Horses heavy trucks - the strongest and largest of the numerous members of the horse family. There are about 250 horse breeds in the world. Approximately 40 of them are classified as heavy trucks. Powerful, beautifully built, good-natured giants cause constant admiration for most people.
Heavy horses began their history in the Middle Ages. Massive knights in heavy armor and the same heavy weaponry were a real test for the back and legs of a horse. Small horses for such work were not suitable. Demand for combat horses capable of carrying heavy weight predetermined the removal of the first draft horses.
According to the surviving descriptions, the growth of horses reached two meters, the live weight - up to one ton, they quickly got tired, were not adapted for high-speed driving, could not jump.
With a greater or lesser degree of probability, the descendants of those horses include modern English shire, French percheron, or Belgian brabancon. Animals have a powerful and at the same time very harmonious physique, calm disposition and incredible strength.
Heavyweights of the world
Breed horses of heavy draft were bred for use in heavy economic work, including for the transport of goods. In different countries, heavy breeds were created and improved. Although a total of a large number of them have been derived, the basis is made up of English gluetsdals and shaires, Belgian Brabancons and French Persherons.
Most modern breeds were bred on the basis of these horses. Only a small part has its original origin. Here are some of them:
- Suffolk, one of the most ancient English breeds. Despite its massiveness (up to 900 kg), the horses have a lively temperament, are diligent in their work, and hold the body perfectly.
- The Jutland breed (or Danish heavyweight) was raised in the seventh century on the Jutland peninsula for Danish knights. These are powerful beautiful horses of green suit.
- Breton horse, a breed of more than 4000 years. There are two versions of the origin of these stocky, short-legged, powerful and very mobile Bretons. One by one — the horses were brought to France by Aryan immigrants; by another, they were the descendants of war horses that the Celtic warriors bred.
Warriors of Russia
The well-known tyazh, bred in Russia (Soviet Union), include the breed of Vladimir, Soviet and Russian draft vehicles. Practically all the horses of the Russian heavy horses were bred on the basis of European breeds.
Nevertheless, breeders managed to create unique breed groups of animals. Compact and proportional physique distinguishes them against the background of the original rocks. Zootechnicians focused on breeding horses, adapted to local conditions, unpretentious and enduring, with good traction.
Special attention was paid to good manners. The selection was carried out before weaning foals. Malicious and distrustful people were immediately rejected and not allowed to be used for breeding. Such strict requirements are fully justified - a person cannot cope with a stubborn and naughty machine with a weight of almost one ton.
Russian heavyweight is a breed of horses that is the best suited for working in private homesteads. Small and strong, they calmly and calmly do the hardest work. Perfect for transporting goods over rough terrain. Compliant and good-natured nature allows you to manage them, even children.
Bred breed was based on the livestock of the Belgian Ardens. Large, but very disharmonious addition animals. Breeding breed began more than a hundred years ago. The breed was officially recognized in 1952. It was very widespread throughout Russia.
Russian draft horses are ideally suited to local conditions. Short description:
- Suit - red, red-roan, rarely brown and bay, even less often - black,
- live weight of stallions on average - up to 700 kg, mares - up to 650 kg,
- height - up to 150 cm (they belong to the group of small heavy trucks),
- exterior: dry, light head, with a broad forehead, muscular neck, wide withers, wide, long back, croup bifurcated, wide, legs dry, of medium length, they are small.
The result of the breeding of this breed was a strong and frisky horse. Vladimirsky heavy truck passes without a load at a trot a distance of 1600 meters in three minutes. A load and a half tons, they can spend five minutes at 2 kilometers.
For breeding, the local population of mares was used with English stallions of two breeds at once - the clades and shires. There was a hard selection to consolidate the main economically useful traits: strength and endurance. Registered breed in 1946. Description:
- suit - bay, less often black or red, horses may have marks on their legs and head,
- live weight of stallions on average up to 760 kg, mares up to 600 kg,
- height - up to 165 cm
- exterior: head is large, hooked up, neck set high, long and muscular, long, high withers, sometimes soft broad back, croup bifurcated, wide and long, rarely drooping, legs long, dry, with significant obrosly, prone to mokrets.
A distinctive feature of the Vladimir heavy truck is his step - wide, with a large capture of space and high carry. These powerful horses look amazing in the top three.
Soviet heavy truck
This breed was obtained as a result of the crossing of a local herd of horses of a harness type of diverse origin with the Belgian Brabancons.
Compared with the Brabancons, the representatives of the new breed were distinguished by dryness, mobility, smaller sizes, harmonious physique. Officially, the Soviet heavy vehicles were registered in 1952. A brief description of:
- suit - red-chalaya, red, rarely - bay-black or bay,
- live weight of stallions - up to 800 kg, mares - up to 650 kg,
- height - 160-170 cm (they belong to the group of large heavy trucks),
- exterior: medium-sized head, muscular neck of medium length, low and wide withers, wide back, sometimes sagging (soft), croup forked, drooping, legs strong, dry, of medium length.
The stallion Force was recognized as the absolute record-breaker of the breed, who was able to carry a load of 22991 kg and weighing 35 meters. Mares have a very high milkiness. The mare Rowan became a record holder for milk yield, giving for 338 days of lactation 6138 liters of milk.
Heavy horses are tested in special competitions. In the Soviet Union (later in Russia), a special competition program revealed the most efficient horse.
The program included three separate types:
- The first task is to trot a distance of two kilometers with a load of one and a half tons. The thrust is 50 kg.
- The second exercise is to walk the same two kilometers, but now with a load of four and a half tons. The effort is much higher and amounts to 150 kg.
- In the last mission, the horse pulls nine tons to the distance it can cover. The thrust reaches 300 kg.
For each exercise the participants score points (taking into account the time). The winner is a horse with the maximum number of points.
It is interesting to watch any equestrian competitions, especially when a heavy truck comes to the start. Horses (competition is always stressful for an animal) feel the atmosphere and pre-start bustle. Some are ready to take off and pull the load with maximum speed. Others, as if trying on, try to budge, and then pick up speed.
Competitions, exciting on the heat of passions and entertainment. Huge, strong, beautiful animals, straining their muscles and pushing with powerful legs, stretch the shoulder lines and shift the weight of an incredible weight.
Every rider knows his horses, their strengths and weaknesses. Preparing for the tests is a difficult and painstaking process. Animals are trained both on traction and endurance. These qualities ultimately determine the winner.
