On the globe, insects occupy a leading place, both in species and in numbers. They can be found in various places of our planet. Even in our time there are species that are not studied by scientists to the end. Often you can find the most interesting representatives of the class of insects.
One of these representatives is the rhinoceros beetle, although this name also applies to other beetles that have a horn. Scientists are aware of the Hercules Beetle and the Elephant Beetle. Therefore, it can be said that the rhinoceros beetle belongs to a similar family.
Rhinoceros beetle: description
Mostly in our places you can find the rhinoceros beetle, which belongs to the family of platyla. Adults grow up to 4.5 cm in length and have an oblong and convex body shape. The female body is also a little expanded. The head, in relation to the body, is not large, so its body structure is quite proportional.
The male has a horn on his head, slightly angular and curved back, as well as tapering towards the top. Clypeus triangular in males covered with many small dots. In this case, the females do merge points, while the males do not. In females, this protrusion is somewhat smaller in size, curved backwards and dulled to the top.
Until now, scientists are not aware of the purpose of this horn, because in case of danger, he simply falls to the ground and pretends to be dead. Therefore, the horn is not used as a protective element. The color of the rhinoceros beetle is such that it easily disguises itself among the branches and leaves.
It is important to know! The size of adults depends on the habitat conditions, as well as its color. Adult insects, as compared with juveniles, have darker tones and a more powerful horn. Small males are practically indistinguishable from females.
Habitat and lifestyle
In the wild nature of the rhinoceros beetle can be found in deciduous forests of steppe and forest-steppe zones. They are not found only where it is very cold: in the tundra and in the taiga. The rhinoceros beetle for its habitat selects such trees as:
The beetle lays eggs in hollows of trees, in manure, in rotten stumps, as well as in heaps of sawdust. To make an adult rhinoceros beetle from an egg, the insect goes through several stages of development. Each stage differs in some features of physiological and morphological transformation. For example:
After the female has laid an egg, somewhere, in a month from them larvae appear. This usually happens in summer. The larva is in conditions where it eats all the time. The rhinoceros beetle larvae have a length of up to 8 cm. They are distinguished by the presence of powerful jaws, thanks to which they gnaw through tunnels in tree trunks up to 1 meter deep.
The larva can live up to 4 seasons. During this time, it can shed three times. After that, it turns into a pupa. At the pupal stage, the beetle lasts up to 30 days, after which an adult rhinoceros beetle is born from the pupa.
From the second half of March or at the beginning of April, the age of the adult beetle begins and lasts for 3-5 months. Somewhere in July, August, the beetles disappear. As a rule, beetles move at night, and if they find themselves in such a situation during the day, they burrow, as deep as possible, under a layer of wood.
According to some statements, the rhinoceros beetle cannot fly, since this is contrary to the laws of aerodynamics. In fact, they are able to overcome at one time up to 50 km. Until now, none of the scientists can not unravel this secret. In addition, the beetle is able to lift a weight 850 times its own.
Until now, scientists do not know what scheme the beetle eats and what is included in its diet. It is believed that the beetle does not feed at all, but uses substances accumulated at the larva stage. It is noted that the rhinoceros beetle does not have a well-developed oral apparatus, with cutting teeth, and the chewing muscles are poorly developed. This fact suggests that the beetle, if it eats, is liquid food.
Natural enemies of beetles
The rhinoceros beetle has a rather frightening appearance, but in fact it is a fairly peaceful creature. Despite this, the beetle has many natural enemies. This is especially true in relation to the larva of the beetle, which has an impressive size. The rhinoceros beetle larva does not mind to feast on many, including various birds. On the body of the larvae there may be various microorganisms that suck out fluid from it. Mites can be found on adult beetles.
It is believed that the most dangerous enemy of the rhino is a man who thoughtlessly destroys natural landscapes. Therefore, the population of such interesting insects is constantly decreasing. The rhinoceros beetle is listed in the Red Book as a species threatened with extinction. In addition to humans, climate change has a negative impact on insects.
Benefit and harm from rhinoceros beetle
Rhinoceros beetles can be found in manure, which is a natural fertilizer of garden plots. Here the larvae of this amazing insect also live in manure. The larva represents a certain danger to the garden and garden crops, as it feeds on the root system, destroying the plant. Larvae can parasitize on the vine, on roses, on lemons and other cultures.
