The process of breeding chickens, which starts from the moment when the hen lays eggs, and ends after her offspring is born - this is a long and painstaking work. In order to get viable and strong young growth, it is important to examine eggs in time to find out how well the embryo develops.
The survey will make it possible to understand whether they are suitable for further incubation and, if necessary, make changes to the conditions that were created for the development of the embryo. For this purpose, and performed ovoskopirovaniya.
What is ovoscoping?
Ovoskopirovaniya - this is a simple and at the same time very informative method of research of eggs. They shine with a special device - ovoscope - to determine the quality of development of the chick. If you put the eggs in front of a light source, you can see its contents, and this technology has been used for a very long time.
In the old days, simple candles were used for this purpose, but modern ovoscopes provide much more information when scanning. Most models are cases in which light sources are located, and in the upper part there is a lid or lattice with oval holes for eggs. There are also portable laposcopes made in the form of flashlights.
With the help of ovoskopirovaniya can carefully control the process of incubation development of the chick. For examination, eggs are laid out on a special surface (grid) designed for this, after which they shine through them from below, while the contents can be well examined.
You can make a simple ovoscope yourself. To do this, it is enough to fix a light bulb on the bottom of the carton box, supplying electricity to it. On top of the box you need to place a lid with a hole in which an egg will be placed for inspection. To create a directional flow of light, a reflector can also be mounted with the bulb at the bottom.
When to conduct ovoskopirovaniya?
Too often it is not necessary to ovoskopirovat eggs. If they are incubated by chickens, ongoing surveys are stressful for the bird. In addition, during the procedure there is a risk of damaging the hatchlings that have not yet hatched. Three translucences for the entire incubation period are sufficient.
The first ovoskopirovaniya can be carried out after 4-5 days after oviposition. In this examination, non-living and unfertilized embryos can be separated so as not to engage in their incubation.
The second translucence is carried out after 7-8 days of incubation of the egg. At this time a large dark germ should already be visible. Allantois on this period lining the shells from the inside completely, covering the protein and closing in the sharp end of the egg. It is allowed to have a small distance between its edges, which will soon close.
The last third screening is carried out shortly before the time of chicks leaving the eggs. As a result of this procedure, you can select eggs that contain dead embryos that died after the second x-ray. In addition, later ovoscoping allows to assess the degree of maturation of the embryo.
Rules of the procedure
There is nothing difficult in conducting ovoskopirovaniya. For this you need:
- place the device on a flat surface
- turn it on, that is, light the lamp,
- place the egg in its intended place, and then examine its contents.
If the ovoscope has the appearance of a flashlight, during the examination it is necessary to put the egg in its upper part or hold it in your hand, directing a stream of light at it. It is necessary to carry out the procedure in a dark room, then the contents of the egg will be perfectly visible. During the inspection, you can use a magnifying glass, in this case, due to the increase will be an opportunity to see all the details.
Ovoscopying dark-shelled eggs, solid brown or spotted is more difficult than researching light-shelled eggs. It is much more difficult to see the contents in this case, but the technology of the process itself is the same.
In order to obtain all the necessary information as a result of ovoscoping, one must be able to distinguish between a normally developing embryo and an embryo, the growth of which occurs with pathologies. To do this without experience can be difficult.
Therefore, it is better to study ovoskopirovaniya under the leadership of someone who has already managed to fill his hand in conducting this survey. It may take a long time to master the inspection of an egg in an ovoscope.
Ovoskopirovaniya need to spend in a warm room, the duration of the procedure should not exceed five minutes. If these conditions are not met, there is a risk of harm to the embryo.
What is the hanger for chickens and what is its advantage in comparison with mixed feed? Like this we told here.
Can broiler chickens be carried? Find out about it in our article.
What pathologies can be revealed by the screening of eggs?