Of course, there is no longer any such urgent need for living force as in the beginning of the last century. But even today, heavy horses find their application. In hard-to-reach places of residence, on logging, on private farms, kumysnyh farms, they are bred for meat.
Pure-bred heavy trucks are also widely used to improve local stock. They firmly convey the power, strength and exterior features of their offspring.
Each horse breed is unique in its own way and unique. Unfortunately, these giants are getting smaller every year. Preserving the gene pool is one of the main challenges facing breeders. At the same time, work continues on the improvement of already existing breeds.
Consolidation in the offspring of economically useful traits, resistance to diseases, unpretentiousness to conditions of detention - there is something to strive for. There is no limit to perfection!
Heavy horse breeds and what is remarkable about such horses, the external description of heavy trucks
In the distant past, horses were the only method of movement. But not every breed of horses is adapted for overall traffic. And there are heavy horses that are able to carry heavy loads and at the same time move at a gallop and overcome obstacles in their path.
The medieval ancestors of modern heavy trucks got tired quickly, therefore, over time, those who transferred the load more easily emerged. Over time, such heavy horse breeds as the Shire, Brabancon, and Percheron, which are still popular today, appeared. About them and other breeds Draft we will tell below.
Horse Breeds in Russia
In the 19th century, the Russian Empire developed rapidly, but the heavy horses were not bred in it, although in the agricultural sector and not only demand for them was enormous. Not everyone was able to buy heavy horses abroad, but even if someone did it, he had problems with them, because the horses did not adapt well to Russian conditions and low-quality feeds.
Domestic breed Drugs were withdrawn through foreign:
Russian scientists brought These horse breeds are:
Characteristics of the Russian heavy horse breed
This heavy breed was bred a little more years ago by crossing harness horses with ardens - small heavy horses of inharmonious build originating from Belgium. Thanks to the selection, Ardenes began to have a good build and shape.
And in 1900, the World Exhibition was held in France, where special attention was paid to the Russian Arden, recognized as one of the best working breeds. The brown stallion Karavai, who received the gold medal, became the "star". External features of the breed are:
- short stature - at the withers up to 150 cm,
- sufficient strength
- females have good milk production.
Heavy horses of the Soviet breed
Such a breed appeared due to the crossing of English Suffolk or Belgian Brabancons with draft Russian horses. For the agricultural work of animals used in the first three years of life, then they become producers.
Distinctive features of the Soviet heavy truck:
- large animal
- height at withers can reach 1.7 m,
- average body weight - about a ton,
- the mane and tail are thick,
- medium sized head,
- neck and legs are muscular,
- regular shape hooves
- flat back
- chest wide
- slight clubfoot may be observed.
Description of Vladimir heavy trucks
Vladimir heavy-duty trucks appeared in the state Gavrilovo-Posadsky stud farm in 1886 by crossing the English Clydesdale with local females, hardy and unpretentious. From such a crossing, horses with attractive appearance, vigor, powerful strength and good adaptation skills were born.
In the process of breed development “Donors” were changing, even famous English shire took part in the formation of the Vladimir heavy trucks. At the same time, this breed of horses was officially recognized only by the middle of the last century.
External characteristics of the Vladimir heavy truck are as follows:
- height at withers to 1.7 m,
- large build,
- the head is large and the profile is convex
- shoulder blade long and obliquely set,
- the neck is long and powerful
- croup moderately omitted,
- legs are strong and covered with fur, inherited from English breeds,
- tail and mane thick,
- the suit can be bay, sometimes red or black.
Vladimir horses are very friendly, balanced and calm. Puberty in them begins early enough.
The beauty of the Vladimir heavy truck cannot but attract, representatives of this breed are now actively used in sport hunting or horseback riding, and in the distant past they were harnessed to a cart, plow or harness.
Characteristics of other heavy horse breeds
And now let's consider the characteristics of other breeds of heavy horses, some of them were directly involved in the formation of Russian horse breeds and not only.
For example, an Australian heavy truck is the result of crossing other known breeds:
Such horses weigh an average of 600 to 900 kilograms, their height at the withers is about 170 cm. Australian horses are incredibly friendly and perfectly adapted to work, they fit well in harness and under the saddle. They may be spotted. or have a plain color without stains. The legs of the animal have average oblyosti, legs and mane have average thickness.
In a different way, representatives of such a breed are also called Belgian weightlifting. They are valued for their excellent strength and attractive appearance. Their average height is about 165 cm. Such horses have excellent breed qualities and good character. Among the external characteristics:
- torso tight and strong
- legs are short
- joints are well expressed
- lower legs shaggy,
- mane is short.
Forgotten breed - batyug
Such an ancient breed from Russia today has not survived. But there remained information that its representatives were unusually hardworking and well valued in households. On average, bityugs had a height of about 158 centimeters, had a brown or mousy suit. Such a breed appeared as a result of crossing trotters with Russian heavy trucks.
Bityugov also called "dray" horses. Unfortunately, their photos have not been preserved, but if you look at the photos of the Russian heavy truck, you can understand something about how the bityugs could look.
French Boulogne heavy trucks
The Bois de Boulogne is from France. Many consider them the most elegant representatives of heavy horses.
These horses are able to move perfectly to the trot on the run, moving easily and quickly. Individuals can be both small and large.
Nowadays, large individuals are used primarily for sledding, as well as in the meat industry. But the small type is now almost gone.
External characteristics are as follows:
- average weight ranges from 700 to 900 kg,
- average height - 170 cm
- ears are graceful
- big eyes
- forehead very high
- curly mane.
And the Bois de Boulders have a wonderful kind character.
Irish truck and its features
These horses are incredibly mobile, very hardy and have an unpretentious character. The animal has relatively small dimensions, including indicators of growth, but this does not affect the strength of such a horse.
Currently, the Irish breed is most often used for hunting or sports purposes. They have a very attractive appearance, their posture is even, their back is straight, the croup is sloping with a high tail. An animal may have these types of colors:
- the black
- different colors with white spots.
These horses are capable of excellent transition to a gallop and can overcome large obstacles.
Clydesdale or Scottish heavy horse
This breed is considered attractive, it has good ride quality. She was bred in Scotland and has been successfully bred in the UK in our time.
Horses are great in both walking and trotting. Their body is very powerful, their bones are wide, and their muscle mass is large.