The life of these insects has been studied, but still not enough, in spite of many monographs, articles, and films. We can say that science does not have all the necessary data about these beetles. Based on some experiments, it can be argued that the rhinoceros beetle has unique abilities. Scientists managed to implant electrodes into the brain and muscles, which made it possible to control the beetle from the outside. This approach allows you to explore places that are dangerous to humans.
Some people are fond of keeping various exotic animals, birds and insects at home. Rhinoceros beetle is no exception and can be purchased at pet stores. Since males have a more spectacular appearance, they prefer it. The only problem is that beetles live only a few months, and the conditions for its maintenance should correspond to natural ones.
Fighting the rhinoceros beetle
The rhinoceros beetle is listed in the Red Book, therefore it is considered an endangered species. Despite this, many gardeners are trying to get rid of his larvae, who are not averse to feast on the future harvest. In this case, humane methods are more suitable for fighting this insect. It is enough to catch adult beetles so that they could not lay eggs. For this you can use different types of traps.
It is not recommended to use insecticides against the rhinoceros beetle, but if the conditions require it, you can use:
All poisonous substances must be handled with care, therefore personal protective equipment will be required. Still, it is better to use safer means, since the rhinoceros beetle is not such a frequent visitor to our gardens.
The rhinoceros beetle is a unique insect that requires human protection, but not destruction. The number of these insects is such that soon we will not be able to meet him at all, and in fact very little is known about him to man. Finding this unique insect in your area, you should not immediately resort to its destruction.
Like the vast majority of insects, the beetle prefers areas with warm or temperate climates, but it is also found in more severe climatic conditions, where it lives mainly near human habitation or logging plants.
This is due to the fact that in nature, beetle larvae develop in exactly rotten wood - stumps, fallen trunks, etc. In Russia, the beetle lives almost everywhere, except perhaps the coldest and harshest regions, but it can be found even in Siberia.
Following the human beetle, it spread to the North, where it lives and breeds, in greenhouses and greenhouses, wood waste, and even in manure and compost heaps.
The male grows to a maximum length of 47 mm, the female rhinoceros beetle usually does not reach sizes larger than 41 mm, the females are somewhat wider. The body of the beetles of both sexes is brilliant, with the exception of the paws, the back is of a beautiful dark brown-red color, but the belly is lighter, most often yellowish-red-brown. The paws are also dark, almost black, but on closer examination you can see a reddish tint.
The beetle has a small head, a large part of the male's head is occupied by a large triangular horn, which bends back (towards the back) and tapers towards the end. The front horn is almost flat and covered with fairly frequent points.
The female has a much smaller horn than the male — it is practically absent, but upon close examination the rudiment of the horn can still be noticed. The insect has an elongated, convex back; the breast of both males and females is covered with frequent, small dots and thick red bristles. Legs strong, not long, with curved claws.
The natural habitat of the beetle is deciduous forests, the beetle population is found in artificial forest plantations of the steppe, where initially the rhinoceros beetle lived only
in forests over meadows and along river banks, and in Asia and Kazakhstan, it has generally penetrated into steppes and semi-deserts, where it lives in or near settlements.
The flight of beetles in different areas occurs at different times - from late spring to mid-autumn. Lifestyle - mostly nightlife, the day beetles wait in the bark of trees or other shelters. These insects are active at night and can fly into the light.
Science nutrition of adults is virtually unknown. Adults do not consume food at all and live using stocks accumulated at the larvae stage.
The rhinoceros beetles feed mainly on rotten wood, compost, humus or rotted manure.
The beetle lays eggs in rotten stumps and the remains of trees, manure heaps or other places rich in decaying organic matter, where the larvae develops. The larvae hatch in about a month.
Phases and duration of development:
- Egg (about a month)
- Larva (lasts 2-4 years)
- Baby doll (about 1 month)
- Beetle (about 3 months)
Thus, he spends most of his life in the stage maggots, and actually in the beetle stage - only one summer.
