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What do flies eat? A variety of delicacies for Diptera

A fly is for us the most familiar and most annoying insect that attacks our homes during the warm season. This usually lasts from the very spring to the late autumn. We are accustomed to seeing ordinary domestic and green flies, which we associate with mud and contagious diseases. But actually we know very little about these insects. In the world there are about 75 thousand different types of flies, among which are both biting and carrying the infection, and completely harmless creatures.

Many of us have only a negative view of the fly. As a rule, we associate it with a buzzing nerve and unsanitary conditions. But it turns out that the fly is an integral element of the biosphere, without which our planet could not fully exist. Many animals feed on adult flies and their larvae. Some species of flies pollinate plants, and some are involved in the decomposition of plant waste and eat caterpillars and bedbugs. If it were not for the flies, our planet would have long been overwhelmed with various plant debris.

What is this insect?

The fly is a two-winged insect belonging to the type of arthropods, a group of flies and mosquitoes. Insect body length varies from a few millimeters to 2 cm, depending on the species.

The life span of flies is 1–2.5 months. One of the most important distinguishing features of a fly is its huge eyes, which consist of several thousand hexagonal lenses. Due to this structure of the eye, the fly has a very good vision and is able to see even what is happening on the side and behind, that is, it practically has a circular visual field.

The fly belonging to this species already practically does not live in the conditions of the wild nature. Therefore, she is the most annoying and sassy guest in our homes in the summer-autumn period. At this time, our life is complicated by the constant struggle with these small, but very fast and quirky insects.

The greatest activity of indoor flies is manifested in the daytime. The homeland of this insect is the steppe of Central Asia. But at the moment its distribution is observed everywhere in the vicinity of a person’s dwelling - both in rural areas and in cities.

A fly of this species is not a biting and blood-sucking insect, but nevertheless it causes significant harm to humans. Its limbs have tentacles on which various harmful bacteria and dirt gather, leading to infectious diseases.

The body fly has a gray color with brown shades. It consists of the abdomen, head and chest. The chest is connected to the wings and three pairs of legs. On the head are very large eyes, occupying almost the entire head, the oral cavity and short antennae. The upper part of the breast with four dark stripes, the belly with black spots in the form of quadrangles. The lower half of the head is yellow. The total body length of a fly usually does not exceed 8 mm. Males by size there are less females.

In the female, the frontal part of the head is wider, and the distance between the eyes is greater than that of the male. Flying flies carried out only with the help of two front membranous transparent wings, and the rear (halter) are needed only to maintain balance.

According to external signs, many species of flies resemble a housefly, but its distinguishing feature is a vein, which forms a fracture in front of the wing edge. The limbs of a room fly are thin and long with suction cups for easy movement on various surfaces. These suckers allow it to move freely even on a vertical glass plane and on the ceiling. The fly’s flight speed is very high and it can last for several hours.

Despite the small antennae, the sense of smell at the housefly is aggravated. The smell of food she can smell at long distances.

The fly feeds on everything that people eat, but prefers more liquid food.

Her mouthparts are not capable of biting - they have only a sucking-sucking function. To do this, there is a flexible proboscis on the fly's head, with the help of which it not only sucks liquid food, but also absorbs solid foods. The fact is that the fly produces saliva that dissolves solids.

Reproduction and development

A favorite place to lay eggs for a housefly is rotting moist environments such as manure and various impurities. Having chosen a suitable place, the female lays from 70 to 120 white eggs, the length of which is about 1.2 mm. The stage of transition from egg to larva, depending on environmental conditions, lasts for 8–50 hours. The larva is an elongated white body without limbs, similar to a small worm 10–13 mm long, with a pointed head. She continues to live in the feces of various farm animals (horses, chickens, cows).

After the larva has 3 molts, after 3-25 days, its shell hardens and separates from the body. Thus, it becomes a pupa and after 3 days turns into a young fly, which can produce offspring after 36 hours. The average life span of a domestic fly is 0.5–1 months, but sometimes, under particularly favorable conditions, it can live up to two months. The female in her entire life is able to lay eggs up to 15 times. Depending on air temperature and other climatic factors, the total number of offspring ranges from 600 to 9,000 eggs. The breeding season of the housefly lasts from mid-April to the second half of September.

Hoverfly

The hoverfly flies, or syrphids, are in many respects similar to wasps, both in their external characteristics and in their behavior. They can also hover in flight, without stopping the operation of the wings. In summer, they can often be found in their garden or vegetable garden near umbrella or compositae plants. But unlike stinging wasps, hoverflies are completely harmless. Its body is black and yellow striped with two transparent wings. The head is semicircular with large dark brown eyes. Adult insects feed on nectar of flowers. The fly got its name because of the sound, similar to the murmur of water, which it makes when hovering in flight.

The larvae of hoverflies can live in various environments: in water, in wood, in anthills.

The most favorable place for the flies is the accumulation of aphids, since it is aphids that are the main food for the larvae. They also feed on some insect eggs and spider mites.

Syrphid eggs - translucent oval with a pinkish, greenish or yellowish tinge. Larvae appear 2–4 days after laying the eggs by the female. Their torso is elongated wrinkled, tapered at the front and widened at the back.