And in order for the animal to have high performance, it should be kept in good conditions and given high-quality food.
The suits of this breed may be:
Horse legs must have pronounced joints and be massive.
Percheron: breed characteristic
Representatives of the breed are distinguished by their large mass and high height, and in this respect they can certainly be called champions. There are individuals that had withers over two meters tall. Percherons are very hardy and attractive, able to run for several hours in a row. They have Arab roots, thanks to which they have a beautiful and prominent head and neat ears.
Acceptable breed colors:
Nowadays, the Percherons are bred without their feet, which makes them easier to care for, and easier for animals to work on the ground.
Такой тяжеловоз имеет массивное туловище, из-за которого ноги лошади могут показаться короткими. Их размер относительно небольшой, они отличаются работоспособностью и необычной терпеливостью. Обычно имеют каштановую масть и могут иметь разные оттеночные вариации:
Characteristic for the breed mark - it is white "socks" or an asterisk in the forehead. Representatives of this breed They are great for teaching children to ride, they are docile and not prone to conflicts.
Shire: the world's top heavy trucks
The Shire is the most famous breed of draft horses in the world, with beautiful appearance. These English horses are prestigious in terms of breeding, noble and are very expensive.
They are often attracted to participate in competitions, where they occupy the first places. Shire always have Oblasti on their feet, regardless of the region of their habitat. Most often the horse's suit is bay or karak, but there are other colors.
They have a quick temper, they are difficult to harness, and they don’t like it when physical force is applied to them.
As already mentioned, different breeds of heavy horses often take part in various competitions. For the first time, competitions with the participation of such horses began to be held in the Soviet Union. The parameters for estimating the breed included indicators such as traction endurance, maximum traction and speed of delivery in trot and step.
Such competitions are often held in the USA., Japan, Italy and other countries. The breed of the horse, his character, contact with people, appearance and much more are also taken into account.
So, we examined the differences between heavy horse breeds and read the characteristics of some of them.
Horse breeds of heavy trucks: description, weight, content and photos
Horse heavy horse # 8212, is a large animal with a thick neck, muscular body and legs, which is a representative of heavy breeds. The main task: transportation of bulky cargo, arable and other types of rural work.
Giant racers do not look as dry and elegant as their warm-blooded brethren. But these horses have an excellent disposition and have a number of other positive qualities, due to which they still enjoy the world demand from many horsemen.
Many cold-blooded horses look quite massive compared to warm-blooded horse breeds. They are almost never used in the disciplines of equestrian sport, as they are not endowed with flexible movements due to the stocky body constitution. However, many horse lovers in these animals are attracted by the following characteristics:
- The softness of the gait. Weights are not capable of fast movements, high jumps and the performance of elegant elements of dressage. However, walking, trotting, trotting, and galloping (a quarry for a tyazhy is practically impossible due to body weight and leg thickness) is very convenient for the rider. Despite the fact that the heavy trucks are high and large, it is convenient to ride them. When moving, their body is not able to rise high above the ground, therefore, shaking in the saddle will never be strong.
- Dimensions. The heavy truck, like many other breeds, has its ancestors. In the Middle Ages, mainly in European countries, the ancestors of heavy trucks were considered to be mostly knightly horses, and only then # 8212, heavy-duty farming. In the distant feudal times these large horses were called destrie (dextarius), which in Latin means right-sided. Perhaps this name was given to the heavy horse giant, because on the right side of the warrior, who was riding on a horse, was accompanied by his personal squire.
The weight of the heavy horse of that era varied from 800 kg to 1000 kg, and sometimes more. Growth was from 170 cm to 200 cm, which in accordance with the weight was a portrait of a very large, heavy horse, incapable of a fast pace.
Despite the fact that such a representative of the unpattern had not hefty power and could carry a heavy load of armor and weapons of a knight (including the knight himself, and sometimes a lady of the heart in addition), he did not always have enough stamina at long distances. He quickly exhaled.
Historians and world breeders of the horse breeds of heavy trucks believe that the direct descendants of fighting lords can be attributed to such horse breeds as shire, percheron, branbanson, and cleedsdal, which is confirmed by ancient historical chronicles. We emphasize that we are talking about European breeds of heavyweight horses.
- The view of a powerful horse causes even an indifferent to the horse family of the observer at least respect. If, however, for some time to talk with a lorry, then their calm, peacefulness and charm can subdue. Indeed, many of these horses have a good-natured and docile character. They get along well not only with adults, but also with children, and even with other animals. According to many breeders practicing the breeding of these horse breeds, it should be noted that among them there are not so many aggressors and rebels in communication with a person, despite their substantial size.
- The priority when carrying out breeding work on the breeding of heavy trucks is to improve their genetics (hereditary qualities), which allow descendants of weights to acquire such qualities as high carrying capacity, adaptability to harsh climatic conditions and unpretentiousness in care and diet.
The quality of the exterior of the heavyweights is in second place after the power qualities, since in most countries (especially in Russia) they are bred mainly for rural work, and only then - for specialized entertainment competitions. Also in Russia, a cold-blooded horse is often popular with horse riding enthusiasts.
In order to check the quality of the bred (produced) breed, many large breed breeders arrange various measures for power tests for weeds. Most often, this is the transportation of maximum weights to the speed and duration of the distance over rough terrain with certain obstacles (puddles, climbs, uneven terrain, etc.).
Every year such competitions are gaining popularity, because in terms of entertainment and extremes they sometimes are not inferior to classic equestrian sports.
One of the most famous cold-blooded horses, # 8212, is the world-famous English heavy-duty breed Shire. Horses on the exterior are tall and massive, but at the same time they are aristocratic.
The direct ancestors of this breed were military knight horses, which at that time reached very large sizes for a horse. But their descendants are now famous for their serious dimensions for the whole world. The weight of the stallions can exceed 1.3 tons, and their height at the withers can reach 190 cm. The most common suit of shaire: bay, Karak, gray, bay.
This heavy horse began to gain the greatest popularity in medieval England during the reign of King Henry in the 18th century. The ruler considered it necessary to adopt a law on active breeding of this breed in the territory of his country, aiming to provide England's agriculture with strong and powerful horses.
The Belgian harness, it is Flanders, it is Brabancon - appeared in the Middle Ages. It was bred on the territory of modern Belgium. This breed of draft is partly the ancestor of the Shire, Suffolk and Clydesdale horses.