Being active processors of wood waste and waste of ruminant animals, beetles bring undoubted benefits not only for human agricultural activities, but also for the entire ecosystem.
The rhinoceros beetle larvae can eat up the roots of living plants, but these are isolated cases, so they should not be considered pests.
Insectivorous animals and large birds, such as the crow, forty and others, can eat beetles of this species. Parasites can live on beetles - hamazyd mites; a giant scoliosis parasite can lay eggs on its face. She does not survive - the wasp paralyzes the beetle larva, and her cub eats living immobilized flesh.
Insects in general, and beetles, have an incredible force for their size, allowing these hard workers to drag objects that are many times larger than them in mass and size.
If a man had the power of a rhinoceros beetle, then each of us would easily carry cargo trains behind us "on a string"!
It is interesting
We want to introduce you, with another bug, about which you can learn a lot of new things. Beetle dung beetle or excavator.
To expand the horizons or write a quality report and abstract, we strongly recommend that you read the articles below. We are convinced that after reading these articles, you will learn a lot of unique and useful information. We wish you a good mood in our friendly team!
Saltwater crocodile (lat. Crocodylus porosus)
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Features of rhinoceros beetle
A curved back horn on the head of an insect is a distinctive feature. In females, instead of a horn on the nose, there is a small tubercle. Females are different and smaller body. The dependence of the color of the beetle on the size of the body is interesting. Large individuals are usually darker in color.
According to aerodynamic calculations, it is believed that the rhinoceros beetle is not able to fly. However, it flies with a characteristic roar and overcomes distances up to 50 km.
Rhino horn is for orientation and has a surprising structure. Various microparticles of a horn differ in semiconductor resistance. This is a kind of microchip created by nature. The brushes of hairs on the lower chitinous plates are capable of fixing the electron charge. When a flying beetle collides with a person, an electric discharge is felt.
Japanese rhinoceros beetle
Where rhino beetle lives
The species has a wide habitat, with the exception of the tundra. Northeastern Turkey, North Africa, Europe, Southeast Asia. Caucasus, Ciscaucasia, Northern and Eastern Iran.
Ten species are most common. In the CIS, three species occur from taiga to deserts. The natural habitat of the species is the zone of deciduous forests and the forest-steppe of Europe. Live along the valley or river floodplain. The species is noted in the extreme south-west of Siberia. In South Asia, a giant palm rhino is common, harming coconut palms.
Natural enemies in nature
Natural enemies of beetles are birds, wasps, large cleavages (Scolia flavifrons haemorrhoidalis), and gamasid mites. Thus, the birds feed on beetles (shrike, variegated woodpecker, crow, raven, magpie). The wasps of Scoli, sting and paralyze the beetle larva. Scola female introduces poison to her and lays the larva on top. Scolia larvae feed on the immobilized beetle larva. Mites parasitize adults.
How is used by man
The rhinoceros beetle lifts the load up to 850 times its weight! The results of experiments on remote photography of objects using rhinoceros beetles were published in Japan and China. For this, subminiature videos and cameras were attached to the abdomen of beetles.
Moreover, it was possible to achieve radio control of such beetles in flight. Scientists placed six electrodes in the brain and muscles of the beetle. Stocked with a microcontroller, radio receiver and battery. The receiver transmitted signals to the electrodes. Such cyborg beetles can be useful for studying dangerous or hard-to-reach places.
The larvae of all rhinoceros beetles also do not differ in small sizes.
Despite the fact that the rhinoceros beetle is not an exotic animal, many began to keep them at home. The main condition for home maintenance is the creation of conditions close to the natural habitat.
The number of insects for unclear reasons began to decline significantly. Exact information on this issue has not been published. There are suggestions that this is due to climate change.
Causes of a rhinoceros beetle in the garden: how to recognize an insect and whether to fight it
Insects are the most numerous class of animals. They live in different places, in different climatic conditions, differ in shape and size. Not all types of insects are studied to the end. Sometimes there are very interesting specimens.
One of these is the rhinoceros beetle. This name was given to several species of insects, which are united by the presence of the so-called horn (hercules beetle, elephant beetle, and common rhinoceros beetle).