The larva is very lazy. Her physical activity is observed only when hunting for aphids. She rises, swings from side to side and abruptly attacks the victim, immediately absorbing it. Then, in search of another portion of food, she moves, rolling her body weight from one end to the other. The older the larva, the more voracious it becomes. As a result, in 2-3 weeks of its development, it eats up to 2,000 aphids.

An adult fly at a time can lay 150–200 eggs. In total for the whole season (spring – summer – autumn) it is replaced from 2 to 4 generations. Hoverfly is a very useful insect for the garden, since its larvae destroy a huge amount of aphid harmful to fruit trees. Many gardeners specially create favorable conditions for the reproduction of this fly, planting dill, carrots, parsley and other umbrella plants in their garden.

Green (dead)

Despite its indifference to various kinds of carrion and sewage, this fly is a very beautiful insect with a glossy emerald little body and translucent smoky wings with a weakly pronounced openwork pattern. The length of her body is about 8 mm. The eyes of the fly are large reddish, the abdomen is rounded, the cheeks are white. Green flies live mostly in dirty places.: on decaying animal corpses, in manure, waste - but sometimes they can meet among flowering plants with strong aroma. Eat organic decaying substances, where they lay their eggs.

After mating, the female lays about 180 eggs. The egg has a grayish or light yellow color. She tries to hide them as far as possible into carrion where they develop within 6–48 hours to the larval stage. The length of the trunk of the larvae varies within 10–14 mm. After 3–9 days, they leave their habitat and move to pupation into the soil. The pupae stage lasts from 10 to 17 days (depending on weather conditions), after which the insect is selected on the surface as an adult fly.

Ilnitsa-beekeeper (silt tenacious)

This type of flies belongs to the family of hops. In appearance, they are similar to an ordinary bee. The average length is 1.5 cm. The abdomen is dark brown in color, covered with small plumage, with large red spots on its side with a yellowish tinge. In the middle part of the face of the fly there is a wide, well-developed brilliant-black stripe. In the eyes of - two vertically arranged strips with thick hair. Also, hairs covered hind limbs in the lower leg. Insect thighs almost black.

The larva ichnitsy-beekeeper dark with a gray tinge. The little body of the larva has a cylindrical shape and reaches a length of 10–20 mm. The larva breathes with a special breathing tube, which can stretch in length to 100 mm. This organ is very important for her, as she lives in conditions of fetid fluids, cesspools and pond soils, and can only breathe clean air.

The activity of this insect is manifested from July to October. They feed on the nectar of various flowering plants.

The larvae of the bee-bee larvae can be a source of dangerous intestinal disease, which is found in some European countries, in Africa, Australia, Chile, Argentina, India, Iran and Brazil.

The disease occurs as a result of the eggs of the fly in the intestines of humans with food. There, the larva hatches and begins to develop, causing enteritis.

Tolku flies

Tolkou flies are small predatory insects that are spread in almost all parts of the planet. This name these flies received because of their bizarre behavior. Before mating during courtship, male tolkunts gather in flocks and begin to perform peculiar dances. In such an interesting way, they attract the attention of females. In countries with particularly warm climates, such views can be observed throughout the summer.

In addition to the pleasant sight in the form of dance, the males achieve the location of the females with the gifts brought. Usually these are dead small flies of other species, which the female eats after mating. But quite often, male tolkuntsy are very greedy gentlemen. In the most unceremonious way, they take away their gifts from the female in order to use them to attract another female for mating.

The body of the tolkun fly is gray-brown in color with a length of up to 15 mm. The belly has 5–7 annular separations. Wings in a state of calm tight to the back. The head is small, round with a long proboscis down. Males' eyes are usually as close as possible to each other. In the oral apparatus of the fly, the lower and upper jaws are arranged in the form of four setae. Insect larvae inhabit the ground.

Hessian fly can often be found on winter wheat, as it lays its eggs on this plant. How to deal with this pest of cereals, read this article.

A dog may get infected by a lupus eater from another dog or simply walking in the street. What is this parasite and what the consequences of infection may be, read the article on http://stopvreditel.ru/parazity/zhivotnyx/puxoedy.html link.

Quite a large size slender predatory flies. Body and limbs covered with a thick layer of short hairs. For humans, ktyri flies pose no danger, but insects such as mosquitoes, midges, beetles, and even bees are quite justified. they are afraid.

Ktyri food is obtained by hunting in the air, linking the caught victim with its tenacious long legs. After that, they thrust their sting into the defenseless body, in order to inject poison into it and calmly suck the contents. Sometimes the prey may be another king.

This predatory fly brings enormous benefits to humanity by killing and eating many different dangerous insects. Predators are also larvae of wrenes. They live in rotten wood, in soil and other rotting matter, where their food is various small insects and other larvae.

Classification

Annoying insects can live in nature, self-procuring their own food, and settle closer to human habitation and use those products that people forget to remove or throw away. Consider what flies eat, and what groups are divided in science, depending on the organization of food. Information is presented in the table.

Adults are blood-sucking, also use blood, sweat. The larvae feed on excrement.