Their height, however, is not as tall as that of the Shires, but may be just over 170 cm at the withers. Suits mainly: red, red-red bay, bay-roan.
This animal is ideally suited for rural work, as Brabancon is unpretentious in care, friendly with a person and has a high performance. Moreover, representatives of this breed are # 8212, one of the most common long-livers among other heavyweight horses.
One of the oldest European heavyweights (East of England). This breed is first mentioned in historical annals of the beginning of the 16th century, however, it began to acquire the greatest popularity only in the middle of the 18th century.
The exterior of such a horse is distinguished by thickish legs, a rather massive body, a thick neck, a long straight back and a rounded shape of the hoofs. The growth of stallions varies on average from 165 cm and sometimes exceeds 170 cm at the withers. The weight of the animal can reach tons. Often there are light and auburn color, sometimes chestnut. The nature of these horses appeasable, friendly.
This horse breed is a giant, which began to be produced in France in the 19th century. The breed has received world fame not by chance. Percheron # 8212, one of the largest horses in the world, both in weight and in height at the withers. Among them were real champions who crossed the mark in growth much more than 2 meters!
Despite the massiveness of their bodies, these French horses have a wonderful aristocratic exterior, for which they must be grateful to the ancestors of the Arabian horses. Their heads are of aristocratic form with small moving ears and expressive medium-sized eyes. It is also surprising that the movements of these giants are relatively light, despite their massiveness.
Frequent suits: gray in apples, less often - black. These horses rarely grow brushes on their feet.
Spectacular representative of all cold-blooded horse breeds, because, despite its enormous height and weight, it has an externally very attractive exterior.
Claydesdal, as a breed, bred in the open spaces of modern Scotland. The horse is adapted for movement on rough terrain, but inferior to the standard gunter. The cledesdal has a step and a lynx is soft.
These horses are # 8212, owners of wide bones, a large muscular structure and a powerful body constitution. However, there is a significant drawback: the representatives of this breed are coddled.
Unleashing the full potential of cledesdal is possible only with high-quality care and feeding.
Primary suits: more often bay, red, in general # 8212, are various.
This heavyweight is one of the most ancient Russian breeds, but did not live up to modern days. Taika cold-blooded horses were indispensable to the peasants and were popular with them in agriculture, like draft horses. This little stocky horse, compared to other horse giants, did not reach the withers above 160 cm.
Their descendants are modern Russian heavy trucks, whose ancestors were batyugs crossed with trotters. It is in their exterior that the features of the ancient Bityug are most clearly drawn.
Breed of the Vladimir heavy truck received the beginning of existence in 1935. The ancestors of the breed were the horses of the European weight-lifting breeds. Their height is relatively low # 8212, 165-167 cm at the withers, with an average weight of 700-750 kg.
Representatives of this breed are distinguished by high indices of power qualities, such as endurance and unpretentiousness in care and maintenance. They have a chic look for representatives of heavy trucks. These horses are massively massive, but their movements are relatively plastic, unlike other breeds of tyazhin.
The suit is predominantly red and bay. There are also blacks.
Of the Russian hard rock breeds, the Vladimir heavy truck is often used to compete in power tests.
Calm, unpretentious in maintenance and weather conditions, beautiful horses with excellent body constitution and well-developed muscles.
Unlike other representatives of the Russian litter breeds, this breed of horses is bred in three directions: the main (standard), massive (weighted) and with the driest constitution (lightweight).
The Soviet heavy truck would be an ideal heroic horse of the ancient Russian era, because it possesses all the necessary strength characteristics inherent in the majority of heavy horses. The manes and tail are of medium thickness, the chest is relatively wide, of medium size with mobile ears on the head of medium size, legs slender.
The size of stallions range from 163 to 168 cm at the withers. Suits are often red and brown. Less commonly, black, chalaya and bay.
The movements of the Vladimir citizens are relatively graceful when compared with other representatives of cold-blooded horses.
Modern heavy horse breeds retain all the exterior characteristics of their ancestors. They are still used today for about the same purposes as for centuries before - the transport of heavy loads. Frequently, heavy vehicles are used by reenactors in role-playing games, when they artificially recreate the image and age of medieval tournaments.
The only true competition for testing cold-blooded horses can only be power (traction) tasks. Such competitions became especially popular in Russia during the Soviet era. The idea of such events was adopted abroad.
The main indicators of the horse are in its power qualities, endurance and speed under the load of various goods. Over time, the modern competition added new stages of the competition - the exterior and behavior of the horse (appeasable character) when interacting with a person.
You can learn about the time and place of such competitions from horse magazines, breeders sites, horse clubs, etc.
Not all heavy vehicles are whimsical in care. A plus of these giants is the sociability to communicate with a person. They tolerate changeable weather conditions, not picky in food. For the breeding of these large horses, it is not necessary to build royal stables, which are so necessary for sophisticated sports horses.
Many tyazhki have a thick mane, tail and brushes on the legs, and a thick layer of muscle mass will not allow them to freeze easily in the cold. Therefore, for the positive breeding, breeding and improvement of these animals use the best representatives of the breeds, which have distinguished themselves by high results in the tests and well showed their strength skills.
The need to raise heavy horses today has decreased, since many farmers prefer to use modern equipment to replace horses for field work. However, in most regions of Russia, for arable work, preference is still given to the weights.
Heavyweights used on livestock farms and stables for its intended purpose # 8212, for agricultural work (less often - for grazing or rent).
At the cost of heavy horse breeds are relatively inexpensive, if you compare the prices in the horse market with warm-blooded horses and trotters. You can buy a thoroughbred heavyweight from individuals or from breeders in specialized stud farms in Russia.
For example, one of such factories is the Khrenovsky stud farm in the Voronezh region, which breeds Arab thoroughbred horses, Orlov trotters and a Russian heavy horse (Russian Arden) for sale.
If a person decides to purchase a heavyweight, it is necessary to provide the horse with an appropriate size (preferably not less than 4x4 sq. M), to equip the levada or access to free grazing.
In conclusion, it should be added that for the inexperienced lover of horses, preferring horse riding for the purpose of leisure, a heavy truck would be suitable as a horse of a hobby class.
The breed was bred as a result of crossing bityugs, ardens, and Percherons with Brabancons and Suffolis. The selection work began at the end of the 19th century, when Belgian Brabancons began to be massively imported into Russia.
For all its merits, this breed was not fully adapted to local conditions and had a loose constitution.