In our latitudes, you can often find an ordinary rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes nasicornis). He belongs to the plate. The average length of the body of the female is 2.5 - 4 cm, the male - 2.5 - 4.3 cm. The body of the insect is oblong and convex. In the female it is a little more extended. Relative torso head small.
On the head of the male there is a large backward curved protrusion (horn) with angular edges. Closer to the top of the horn narrows. The triangular platband in males is covered with small dots. These points do not merge, as in females. The protrusion of females is much smaller, blunt to the apex, curved back.
Scientists still have not figured out what is the purpose of the horn beetle. When attacking and protecting it does not apply. When the rhino is in danger, he falls to the ground, pretending to be dead. Its color helps to merge with the leaves and branches around.
Note! Beetle body size and color may vary slightly depending on habitat conditions. Large insects have a darker color of the chitinous shell and a powerful horn. Small males look very similar to females.
Enemies of beetles
Although the appearance of the rhino is impressive, it does not belong to the category of predators and is quite peaceful. But in nature, the insect has natural enemies. The larvae of the beetle are especially attacked. They love to eat different birds. On the body of the larvae parasitize different microorganisms, feeding on fluid from it. On adult insects there are mites.
But man is the most dangerous enemy of the rhino today. Due to the thoughtless destruction of natural landscapes, the number of insects is significantly reduced. Многие виды уже занесены в Красную книгу, как исчезающие. В их числе и жук-носорог. Сокращение численности популяции жуков связывают с изменение климата на планете.
Rhinoceros beetles: lifestyle features, what can influence and human influence on its population
Insects are a very diverse and numerous class of fauna, with many species. Its representatives inhabit a variety of habitats, are found in different climatic conditions, differ in shape and size, lead different lifestyles. There are very curious individuals, has long attracted the attention of man and came from time immemorial. Among them are the species that have been studied by science for a long time, and recently discovered ones. The troop of beetles, or in another way the squad of beetles, has always been under the scrutiny of the scientific world.
The rhinoceros beetle deserves special attention, of course. Its unusual appearance gives it in the eyes of man mystical properties, which contributes to the nightlife of this beetle.
The rhinoceros beetle is the name given to many insect species. They are united by the so-called horn.
These include such types as:
- Hercules beetle,
- North American rhinoceros beetle,
- rhinoceros beetle
- elephant beetle
- common rhinoceros beetle, the most familiar to us,
- Asian rhinoceros beetle
- and many other very amazing types of beetles.
How to meet the "rhino"?
Where can you meet these bugs. It is worth noting that they are found everywhere, prefers forests, forest-steppe and steppe. They, according to scientists, are very unpretentious to environmental conditions. This contributed to the spread of rhinoceros beetles. They can be found anywhere in Eurasia. In the conditions of extremely low temperatures it is impossible to meet him - the tundra and taiga were ignored by the rhinoceros.
Unfortunately, the deterioration of the ecological situation in many countries, including Russia, adversely affected the number of rhinos. Plowing steppes and deforestation destroy the habitat of rhinos. Zhukov brought in the Red Book. They are now protected by state and law.
Features of rhinoceros beetle
Anyone who encounters this insect will definitely notice its inherent characteristics.
- rhino horn, most developed in large subspecies,
- the amazing maneuverability of these beetles in flight, which sometimes causes great surprise among the inhabitants,
- the outer chitinous skeleton characteristic of all insects
- the incredible strength and power of an insect capable of lifting weights equal to half its weight,
- semiconductor properties of small areas of beetle horn,
- very different colors for different subspecies,
- various sizes, quite large,
- females are much larger than males.
It is believed that these insects are able to take care of their growing offspring. This happened because the female only lays eggs in secluded, hard-to-reach places. Scientists argue that this is not true.
An interesting fact is that the horn of the rhinoceros beetle is a special organ. The opinions of entomologists regarding the horn are quite different. There are opinions that it serves to protect and attack. Others believe that it is a prototype of a primitive vestibular apparatus that serves for orientation in space with the help of small hairs that cover its surface. Yes, and its forms in different subspecies of beetles are different.
Many scientists argue that there is no need for such an extensive classification of rhinos. That it is very conditional and needs more careful study.
