roasted in an oven at a temperature not higher than 50ºC. After straining the ointment is ready for use. She rubbed the affected skin.
- Baths using natural products help rid the pet of demodicosis. You can once a week to swim in a solution of lime and sulfur. Soothe the itch will help a decoction of oats. You can use shampoos for animals that have in their composition oats.
You can use a wormwood decoction to get rid of parasites.
Folk remedies can not be called a panacea in the case of demodicosis. It is better to visit the doctor and carry out all his appointments, and to use traditional methods as additional methods of dealing with ticks.
In order for an animal not to suffer from demodicosis, it is very important to monitor its health, as well as its coat and skin.. Scrubbing the coat and examining the pet will help identify symptoms of the disease in a timely manner.
To prevent disease, you need to follow the dog's diet.
- Большое значение в профилактике имеет питание . Необходимо следить за рационом собаки. Периодически проводить курсы витаминотерапии. Не допускать однообразия в еде. Можно использовать специальные корма для собак высокого качества, в этом случае обычную пищу не дают.
- During the walk it is necessary to ensure that pet did not play with unknown stray dogs . Usually such animals have weak immunity and are carriers of many diseases, such as demodicosis, helminthiasis.
- In residential areas inhabited by four-legged pets regular wet cleaning with disinfectants . The litter of the animal is regularly washed and ironed.
If the pet is sick with demodicosis, all its household items are boiled or treated with chlorophos solution.