Food is food waste and human and animal excreta. In nature, can consume plant juices

Omnivorous: food serves as waste, and food, and excrement

Most often, house and house flies can be found in houses and apartments, but autumn flinders, some other species, often fly.

Home fly

These insects are omnivores, so feeding for them is not a problem. How is the food of such insects?

  • On the legs are taste buds, thanks to which the fly tastes the selected food.
  • They absorb food with the help of a special forked tongue-proboscis, which simultaneously softens it.
  • Next, the food penetrates the digestive system.
  • Due to the lack of teeth they prefer liquid food.

What eat domestic flies? Treat delicacies they like:

  • Sweet tea.
  • Juices and lemonades.
  • Fruit Juices.
  • Cooking, jam.
  • Honey.

Often, and solid food is of interest to these insects, but it needs abundant moistening with saliva, so the fly most often chooses a sweet liquid. However, if necessary, insects will eat fresh or rotting fruits and vegetables.

Housefly

And what does a housefly eat, being a larva? During this period, the food for her is unclean. For development, the larvae need protein, so they prefer to feed on decaying meat or fish.

Adult insects can sometimes find their food by smell or see something tasty with their complex eyes, but they find food more often by chance. So, crawling on the surface of the table, dipter can "stumble" on a drop of cooking, which will become food. Unlike bees, a well-fed fly will not call on kins, preferring to feed alone.

Meat Flies

As the name implies, these insects prefer meat food, so the basis of their diet is carrion and the flesh of dead animals, fat. Also such species of flies, both larvae and adults, may eat other products:

  • Rotting vegetables and fruits.
  • Larvae of beetles and grasshoppers.

Such insects are carriers of dangerous diseases, but they help to accelerate the decomposition of carrion.

Autumn Lighters

These insects are not fastidious, so their food is diverse. What do flies of this species eat?

Most often with the blood of animals or people, they can bite through the skin due to special chitinous teeth. Being carriers of serious diseases, such insects can create many problems for people, because through their bites you can catch an ulcer, trypanosomes.

Other Diptera

What a fly eats, favorite treats of it, depends on the particular species. For example:

  • Drosophila feed on rotten fruit, while laying eggs in them.
  • Fruits are found in those apartments where they find sour foods. These are small midges that multiply very quickly. They can also start in baskets where onions, carrots and other vegetables are stored.
  • Padal eats decaying foods.

Thus, the question of what a fly eats is impossible to answer unambiguously, it all depends on the specific species.

Some interesting facts

Among these insects there are many species with unusual food addictions. Consider what flies eat in natural conditions:

  • There is a special kind, cheese flies, which can breed and feed inside the cheese head. They are called pyophilic.
  • Striped yellow-black sirfida, or hover, Diptera, looks like a wasp, eating floral nectar.
  • The larvae of flies sound different enviable appetite: during their development to an adult individual, each of them eats more than 2 thousand aphids.
  • The dangerous Tsetse fly prefers the blood of wild animals, cattle and people as food. The bite of this African inhabitant can cause incurable diseases of the nervous system and immunity.

There are among the flies and these predators, for example, ktyri, owners of a sharp poisonous sting. The food for them is mosquitoes, midges, even bees and flies. Interestingly, some species of flies are cultivated by fans of fishing. Так, синяя весенняя муха специально разводится на птичьем помете, свином навозе, пищей для нее служат гниющие органические останки, прикармливают насекомых также сахаром и сухим молоком.

Срок жизни

Мы рассмотрели, чем питается муха-дрозофила и некоторые другие виды этих двукрылых. Узнаем, сколько они живут и могут ли прожить без пищи.

Средний срок жизни дрозофил при благоприятных условиях короток, всего 10-20 дней. Однако если температура до +18 °С, а еды много, вредители способны прожить и более 2,5 месяца. Dipterans remain almost never without food, since they find food everywhere, both in man’s dwelling and in nature. If necessary, can eat food in the trash and landfills. In winter, the insect falls into anabiosis and can go without food before the first warm days. It should be remembered that the newly awakened flies are very sluggish and will not be hard to kill them.

Diptera have many natural enemies in the forests (birds, frogs, spiders), so they rarely live more than 10 days.

We considered what flies eat, made sure that these creatures are able to survive almost everywhere, because they are not picky about food.

What flies eat?

Flies are omnivores and can eat any organic food. Solid food flies soaked beforehand with saliva. Sweet liquids and foods are particularly preferred. Some types of flies are true "gourmets" and they eat only onions or carrots. Pyofilida (cheese flies), breed only inside the head of the cheese.

Breeding flies.

With the exception of some viviparous species, most flies lay eggs. Males lure females with a quiet buzz. 2-3 days after mating, the female is ready to lay eggs in any food or organic waste.

One clutch has approximately 150 eggs. During its existence, the female fly is able to lay up to 3 thousand eggs. A day later, the larvae of flies, maggots. This stage of development lasts about a week, during this period the larva increases in size up to 800 times.