A normally developing egg without pathologies has the following features:
- its shell is uniform,
- On the stupid end of such an egg is a small air chamber,
- the yolk is in the middle of the egg,
- during rotation, the yolk rotates with a slowdown, that is, slower than an egg,
- the egg has no extraneous inclusions.
Early transiplaning allows you to determine freshly laid eggs that look healthy when examined - they can be sent for further incubation. When ovoskopirovaniya need to pay attention to the vascular grid. If the blood vessels of the circulatory system are viewed, this is a good sign that indicates the proper development and the possibility of breeding healthy offspring of chickens. It is difficult to see the embryo at this time, but it is often seen when the egg is rocking.
If, on the other hand, the embryo is pressed to the shell for a weekly period, and its outlines resemble a comma, it can be concluded that the development has so far gone badly. Another characteristic sign of problems is a weakly pronounced vascular grid and pallor of the egg.
In addition, the unsuitability of the egg for further incubation is indicated by:
- appearance of a blood ring,
- the occurrence of blood points
- blood streaks in the egg contents.
The blood ring is a red circle that is clearly visible inside the egg. It occurs after the death of the embryo, when the blood vessels leave the center and are located near the shell. The appearance of blood points and streaks also suggests that the eggs stopped developing.
If, at the last egg xing in the late period of development, the embryo occupies almost all the internal space, the outlines of the chick are clearly visible and the way it moves is seen, it can be concluded that the development has gone well and the chick will soon hatch.
Timely ovoskopirovaniya allows you to identify problems in the development of embryos and select eggs that are unsuitable for further incubation. It is easy to carry out such an examination, for this you only need a dark room and an ovoscope, which is easy to do on your own. The main thing is to be able to identify the signs of pathology, in which case it will always be possible to detect spoiled eggs. At first this may not be easy, but this procedure does not cause any particular difficulties for experienced poultry farmers.
Ovoscopic chicken eggs before incubation
Transmission of eggs is carried out using an ovoskop, which is installed in a darkened room. The cooked egg is brought to the hole on the device or placed on a wire rack and little by little it is turned.
When ovoskopirovaniya chicken eggs, pay attention to the location of the yolk. Also determined by its mobility. It is necessary to select for further incubation only those eggs where the yolk is located in the center of the protein and is surrounded by it from all sides. Be sure to pay due attention to this moment.
If we consider the vertical axis, then yolk is suitable for laying in industrial incubators eggs closer to the blunt end. When turning them in different directions in front of the skeleton, the yolk will slowly move to the side and return to its original position with the same speed. Gradients holding it in limbo should remain intact. If at least one of them breaks, the egg is removed from the applicants for the incubator. A break will be evident if the yolk does not return to its original place after a turn. Those eggs where the yolk is too close to the shell are culled. In this case, the yolk membrane is broken, and the contents are mixed with protein. Excluded are those eggs that have varying degrees of blood inclusions.
Characteristic normal eggs
For laying in industrial incubators, eggs that have a uniform shell are suitable. The air chamber should be small and located at the blunt end. The yolk should be in the central part or be a little close to the blunt end, have blurred boundaries. During rotation, the yolk movement should be slowed down. There should be no foreign inclusions inside the egg.
After a thorough examination, the selected variants are placed in an incubator. Ovoscopic chicken eggs during incubation is carried out at least three times.
Ovoskopirovaniya chicken eggs by day: the first inspection
The first inspection allows you to determine the number of fertilized eggs, how the circulatory system develops, and in what position the embryo is located inside. Unsuitable options are removed at this stage. The first ovoskopirovaniya chicken eggs is held on the 6th day after laying (after 132 hours), meat - after 6.5 days. Inspection of turkey and duck eggs is carried out after 8 days, and goose - 1 day later.
Consider the inspection process in more detail. The egg is taken in the right hand and brought to the opening of the ovoscope. Rotation is carried out along the longitudinal axis. If the egg has a light and uniform background, the circulatory system is not visible, and the yolk looks like a dark spot in the middle, then it is unfertilized. Therefore, it should be removed from the incubator.