The work to improve the working qualities of the Brabancons (as well as its exterior) led to the creation of a new heavy breed, which was registered in 1952 under the name "Soviet Heavy Car".
Appearance and physique
The appearance of the horses of this breed has the following characteristics:
- The suit is predominantly red or red-roan (but there are bay and roan horses),
- height at withers reaches 170 cm,
- horse weight - up to 1 ton
- the neck is short, muscular,
- head is medium in size, with very wide nostrils and relatively small straight erect ears,
- the back is flat, the loin is wide, the croup is forked and drooping,
- legs are medium sized, muscular, brushes moderately overgrown.
Important!There are two lines of Soviet heavy-duty horses — the horses of Pochinkovsky and Mordovia stud farms. The Pochinkovskaya line is distinguished by the greatest massiveness and a more elongated body. Representatives of the Mordovian line are more compact and are characterized by a little more dryness.
Advantages and disadvantages
Representatives of this breed have numerous advantages. We list:
- high payload and endurance,
- calm character
- undemanding to feed,
- preservation of performance for a long time
- the rapid development of foals,
- duration of reproductive age,
- high milk production.
There are no pronounced defects in this breed. However, some individuals may have incorrect setting of the legs, which practically does not affect their working qualities.
With all its unpretentiousness Soviet heavy vehicles need proper care. Provide such care is easy. Let us consider in detail the basic principles of the content of representatives of this breed.
In order for the Soviet heavy vehicles to feel comfortable enough, the stable for their maintenance must meet following requirements:
- Dimensions stall - at least 4 square. m
- Stable ceiling height - not less than 3 m.
- Do not allow drafts, sharp fluctuations in temperature and humidity in the room, as well as caustic odors.
- It is imperative to install the ventilation system. The most practical is the supply and exhaust system.
- Кормушки и поилки изготавливаются из нетоксичных материалов (к примеру, из нержавеющей стали или качественного пластика). В качестве поилки может использоваться ведро или смонтированная автоматическая поилка.
- Пол рекомендуется глинобитный, керамзитобетонный или цементный. В последнем случае дополнительно делают настил из деревянной доски толщиной в 5 см.
- As a litter, you can use straw, peat, sawdust or peat-sawdust mixture.
- It is necessary to provide 16-hour coverage.
Cold Soviet heavy carriers tolerate well. If there is not too much frost, they can be kept in an unheated stable. The heat is transferred by them much worse. With overheating of the animal they fight by bathing or dousing, they set to rest in shaded places.
Care and cleaning
The dog, the trough and the water bowl are cleaned daily. In addition, it is necessary to clean the hair every day, comb the mane and tail of the animal - otherwise parasites may start. If there are several horses, each must have an individual brush, scraper and comb.
Video: how to care for a horse It is also necessary to inspect the hooves, remove pebbles and debris stuck in them. From the garbage should be cleaned and nostrils. It will also require regular inspection of teeth for the detection of mechanical damage. A bad sign is the unpleasant smell of horse breathing. When it appears, you must contact the veterinarian.
In addition to all of the above, conduct regular veterinary examinations of the animal, and also make all the necessary vaccinations. If the heavy truck is working on the transport of goods, it is desirable to adhere to the permanent schedule of his work and rest.
Horse breed horses
Most cold-blooded horses are quite massive when compared with warm-blooded breeds.. These horses do not participate in equestrian sport.because, because of their stocky body, they don’t have graceful movements. But numerous connoisseurs of horses in this breed attract the following properties:
- The ease of gait. These animals are incapable of rapid movement, high jumps and the implementation of refined components. Career such horses can not do, because of the weight of the body, it is impossible physically. However, their tread, gallop, step, trot, is very much liked by many riders. Despite their growth and the fact that the animals are very large, it is comfortable to ride them, as you will not be shaken very much in the saddle. This contributes to the fact that such a horse can not rise high above the ground.
- Heavyweight horses have ancestors. Once upon a time, back in the Middle Ages, the knights 'horses were considered as the ancestors of the heavy trucks, and later - the farmers' heavy-weighted horses. In the past, when there were still feudal lords, these horses were called "destrie". If translated, it means - right. Perhaps this name was due to the fact that the squire of the warrior was on the right side of the rider, who was on horseback. The weight of such horses ranges from 800 kilograms to 1 thousand kilograms, and in some cases more. Height varied from one hundred and seventy centimeters to two hundred centimeters. Despite his height and weight, and the fact that he could carry a large load on himself, and at the same time a rider with a weapon, he quickly gave up and could not walk long distances.
- The appearance of such a big and powerful horse, everyone commands respect. These horses are very calm, peaceful, and their charm they can conquer your heart and soul. This contributes to the fact that horses have a docile and good-natured character. To all this, horses and very friendly. Despite their impressive size, there are very few rebels among them, they are very good at making contact.
- In the course of breeding horses, heavyweights, improved their hereditary qualities. As a result, the horses were able to: lift large and heavy loads, learned to survive in poor climatic conditions, and became unpretentious in the diet and care.
Most often in many countries trailers are bred for hard work in the village, and only after that for competitions, special spectacles for people. And also, for example, in Russia, they are often used for riding.
To ensure the quality of the new breed, most breeders do various tests for endurance, endurance strength. Often, horses move heavy loads for a while, the distance is chosen as long as possible and with obstacles.
Such tests for horses become very popular, because they have a lot of extremes and entertainment.
- Scottish Draftman.
These heavy trucks are ranked first in the world.. The breed of these horses is noble and expensive. Take prizes in competitions. It differs from the other breeds overgrown with legs. The suit is mostly bay or Karak. Horses are norovist, they do not recognize strength and it is difficult to wear harness on them.
The ancestors of these horses are the medieval knight horses, which in those days were very large. The weight of these horses can reach 1.3 tons, and height - 190 centimeters at the withers. The most popular suits are gray, bay, karak.
The peak of popularity of this breed falls on the reign of King Henry in the eighteenth century. The king ordered the heavyweights to be actively bred so that English agriculture did not need powerful strength.
These stallions are valuable for their exterior and strength abilities. Average height - about 165 centimeters, have a good disposition and good breed qualities. Have a strong torsolegs short with well-defined joints. And also they have a short mane, and the lower part of the legs is shaggy. The suit has a bay.
Belgian, Flemish or Brabancon, call it what you want. Horses appeared in the Middle Ages, in Belgium. This breed can be called the ancestor of the Clydesdale, Suffol horses and Shires.