The larval stage goes into pupation and continues for another week. An adult fly, which does not change its size throughout life, is born 12-14 days after laying eggs. The first 2-3 days, until the wings are not strong, the insect can only crawl. The average life span of a fly is 3 weeks.

What feeds on various types of flies, including what a domestic fly and their larvae eat

Understanding what flies eat is one way to prevent them from appearing. By properly storing, disposing of food and cleaning the areas where food is consumed or prepared, it is possible to significantly reduce the likelihood of these annoying insects.

Flies are an important group of insectsx and have a significant environmental impact.

Some species, such as mining flies, fruit flies Tephritidae and Drosophilidae and gall midges (Cecidomyiidae) are pests of crops, others, such as tsetse flies, meatflies and gadflies attack livestock, suffering illness, which creates significant economic damage.

Some species, such as the flies (Psychodidae), affect human health by participating as vectors of the main tropical diseases: the midge carries river blindness, mosquitoes - leishmaniasis. These insects are an obstacle to humans, especially when they are present in large quantities, they pollute food and spread foodborne diseases.

Who are the flies and what they eat

Flies are insects from the order Diptera (dipter). The squad name comes from the Greek δι- di two and πτερόν pterion wings.

Insects of this order use only one pair of wings to fly, and the rear wings are transformed into organs that act as high-speed rotary motion sensors and allow two-winged flies to perform complex aerobatics.

Flies have a moving head with a pair of large, complex eyes and mouthparts performing piercing, cutting, licking and sucking functions. Their wings give them greater maneuverability in flight, and claws and foot pads allow them to cling to smooth surfaces.

These insects undergo complete metamorphosis, the eggs are laid on the larval food source, and the larvae that lack limbs develop in a protected environment, often in their food source. A pupa is a hard capsule from which an adult individual emerges.

These insects are capable of laying eggs within any decaying biological material. The rate at which the larvae reach an adult separate state, becoming, in turn, able to reproduce an individual, approximately ten days.

Habitat

These insects are found on almost all continents except Antarctica. More than 150,000 species were officially described, but the actual species diversity is much greater.

Flies have a significant environmental value. They are important pollinators, as they were among the first pollinators responsible for early pollination of plants.

These insects are the second largest group of pollinators after Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, etc.).

In humid and cold regions of the Earth, they, as pollinators, are much more important than bees, since they need less food compared to bees, since they do not need to feed their larvae.

But these insects are also harmful, especially in some parts of the world where they are found in large numbers. Large species, such as tsetse flies, cause significant economic damage to cattle.

What eat species that live next to humans

Flies are most active when warm. They are attracted to human housing because of the heat and odors emanating from there.

Adults feed and lay their eggs on organic decaying material which includes: fruits, vegetables, meat, animals, plant excretions and human feces. Both males and females also feed on nectar from flowers.

Home flies

These insects eat all human food and human feces. They feed only on liquids, therefore they are able to turn solid products into liquid using enzymes in their saliva. They are attracted to various substances, such as:

  • overripe fruits and vegetables,
  • human and animal feces
  • sweet substances.

Domestic species are usually limited to human habitats, but these insects can fly several kilometers from the place where they were born. They are active only during the daytime.

Fruit flies

Fruit or as they are also called fruit flies attract fermented foods and liquids, so they are so common in homes and food processing enterprises. Fruit flies are looking for products such as:

  • liquids: beer, wine, cider, vinegar,
  • fruits, such as: fruits, vegetables,
  • sweet foods.

Small fruit flies can be carriers of various diseases.

Dead flies

This name includes several species and whose representatives are fairly large insects with metallic blue, green, bronze or black glitter. They are usually the first insects that appear after the death of the animal. These flies prefer fresh or rotten meat., animal carcasses and feces.

Who eats flies

These insects are food for other animals at all stages of their development. Eggs and larvae are eaten by other insects, and some vertebrates specialize in feeding by flies. It:

Most of them consume flies as part of a mixed diet..

Types of flies, how much they live, how they look, what they eat, where they live and how to fight them

We are surrounded by a diverse world of insects: from small spider bugs, which are not even visible, to large bright butterflies that delight the eye. And among this large variety of creatures there are flies - small winged insects, completely ugly in appearance.

They are not favored because of their annoyance and intrusiveness, but, worst of all, they are carriers of various microorganisms and bacteria that can cause various diseases: from simple poisoning to tuberculosis and typhoid.

We are surrounded by a large number of species of flies, which must be able to recognize, so as not to be confused with other insects that are harmless to humans.

What types of flies are most common

The world of flies is diverse, which, in addition to the structure of the organism and the life cycle, have one common property - intrusiveness. Whatever the insect: dangerous or relatively safe for humans, it will be very difficult to get rid of.

What beckons flies to us? These creatures have a well-developed sense of smell, they are attracted by various sweet and not very aromas (but the most pleasant smell for most of them is the scent of rot), to which they fly.

We prepare many dishes that have all sorts of tastes and smells - they attract these insects so much that they make them overcome rather large compared to their size distances and fly into our homes.

Green fly

A green (or fallen) fly is rightfully considered to be one of the most beautiful insects: it has a neat, glossy body of emerald green color, large brown eyes that blend perfectly with a pair of smoky wings. All its legs have tentacles, which are adhered to by bacteria and microorganisms, which this fly carries over long distances.