Rhinoceros beetle and its relationship with man
Unfortunately, very little is known about the life of these beetles. Paradox: these insects are very common, and little is studied. A lot of plots, documentaries and educational films were shot about them, a huge number of articles and monographs were written. But there is no significant progress in the study of these amazing insects.
Rhinos even became the heroes of some animated films, sometimes they play the main roles. As you can see, rhinos are of great interest. The study of these subspecies will help shed light on the life and physiology of these beetles, contributing to their more effective protection.
Some cultures tend to deify these insects. Mythology gave them a halo of mystery, power and strength. Years, centuries and centuries passed, and the bugs, as they led their mysterious nocturnal lifestyle, continue to follow it. Happy rhinos lead a sedentary lifestyle.
There are lovers of these rhinos, ready to support them at home. In the pet store you can meet them infrequently and their prices can be very significant. It depends on the beetle subspecies, its size and gender. As a rule, buy males. They look more spectacular, although they are smaller in size than the female. Even the high price is not an obstacle to the acquisition of rhino for their owners. Very many people want to touch the world of mysteries and secrets.
Noteworthy is the role of this beetle in art and creativity. It can be seen on the covers of a large number of scientific books and magazines. Rhinos from the world of insects in the present - it is a symbol of science, its fundamentality and stability, a symbol of scientific discoveries and accomplishments.
Often you can find figures, sculptures of this beetle, made from a variety of materials and different techniques, directions. They can relate to different historical periods - from ancient times to modern times. It is also found on postcards, posters, and even postage stamps.
Rhinoceros beetle: what eats a rhinoceros beetle, habitat features, insect breeding
The amazing rhinoceros beetle is one of the most common insect species on the entire planet. At present, a number of representatives of this group are known to science.
The common rhinoceros beetle belongs to the family of platyla. Its length can reach 40 mm. The main color of the individual is dark chestnut. The front legs of the rhinoceros beetle are intended only for digging activities. On the hind legs of the insect are spikes and teeth. In total, the family has more than 1,300 species, which represent 170 genera.
The rhinoceros beetle, like the animal of the same name, is very slow in its behavior and has a thick chitinous skin that creates the appearance of armor.
The main distinguishing feature of the beetle is its curved horn on its head. In females, instead of such a horn on the nose, there is a small tubercle. In addition, the female can be distinguished by its smaller body size. Rhinoceros beetles have another interesting feature - their color depends on the size of the insect. The larger the insect, the darker it will be.
If you rely on the calculations of aerodynamics, the rhinoceros beetles should not fly. Despite this, insects are able to fly long distances up to 50 km. In this case, their flight is accompanied by a characteristic sound.
Horn insect is necessary for orientation in space and is distinguished by its amazing structure. Semiconductor resistances are characteristic of various horn microparticles. This can be compared to the chip, which was created by nature. Hairbrushes on the lower chitinous plates can fix the electron charge. That is why, when a flying beetle comes into contact with a person, you can feel an electrical discharge.
Where does the insect live?
As for the rhinoceros beetle range, it is very wide. These insects do not live only in the tundra. Insects can be found in the following regions:
- In Northeast Turkey,
- In North Africa,
- In Europe,
- In Southeast Asia,
- In the Caucasus,
- In Ciscaucasia,
- In northern and eastern Iran.
Ten species of all are considered the most common. In the CIS countries can be found three species inhabited from taiga to deserts. In the wild, rhinoceros beetles inhabit the deciduous forests and forest-steppes of Europe. Most often, they settle on the river armholes and along the valleys. The species is also noted in southwest Siberia. In South Asia, you can find a giant palm rhinoceros, which harms the coconut palm.
The rhinoceros beetle is able to lift a weight that is 850 times its own weight. Even experiments that were published were conducted in Japan and China. The experiments were carried out on remote photography of objects using these insects. The experiment's organizers attached miniature videos and cameras to the belly of insects.
In addition, the specialists managed to achieve radio control by rhinoceros beetles during their flight. Scientists were able to place six electrodes in the muscles and brain of insects. They also provided a microcontroller, radio signal receivers and batteries. This receiver transmitted the signal to the electrodes. Scientists say such rhinoceros beetles can be used to study places that are difficult to reach for humans.