Such horses are ideal for rural work, as they are not aggressive towards humans, have high endurance in work and are not picky in their care.
These horses seem short because their bodies are massive. Horses are very hard working and patient. The dress is mostly chestnut with different shades. They have a height of 165 centimeters. An animal can weigh a ton. Color: light-red, dark-red, sometimes, can meet chestnut. They may have an asterisk on their foreheads or white socks, and they differ from others. Suffolks are perfect for kids who wish to learn riding, since it is completely non-conflict and flexible.
This breed came to us from East Anglia. They became popular in the middle of the eighteenth century, but they were first mentioned in the annals of the sixteenth century.
These animals are considered champions in height and weight. Percherons are very beautiful and have great endurance, if necessary, they can run for several hours in a row. Since their ancestors are Arabian horses, they have an aristocratic head with small, neat ears. Thanks to the impurities of the Arab blood, have a relief beautiful head with neat ears.
Suit are mostly black or gray in apples. Now they are bred without shag on their feet, and this greatly simplifies the care for them and their work on the ground.
This breed has excellent ride quality and characteristics. She came to us from Scotland, and the habitat is Great Britain. They are great move in steps and trot, have a powerful body and huge muscle mass, but at the same time very pampered. They need quality conditions and good food, so horses can work well.
The suit has: black, red, bay, gray and roan. Difference of this breed from others - massive legs with well-marked joints.
A long time ago, two centuries ago, horses of a heavy breed were not bred, although they were necessary. And it was very expensive to purchase them behind the cordon, besides, the horses were difficult to adapt in Russia. Therefore, they began to derive domestic horses, with the help of well-known zakordonnyh rocks. The most popular breeds are:
- Russian heavy truck
- Vladimir heavy truck,
- soviet heavy truck
This breed was bred in the early twentieth century. For this purpose, the breeds of the breeds were crossed with small heavy ones, which were brought from Belgium. Over time, they became a harmonious physique and a good shape. At the exhibition in France, in 1900 - Russian Arden was noticed by many horse breeders.
These horses are low - about 150 centimeters at the withers, but I have good endurance and a lot of strength. Mares have a high percentage of milk production.
Vladimir heavy truck
These heavy trucks appeared as a result of the interbreeding of English breed, Clydesdal and local mares. The stallions that appeared were beautiful, had a lot of power and energy.
Features of the Vladimir breed:
- large build,
- high height - 170 centimeters at the withers,
- big head,
- long back with wide loins,
- lowered croup,
- strong legs, covered with fur,
- thick tail and mane,
- calm and balanced character
- black suit.
At this time, Vladimir heavyweight is not harnessed to a plow or cart. It is more used in sports hunting and horseback riding.
These horses appeared as a result of crossing brabans and suffolks with Russian horses. Up to three years they are used to work in the fields, and then they become producers.
- large body mass
- height at withers 1.7 centimeters,
- mane and tail, very thick,
- have a muscular neck and legs
- flat back
- wide chest
- there is a slight club foot.
Feeding ration and water
Particularly high requirements for the composition of the diet, this breed does not impose. Nevertheless, the diet should be fairly balanced.
In the approximate daily dietary rate, the following components are desirable:
- concentrated feed - up to 2 kg,
- oats - up to 6 kg,
- hay - up to 7 kg,
- succulent fodder - up to 2 kg,
- chopped straw - about 0.5 kg,
- if necessary, supplement the diet with vitamin and mineral supplements.
This animal consumes water in large quantities. It must be clean. In the stable, it is preferable to install an auto-drinker. The horse quickly gets used to the constant availability of water and drinks it not for the future, but as needed. So, Soviet heavy vehicles possess many positive qualities (including workers) and at the same time are unpretentious to the conditions of detention.
All of the above still makes their use economically viable, although not always. Nevertheless, interest in the breed persists at the present time, especially since these horses (besides their direct purpose) can be used to produce milk or to improve other breeds.
Vladimir heavy truck
The history of the breed begins in 1935: then for breeding new horses were taken representatives from Europe, relating to the heavy breeds. Vladimirstsy do not have a stunning height at the withers, on average it reaches 167 cm, and its weight is about 750 kg. The popularity of the breed brought her personal strength along with endurance and unpretentiousness.
If we talk about the general characteristics, it is as follows:
- height at withers - 165 cm
- torso length - 172 cm,
- chest girth - 205 cm
Among the positive qualities of the breed it is necessary to note a very good-natured disposition, unpretentiousness to the food supply, it is quite simple to care for the Vladimir breed. Juveniles are very early. Most often you can meet black representatives and red with white markings.
It is a French breed, and the time of breeding falls on the XIX century. According to scientists, the Percherons existed even earlier, at about the time of the knights, where they were used as riding horses. Well, who else could endure all the iron battens, except for strong and enduring horses?
Despite well-developed musculature, these horses are very graceful and fast. The standard of the breed include:
- height at withers - 160 cm
- torso length - 168 cm
- girth of the sternum - 200 cm.
Most often you can meet gray or black representatives. For Percherons, it is typical to adapt to heavy loads and spend a lot of time in work, while practically not needing rest. A positive feature is the rapid adaptation to zones with different climates and an excellent immune system.
Ardenne heavy trucks
It belongs to the smallest of all heavy breeds. The homeland of horses is in Belgium, and the history of the breed has more than 2 thousand years. That is why ardens are among the oldest European breeds among the heavy trucks.
The height at the withers of the horse reaches 163 cm. Most often there are individuals with red, bay or dark-red suits. The cervical spine is of medium length, maybe with a bend. Body massive with deep sternum. The back is short and very muscular.
Horses are universal. If you compare them with previous breeds, the Irish are suitable not only for traction tests. Among the important qualities of the breed is the possibility of using horses for hunting and for horseback riding. Horses are ideally prepared for crossings on roads; terrain does not scare them either.
Unpretentiousness to the feed base, as well as to the conditions of care, make the Irish breed very popular with breeders. Despite the fact that according to external data, animals are much inferior to their brethren, they will not lose to them in strength characteristics.
It is an English breed, which received official recognition and registration in the middle of the XVIII century. Before the mechanized technique appeared, Suffolk was just perfect for the clay soils of foggy Albion because of its very muscular torso.
The British have a docile and friendly disposition, which allows the use of horses in hippotherapy.