Green fly has an incredibly beautiful color

It is a pity that such a beautiful creature feeds on carrion and rot, therefore it must be chased away and even destroyed, and not admired as we would like. It lives on the corpses of animals, in domestic waste and in feces, but sometimes it is found on flowers with a very strong sweet smell.

Green flies are also found on flowers with a pronounced sweet aroma.

Green flies lay up to 180 eggs in the same place where they feed - in rotten foods and bodies.

Females try to hide their eggs as deep as possible so that when a larva is born (and this happens after 6–48 hours), she has a lot of food.

At the larval stage, flies stay from 3 to 9 days, after which they crawl away into the soil, where they turn into pupae. After another 10-17 days, an adult fly appears, which is selected to the surface.

Green flies live 2–2.5 months (if you count from laying eggs), for the winter they hibernate in the foliage and bark of trees.

It is impossible to prevent the appearance of fallen flies in your house, since they will bring on their paws a huge amount of bacteria from corpses and feces, which will cause at least poisoning and intestinal diseases.

The most effective means against these flies are insect nets and ordinary adhesive tapes, which have a pleasant smell for flies. If you do not have pets at home, you can buy a flycatcher plant.

Flycatcher is a very beautiful plant that feeds on the blood of insects

Fly elynitsa-beekeeper

The bee-bee Ilnitsy belong to the family of tinkers, only they do not resemble wasps, but bees.

They have a rather large body - on average, 1.5 cm in length, the belly is rather “plump” than these flies and resemble bees. Taurus brown with large reddish-yellow spots on the sides.

Unlike other flies, the litter trays are covered with very small hairs - even the eyes and limbs have hair.

Another name for the beekeeper is the tenacious

Bee-bees live near plants with strong-smelling flowers, the nectar of which they eat. Adult individuals are absolutely harmless for both humans and insects, so there is no sense to plant them specifically, and there is not much to destroy either.

Illytsy lay their eggs in various impurities, therefore the ingress of eggs or larvae into the human body (for example, from unwashed hands or products) can lead to infection of intestinal diseases (for example, enteritis).

The most active birds are from July to October, in the cold season, these flies hibernate.

A bee has a more shaggy and segmented body.

Since a person can be harmed only by eggs and larvae of a beehive, carefully wash your hands after coming from the street, rinse food, and make sure that houses do not accumulate rotting household waste, where the bottle can lay their eggs.

King-birds are large predatory flies that destroy other insects: mosquitoes, midges, beetles, and even bees. They feed exclusively on flying organisms, they do not harm either man or his crop, so the ktyrey should not be scared away or even destroyed - even though they are ugly-looking, but good helpers in the fight against pests and blood-sucking insects.

Ktyr can fight even with the hornet

These flies look really not very attractive: a small body of dark brown color is completely covered with hairs, huge brown eyes, a sting with poison, which they inject into their victim.

Incredibly long compared to the body, the limbs are also covered with hairs. It is their ktyri catch their prey in the air.

Long powerful wings of dark brown color with small light strips help themselves and their sacrifice in flight.

Ktyri lay their eggs in various rotting matter: wood, soil, and so on. As soon as the larvae emerge from the eggs, they immediately begin to destroy the small insects that are nearby. Often, one larva becomes a victim of another (and an adult individual can eat its own kind).

Ktyri live, like all flies, 2–2.5 months, active in the warm season. They are found both in cities, and in vegetable gardens, and far from people.

The tsetse fly is the most dangerous fly on the entire planet Earth, which, fortunately, lives in Africa. She is a carrier of the so-called sleeping sickness, from which it is possible to die if timely medical care is not provided. This fly feeds exclusively on the blood of animals and people.

The female gives birth to larvae, which immediately become pupae, in a dark place, closer to the soil. It is there that the pupae will develop within a few days, until they become adult individuals.

tsetse fly is very beautiful, although the color of her back is unremarkable - gray

Tsetse flies are extraordinarily beautiful: the chest of an insect is reddish-gray, covered with longitudinal dark brown stripes, yellow-gray belly, gray back with black and milky pattern, long branched proboscis, transparent powerful wings, which insect folds one over the other and on which look is looked like coffee color drawing But do not be fascinated by this creature - for humans they are dangerous.

Wings of a tsetse fly have an unusual “hatchet” pattern

If you go to Africa, be sure to get vaccinated for sleeping sickness.

We are surrounded by countless different insects: some of them harm humans, some, on the contrary, help with different pests and save the crop.

You need to be able to distinguish friends among all insects and not kill them, but create favorable conditions for their life.

Chemical means, of course, better destroy various insects, including aphids, but they are not as safe for humans as, for example, hover flies. Use the helpers that nature itself gives you.

What do flies eat? A variety of treats for dipteries:

Among the insects that are widespread in almost all over the world are flies, their species are in abundance. These unpleasant creatures often become a real problem, settling in dwellings in the warm season. Consider what flies eat in nature and in human housing, what products are loved by them.

Report on the flies (22 macro photo)

Neighbors on displays and warm clavs dedicated ...)

Flies - class insectssquad dipterans (Diptera), type arthropods. Widely distributed in all parts of the world. More than 75 thousand different types of flies are known.

Synanthropic species of flies are of great epidemiological and epizootic importance.

These include, first and foremost, representatives of the Muscidae families — real flies, Calliphoridae — blue, green meat flies, Sarcophagidae — gray meat flies, Scatophagidae — flies, etc.

Photo © Mikesi The body (2–15 mm long) is dark, or with a metallic sheen (blue or green), less often yellow, covered with hairs and bristles.

Photo © johnhallmen The eyes of a fly consist of about 4 thousand hexagonal lenses - they occupy almost the entire area of ​​the fly’s head. With their help, a fly can simultaneously look in several directions, distinguish colors, including ultraviolet, which is inaccessible to human vision.
Photo © johnhallmen The dot images perceived by each lens are added to a single picture, as in a mosaic. True, the image is somewhat vague, but a very high speed of perception. Complicated eyes surprisingly accurately detect objects during the flight. When flying at a speed of 5 m / s, the fly clearly distinguishes objects of less than 1.5 cm in size. In addition, the fly’s eyes determine the speed of a moving object with surprising accuracy: it consistently “cuts” it with its individual facet eyes and immediately translates it into a big picture eyes. This technique allowed scientists to create a device for accurately determining the speed of supersonic airplanes, and it was called “the eye of a fly”.
Photo © johnhallmen On the head of a fly there are a lot of bristles protruding upward; you can call this the insect alarm system. Due to the high sensitivity to various kinds of vibrations, the bristles promptly warn of impending danger.
Photo © Casseris The life of the fly is almost entirely, except for the breeding season, devoted to the search for food. The fly feeds on liquid food, sucking it through the mouth of the proboscis, located in front of the head. There are flies and teeth, they are very tiny, they are located on the same proboscis. Their main task is to separate food particles. Так как твердая пища для мухи не пригодна, она предварительно смачивает её жидкостью, отрыгиваемой через хоботок.
Photo © Casseris В еде муха не привередлива, ест то же, что и человек, ещё мухи питаются соком растений, не брезгует и различными нечистотами, разлагающимися органическими веществами, навозом, фекалиями, некоторые — хищники, часть видов — кровососы.
Photo © jciv Мухи очень маневренны. Расположенные на ножках присоски делают для неё доступной практически любую поверхность. The flight of a fly can be compared with the flight of an ace pilot performing aerobatics.
Photo © Casseris A fly, like a super helicopter, can take off and land without a takeoff run, spin in the air in one place, fly backwards. In one second, the fly makes 200 wing strokes. In this case, the back pair of wings, the halter, helps the fly to keep balance, performing any dizzying pirouette, and avoid falling.
Photo © Timmay D All kinds of flies are very prolific. In one season, one pair of flies gives millions of offspring.
Photo © jciv
Breeding process in flies, like in other insects, occurs in several stages: egg - larva - pupa - adult insect.

Photo © johnhallmen The female lays eggs for food, accumulations of rotting organic matter, animal and bird droppings. The females of brownie, blue, green and gray meat flies can lay eggs on the wounds of animals and humans. The period of development of the larvae is determined by the type of fly, temperature and humidity of the substrate and ranges from 3 to 30 days.
Photo © tobyjug5 Egg-laying usually has a hundred or more eggs. A day later, the larvae appear in the light, they will stay in this state for a week. All this time manure, the remains of a dead animal will be for them both a home and a source of food. Before the pupation, the larvae burrow into the ground. It will take another week for the larva inside each cocoon to become an adult fly. With the help of a special section of the head, the poulinum, the fly makes a hole at one of the ends of the cocoon and goes outside. Then she needs time so that her body and wings become solid and she can fly.
Photo © Mikesi Despite the fact that flies are considered to be harmful and bothersome insects, some of them destroy locust egg-laying - thunderstorms of all agricultural crops. And for example, the fly fly lays eggs in the larvae of harmful insects, thereby also saving the future harvest from destruction. Larvae of hoverflies, florists, are the primordial enemies of aphids. In addition, flies-flower girls pollinate flowers, because of their color, they can easily be confused with bees or wasps.
Photo © Casseris Most flies are carriers of bacterial, parasitic and viral diseases. A lover of human food, a fly is not squeamish about garbage, so about 1 million dangerous bacteria can be easily found on its legs and proboscis. Scientists have found 63 species of microorganisms in the tracks of a fly, of which about 30 were the causative agents of 4 different diseases, including dysentery and typhoid fever.
Photo © Casseris
Among the blood-shedding species, tsetse flies, or glossins, the males and females of which are carriers of infectious diseases, are the most dangerous in our country.