They are also an English breed, which dates back to medieval times. Distinctive feature is proportional physique. Shire can work for a long time (within reasonable limits). According to the standard, the breed should have the following indicators:
- height at withers - 170 cm
- torso length - 180 cm,
- weight - 1400 kg.
They are the strongest among all the other heavy breeds. Found their use in the transport of goods. Despite the impressive dimensions, the Shairov have a very calm character, and therefore they were used as improvers for precisely this feature. Today, they are used for cargo transportation and repair work on railways.
Belgian Heavy Duty (Brabancon)
It can be attributed to the classic heavy trucks, called one of the regions of Belgium. Most commonly used in breeding as improvers, because possess all the requirements inherent in horses for various works.
If we talk about the size of individuals, they are as follows:
- height at withers - 160 cm
- torso length - 175 cm,
- girth of the sternum - 217 cm.
Interestingly, Brabancons can begin to be used in work from two years of age, it is such a quality that attributed the breed to the category of early ripening.
Giant horses do not need the construction of a stable by all the rules in which sports horses live.
Practical for all heavy trucks, there is a thick mane, tail, and legs are protected by brushes. A large muscle mass is a reliable tool to combat the cold. In order to succeed in breeding and get good offspring, it is recommended to use purebred animals that have shown good results in power test competitions.
Despite the fact that in most agricultural work horses have long been replaced by mechanized equipment, there is still a demand for draft vehicles. Especially in those places where it is not always possible to pass the transport, or the ground for one reason or another is not suitable for processing by a tractor. In this case, representatives of the above breeds are simply indispensable helpers.
Features of heavy trucks
Heavy-duty breeds were bred solely for heavy physical labor and transportation of goods. These are powerful and massive animals, which are true giants against the background of high-mountain breeds. They work equally well one by one and as a group. In some rural areas, the machines still have not replaced the work of heavy trucks, they are bred for the production of meat and milk.
In cities, their function has ceased to be relevant. Today they are more often found in the composition of tourist crews, hippotherapy sessions, exhibitions and shows. In many countries, heavy horses are real pride, they are protected and saved from extinction. They are the same symbol of Old Europe, like castles or royal power.
On the video - a description of the breed horses of heavy trucks:
Russia has always been one of the largest agrarian countries, but unique domestic breeds of heavy trucks appeared rather late in it. The first of them were the Vladimir horses, bred only by the end of the 19th century. Russian heavy-haired rocks turned out to be extremely hardy, mobile and unpretentious. Also one of the Russian breed is the Akhal-Teke horse.
For breeding this breed, the Belgian heavy horses were originally used, but thanks to active inbreeding, the Soviet heavy truck absorbed the best qualities of many European breeds.
Soviet heavy truck has a strong build. The body is wide and muscular, the amount of fat is minimal, but there are also loose individuals. It has slightly drooping bruised croup. The chest is wide, the average girth is 2.07 m. The back is even and slightly shorter than other breeds. The head is medium in size with a pronounced straight profile. Конечности короткие, но отлично гармонируют с телом.
Рост взрослой особи достигает 1,67 м, вес жеребцов от 750 до 1000 кг, кобылы меньше – до 650 кг. Обычно встречается рыжая или бурая масть, реже имеют вороной, чалый или гнедой окрас. Soviet heavy vehicles have a malleable nature, love movement and are energetic with proper care.
The cost of a horse starts from 100 thousand rubles. Heavy horses are less in demand in the market than other breeds. That is why the price of some stallions with a good pedigree may exceed the cost of elite breeding trotters. There is also such a breed of sheep as the Soviet merino.
Russian heavy horse
It is considered one of the smallest heavy horse breeds. They were derived mainly from Percherons and Brabancons, but other breeds were also used to improve their qualities.
Horse height does not exceed 1.65 m, chest girth up to 2 m, and pasterns - 22.4 cm. Mares are much smaller than stallions, the average weight of an adult is from 600 to 700 kg. Have a balanced and energetic character. Chunky physique, dry and large muscles. Unpretentious in the maintenance of care, take root in urban environments. More common red color, but often Russian heavy trucks have brown or black color. On the head there is a thick mane of white or cream color.
The cost of a horse of this breed starts from 75 thousand rubles. Individuals with good pedigree and beautiful exterior are much more expensive.
Domestic heavy horses are famous for their versatility. Despite the massive physique, they can gain a decent speed. For example, the Vladimir heavy truck overcomes 2 km in 5 minutes, which is a reference result.
The removal of foreign drag horses has a long history. These horses are part of the European heritage, thanks to them there was an active development and arrangement of modern Europe. The world famous Percherons, Shire and Belgian heavy trucks became the basis of the gene pool of almost all late heavy horses.
Reference breed of French heavy horses. Bred by mating of the Boonite local mares with Arabian horses. Thanks to an unusual combination of genes, Percheron turned out to be surprisingly beautiful. It combines huge size with elegance and aristocratic exterior.
Growth in withers can reach more than 2 meters. The build is massive, dry and extremely athletic. They have strong legs and strong joints, due to which health problems rarely arise. Chest circumference from 197 to 202 cm. The head is small and expressive. It has a thick mane. The average body weight - 700-1000 kg, but there are also larger individuals. Despite the huge size, they have a low stroke and light movements. Possess incredible intelligence and appeasable character. In recent years there has been an active interest in this breed, in many European countries they are used for riding tourists in carriages. Usually have a black or bay suit, brushes on the legs are missing.
Until 1996, the horses of this breed were stopped by the tail, so that it would not interfere while working in the field. The ban on the procedure came into force thanks to animal advocates, who believed that it was painful and did not allow the animal to brush off insects.
And here is what the Percheron breed horse looks like in the photo here.
The price of a horse starts from 200 thousand rubles. Purebred Percherons can only be bought from European breeders who have kept the line clean.
The breed was bred during the systematic breeding work of English breeders in the XVI. They owed their size to King Henry VIII, who banned the breeding of stallions, less than 1.5 m tall.
Modern horse breed Shire has a weight of 1-1,2 tons. In some individuals, the metacarpal reaches 32 cm, the height at the withers reaches 1.8 m. The chest is powerful and massive, the average girth is 2.3 m. Usually they have a white, black or bear suit, large markings on the legs are permissible. The mane and high brushes are one of the characteristic features of the breed, which they gave to many of their relatives in the process of crossing.