Photo © Casseris
Riddle: All day flies everywhere, Very much everyone bothers. (ahuM)

Photo © Thierrry
Riddle: Who above us is upside down Walking - not afraid, not afraid to fall, flies all day, bothers Everyone?
Photo © Timmay D
Riddle: How I buzz on a hot day, Heard any ear. I fly into every house, They know everything about me! I - …
Photo © johnhallmen
Poems about a fly: A fly sits on the window And sits, cheeky. I, in general, do not care, I am okay. Sit and fly, Nothing will be. From the window a beautiful view, So she is staring
Fly in the drops of dew. Photo © johnhallmen

A fly on a flower. Photo © johnhallmen

A fly captured by a spider. Photo © Timmay D

Literature:
Zimin L.S., Elberg K.Yu. Sem. Muscidae - real flies // Key to insects of the European part of the USSR in five volumes. T. V. Dipterans, fleas. Part 2. / Under total. ed. Corr. USSR Academy of Sciences G. Ya. Bey-Bienko. L .: Science, 1970. pp. 511-595.

Where flies come from and what they feed on

Pesky insects that are often found in humans are flies. They not only annoyingly interfere, but also are carriers different microbes and diseases.

This is due to the fact that these insects feed decomposition products, go to different infected places, love manure and other impurities. And after that climb on food, clean linen, on the dishes.

At the same time, on their paws, pathogenic bacteria can already be present, which can cause any diseases in the human body, if together with contaminated food or dishes they get inside the body.

Where it comes from - depends on the type of fly

Not all mushin eat the same food. Although they are not particularly picky, yet some species give particular preference to one or another type of food.

For example, there are such that love to eat meatsoh and others sweet, third - sour. And some feed exclusively on decay products.

Therefore, you should first understand how are called and look like these or other individuals that are greedy for meat, lard, or fruit. Winged insects are of the following types:

  • Drosophila. Very fond of fruit, especially rotten. Very quickly multiply. Dangerous because their eggs are laid in food.
  • Housefly. It dwells almost all the time in residential or non-residential premises, because in the wild they are almost not met. They are very fast, they are very difficult to catch by hand. Mostly eats what people eat.
  • Meat. Their subspecies worldwide nestimated 2000, and in Russia about 300. Favorite delicacy - lard, meat of animals, fish and insects. Externally, different black and gray body and head with large red eyes.
  • Ilnitsa. Its larvae are dangerous carriers E. coli and other infectious diseases.
  • Padal. Very often appears in dirty places, and also where there is a decomposition of organic matter. They are dangerous carriers of all kinds of diseases.
  • Syrphid. Very similar in appearance on wasp - with brown-yellow transparent wings and a black-yellow striped belly, but they have no sting. Unlike other individuals, it also eats aphids or nectar flowers. Bothering people can only attacking on sweet fruits or berries.
  • Fruits (they are also called - "Kisushki"). Small flies that always appear in the house when something sour. Mostly in the summer, spring or autumn, when it is warm.

Generally, all registered 75 species of squad mushiny. Some of them may even bite on approaching a cold cyclone or autumn. The total lifespan of these winged lasts about 1 or 1.5 months. The length of the calf is different. Depending on the variety. So, meat individuals can reach up to 2 cm, and sisushki up to several millimeters in length. Because of the large eyes, they are considered owners of excellent vision compared to other insects.

Short description

Flies belong to the order Diptera. Unlike other insects, they have only one pair of webbed wings. The movable head has a rather large size, and the oral apparatus is a special proboscis. The task of the rear wings is to adjust the balance.

The special skeleton of these pests and strong muscles allow them to develop greater speed in flight and to remain in the air for quite a long time. In addition to natural flies, synanthropic are common, which exist next to humans. Among them, the most famous are, for example, real flies, blue, green and gray meat and hoverflies.

Features of indoor flies

These pests are prominent representatives of synanthropic insects - those whose life is associated with human habitation. People constantly struggle with this kind of flies. There are many sufficiently effective means for this, but it is not yet possible to get rid of insects once and for all. In contrast to bedbugs and cockroaches, flies are exclusively diurnal.

In addition, the body of the insect is covered with sparse long hairs. A comfortable temperature for a room fly is +25 degrees, at which the duration of its life can be about 20 days. In winter, insects become anabiosis. In fact, they are not parasites, since they do not have the ability to pierce or bite through the skin of a person or animal.

What are meat flies

These insects have received the name because they breed on corpses of animals. According to the color of the back, distinguished gray, green and blue meat flies.

The appearance of gray pests resembles ordinary houseflies. Adult females do not lay eggs.

They immediately hatch the larvae, having preliminarily selected a suitable place for them, which may be a decaying body of an animal, fruit rot or manure.

Some larvae parasitize on the damaged surfaces of mammalian skin. Drunk with meat, they hide in the ground and stay in it for about a week. Then they pupate and turn into adult insects.

Green (padal) flies have a beautiful appearance, despite the fact that they are not indifferent to carrion and various impurities.

They feed on decaying organic matter, in the same place females lay eggs - up to 200 pieces at a time. The formed larvae leave carrion and hide in the soil for pupation. This stage lasts 1-2 weeks.

After this time, an adult fly is selected on the surface.

What are the hoverflies

However, not all flies are pests. The hoverfly flies are very similar to the wasps - both in appearance and in behavior.

In summer, most often they can be seen around asteraceae or umbrella plants.