The average price for a horse is from 300 thousand rubles. You can buy only abroad in the tribal breeders.
Clydesdale (Scottish Heavy Draft)
The horses of this breed are bred by Scottish farmers to work in the field. They took Flemish stallions and large local mares as a basis. The result was achieved only after two generations. After the official recognition of the breed in Scotland, they continued to engage in inbreeding, crossing the cleedsdal with shire.
The horse has a massive but dry physique. The height of an adult individual is 1.72 m, its weight reaches 900 kg. Chest wide, average girth up to 2.2 m.
On the exterior are close with shire, but have a more compact bones, as well as not so lush brushes on the legs. There is a docile and good-natured disposition, which is combined with great diligence.
The price of a Scottish heavy truck starts from 250 thousand rubles, excluding transportation from abroad. In Russia, to find a thoroughbred stallion is impossible. You should also understand and learn more about how the Russian riding breed of horses is bred, and also it is worth looking at photos of this breed.
Brabancon (Belgian heavy horse)
It is considered one of the first heavy horse breeds. Its history dates back to the I-II centuries of our era. In Europe, it was known as the old Flemish horse, which was actively used to breed new breeds.
The modern look of Brabança is practically different from its ancestors, they have retained an authentic exterior and physique. Adult stallions weigh up to 1.2 tons, reach heights of up to 1.72 m. They have a proportional constitution, the body is massive with well-developed muscles.
Quickly reach puberty, and also adapt to any conditions of life. Unpretentious to feed, have exceptional performance. Red and bay suit prevail
You may also be interested in information on how the Arabian horse breed looks and where exactly this breed is used.
Breeding studs are preserved in some European cities. Purebred Brabancon can be bought only abroad. The cost starts from 300 thousand rubles.
Suffol heavy truck
The first mentions of this breed date back to the 15th century. They are considered the pride of English horse breeding and are still actively used for exhibitions. These horses were used by the English royal family for their crews. Bred by crossing Belgian draft carriers with local horses. A characteristic feature of the suffolk is braided manes and tails with raffia.
These are very hardy animals known for their health and longevity. Have only red monophonic color. The character is calm, get on well with other animals and people. The weight of an adult horse is 700-1000 kg, and the height at the withers reaches 1.7 m. They have a muscular body with rather long hair.
You can buy a horse of this breed only from English breeders and in some countries of Western Europe. Average cost - from 400 thousand rubles.
Suffolskiy heavy truck can still be found on the streets of England as part of tourist crews. In this country, they are proud of their breed, they actively retain its authentic appearance.
You can also be interested in information about how the Orlov trotter horse looks and exactly where it is used.
Heavyweights - a special breed of horses. They were bred specifically for hard physical labor, so they are exceptionally strong, hardy and docile animals. Given that inbreeding was actively pursued for breeding, many heavy-stressed breeds are similar to each other, but still distinguishable by their exterior and character. Domestic heavy trucks have good adaptation to adverse factors, and the emphasis in the breeding of foreign stallions was put on massiveness and external data.
Breeds of domestic breeding
In Russia, horse breeds began to be created late - only in Soviet times. Techniques were few, and there was a need for massive draft horses for heavy work. In agriculture, they were irreplaceable, they were used as a force for plots. Cargo horse valued more than ever.
The cost of buying horses abroad was expensive. In addition, imported animals often died: getting used to the climatic conditions, poor maintenance and poor-quality feed was not easy. And needed working horses that can withstand harsh conditions.
Russian breed obtained by crossing imported, foreign animals. Given the difficult post-war conditions and the lack of fodder, a different climate, the Russian heavy trucks turned out to be mobile and enduring. They differed harmonious proportion and beautiful forms. Breed obtained by crossing harness horses with small heavyweights from Belgium. Russian draft horses have the following features:
- Dry and strong build, squat,
- Reddish color
- Developed chest and wide withers,
- The head is light and dry on a long, curved neck,
- The mane and tail are thick.
Despite the small growth (up to 150cm), the breed is strong and hardy. Differ in balance, which is combined with energy. Used in agriculture. Undemanding to feed and conditions.
Breeds of foreign breeding
Heavyweights in Europe have been used since time immemorial. They are honored, proud of them, and the history of their breeding began long before the breed was officially recognized. They have spread around the world, and their blood is used to breed new breeds and consolidate the positive qualities of existing ones. Some of the long-bred breeds are popular in our time.
Persheron is a breed that the French got by crossing Arabian horses with local horse representatives. The result was beautiful and hardworking horses, which characterizes:
- Gray, sometimes black,
- The build is dry and large,
- Strong legs
- Long back and powerful croup,
- Long neck and lush mane,
- Height 1.7m at the withers.
A handsome horse is kind and obedient in character. Differs tremendous strength and energy.
The Shire became the ancestors of the Brabancons, who were brought to England in the 12th century. This is one of the most ancient heavily stressed rocks. At first it was used exclusively as a military, and when the wars ended, they began to be used for peaceful purposes on the fields of England. They differ in mighty and stately forms. The breed was modified by order of the King of England, who required horses with a height of more than 1.5m. They possess:
- Huge weight up to 1-1,2t,
- Great height - 1.78 m
- Powerful and deep breasts,
- Lush friezes from the hock,
- Black or bay color with spots on different parts of the body.
Brabason also belong to the ancient breed of horses, which became the ancestors of modern varieties.
Horse breed Brabason
They are characterized by harmonious and proportional forms that have been preserved over the centuries. The breed is represented by red and bay colors.
Mare and foal of breed Brabason
Horses ripen quickly, easily get used to the new content, undemanding to feed. In weight and height they differ little from shire. Exterior complement the developed muscles and dry constitution. And given the docile nature and excellent performance, to speak about their popularity is not necessary.
Purpose of heavy trucks
Horses heavy trucks were created with the aim of hard work in the fields or in harness. These working horses are strong and durable; they were used as heavy transport, carrying loads over long distances, moving at a steady trot.
Work on a horse in the field
Times have changed, and loads are transported by transport and the draft horse is no longer needed. But these strong and stately animals have not lost their former popularity, although they are not in demand in the same way as before. They are used by:
- In rural areas for the transport of goods, for the production of milk and meat,
- In urban areas, there is an active restoration of rocks: they have found application in the sport, show and tourism business,
- The historical places of Europe perfectly complement the horses heavy trucks. They create a special flavor, attracting tourists.