The body of the insect is covered with black and yellow stripes, and on the semicircular head are large dark brown eyes. The diet of adults is floral nectar.

The female lays about 100–180 eggs at a time, so 2–4 generations of these insects can develop during the season.

Hoverfly flies are useful insects because they destroy aphids, which cause irreparable damage to trees in the garden.

Some gardeners are trying to create all the conditions for the flies of this species to multiply in their areas. To do this, they specially planted umbrella plants, such as carrots, dill or parsley.

How to protect yourself from harmful insects

The main rule that must be followed in order to protect the territory from large concentrations of flies is perfect cleanliness. You can also use such preventive measures:

  1. Plant a walnut tree in the yard, since flies cannot stand its smell.
  2. Well repels flies castor, currants and bird cherry.
  3. In high-rise buildings, regular treatment is required with the help of disinfectants of the territories that are in close proximity to the garbage disposal.
  4. Since flies do not like the smell of vinegar, it is advisable to lubricate it with a solution of windows and doors in rooms.
  5. The floors, previously treated with turpentine mastic, are well repelled by flies.
  6. It is advisable to air the room as often as possible.

The larvae of flies in cesspools or temporary latrines can be destroyed with the help of disinfectants, which must be poured there several times a month.

The basic properties of the body flies

  • Checking the taste of food with paws. Paws are the most sensitive organ in flies, and thanks to them insects can easily distinguish saccharin from sugar. Thus, a fly is capable of carrying out contact analysis with a chemical substance and can learn from one touch whether it lies before it: liquid, solid or inedible food. How does this happen? Scientists have found that there are four types of receptor endings on the tips of the flies' legs. The first are used to determine the chemical composition of the liquid, the second - sucrose, the third - all sorts of salts and finally the fourth indicate the presence of protein elements in food.
  • Sensitive proboscis. The proboscis of the insect also contains highly sensitive analyzers of the composition of chemicals in food. At the end of the fly's proboscis there is a special pad, which is called a labellum. It is very closely related to receptor endings on the paws. When a positive signal is received from the receptors, the fly's proboscis is pulled forward, and it begins to consume food.
  • Organs of smell. The flies have excellently developed olfactory organs: they react as quickly as possible to the presence of even a very small odor emanating from a source located in the far distance. It is precisely because of its highly sensitive sense of smell that insects are able to find themselves at the same moment in fresh feces or heaps of garbage.

The most common types of flies

  • Small housefly - this kind of flies has dimensions reaching seven and a half millimeters. The little body and paws of the insect are of dark color and covered with stiff hairs. At the tips of the legs there are small claws and pads, emit a special sticky liquid, which gives insects the opportunity to move on any surface. The salivary glands of flies secrete enzymes that thin the organic structures of any level of hardness. Houseflies prefer to eat human food, as well as rotting food debris. With room temperature favorable for breeding, the female lays up to one hundred and fifty eggs at a time. The most suitable place for flies is decaying organic residues, garbage and feces. After a day, the larvae hatch from the eggs, which pupate in one or two weeks. A new offspring of flies appears in about a month, going through the whole process of development. The average lifespan of insects is no more than a month.
  • Housefly - only the size differs from a simple housefly: they are slightly larger. House fly larvae begin their life cycle in the same way as house fly larvae: in organic waste and feces. After some time, significantly stronger, they begin to feed on the larvae of other insects, becoming predators.
  • Autumn zhigalka - this insect looks very much like a housefly, but, unlike it, has a long and thin proboscis with cloves. Autumn zigalki are blood-sucking insects. They drink blood by rubbing their trunk with the victim's skin, thereby scraping the epidermis. It is important to note that the saliva secreted by it contains a large amount of toxic substances that cause severe irritation and pain.
  • Fallen flies Their family includes at least nine hundred species, and their representatives are found throughout Russia, even in the northern territories. They have a color of bright green or bright blue with silver shine. They lay their eggs in human feces, animal carcasses and decaying garbage. Subsequently, their larvae develop there. This type of flies is the main carrier of infectious diseases.

Prevention and necessary measures to protect your home from flies

First of all, it is necessary keep your city apartment clean, and summer cottage and its backyard. If possible, you should plant several nut trees in the garden, since harmful insects such as flies and mosquitoes tolerate this smell very poorly. You can also plant a castor tree or put a pot with this plant on the window, currant bushes, bird cherry or put a bouquet of tansy near the compost pit or other place where the garbage is stored.

The area of ​​the site, which is adjacent to the waste disposal site, needs regular treatment and disinfection. special substances (for example, a solution of chlorinated lime). In addition, flies hardly tolerate the scent of vinegar - this is another simple solution for the preventive control of these insects. It is recommended to lubricate the window frames as often as possible with a solution of vinegar.

In addition to the smell of vinegar, flies also do not tolerate the smell of turpentine mastic, which is used for wiping floors. Even more simple solution will be frequent airing of the premises in order to avoid the appearance of any unpleasant odors inside a country house or apartment. To prevent the appearance of flies, it is necessary to carry out regular cleaning of cesspools from the accumulation of rotting garbage in which flies usually lay eggs. This procedure is recommended at least twice a month.

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