Another option is possible. When the egg is fertilized, but the embryo died in the first 24 hours. Then it has almost all the signs of unfertilized. A distinctive feature is the shape of the embryo - here it is oval. The embryo itself is slightly enlarged and has sinuous edges. If the death occurred after 3 days, a blood ring or a red zigzag dash appears around the embryo, located near the air chamber. If the embryo develops normally, then the circulatory system is visible. However, the embryo itself will not be visible yet. Now is the time to establish the degree of development of the circulatory system in the embryo.
With excellent development of the embryo in the egg, all the threads of the blood vessels are clearly visible, despite the fact that he himself is not yet visible. When rocking, you can only see the shadow of the embryo. The region of the blood vessels is located near the sharp end, and the color of the shell is diluted with a pink tinge.
The third ovoskopirovaniya chicken eggs is carried out before the naklyom. Here is determined by the degree of readiness of the exit of the embryo. The best are the eggs that do not have the slightest clearance in the peaked part. This shows that the embryo has an intense metabolism and has already reached its excretory condition. He fully utilized the inner protein. In the egg, a significant evaporation of water occurred, due to which an increase in the air chamber was ensured.
During the procedure, the specialist can understand whether the egg is fertilized, whether there is a crack in the shell. If the last suspicion is confirmed, the embryo no longer enters the incubator. Otherwise, there is a risk of infecting other eggs, and through the cracks in this particular can get a lot of bacteria.
Ovoskop can be both purchased and made independently. The first option will be quite expensive. Therefore, many farmers prefer to ovoscopic chicken eggs during incubation (photo below) on their own.
Technique inspection eggs as simple as possible. It is necessary to take it in the right hand, bring it to the ovoskop and, turning along the longitudinal axis, illuminate for the presence of any flaws. However, this method is suitable only in the variant, if there are very few germs.
In poultry farms, where there are too many eggs, a special room will be equipped. Future chicks are brought and sent for sorting. After preparing for incubation and ovoscopic chicken eggs, they are sent to a special room, where they complete their development cycle.
What defects should guard?
When conducting ovoskopirovaniya some nuances should be alerted. Which ones? Consider them.
- The shell should not have a marble structure. This suggests that calcium is either too little or too much.
- If the egg has light streaks, then it has any damage.
- Air chambers are too large, and also at the end or on the side should be alerted.
- Blood clots clearly should not be in the egg.
- If there are dark spots, they can be considered a sign of mold.
- Feathers and grains of sand should not be in the egg, so with a copy of such elements placed in the incubator can not.
- Orange-red color without a yolk of a pronounced color should also alert. Most likely, it broke and mixed with protein.
- The latter is fixed in one place (probably dried up), moves around the egg in a chaotic manner - this is a sign that the egg cannot be incubated.
- If two yolks, then it also does not fit.
7 day incubation
When the egg is visible, the movement of the embryo can be seen. Also at this stage should check the condition of the blood vessels. As a rule, by this day they are developing perfectly. Also noticeable airbag.
What defects suggest embryo development disorder?
The first such defect can be called detachment of the hinge part. At the same time the air chamber will be displaced. Abnormal development is accompanied by a change of blood vessels to spots.
If the specialist noticed the rings, then the embryo died from the first to the sixth day. Only in this case, blood streaks appear.
Frozen fetus is determined only during the week from the 7th day of development. What does he look like? The germ has the form of spots, and the vessels do not translucent.
If the egg has an orange color during transmission, it means that the yolk mixed with protein.
Neoplod is characterized by the fact that blood vessels did not appear after the sixth day of development. At the same time the yolk and pillow from the air will be visible.
If there are spots on the shell (detected literally from the first day of incubation), then there is not enough calcium.
Mildew colonies appear as dark spots. These eggs must be completely eliminated, they can not be eaten, as it is likely that the bird was sick.
Many people know the word "zadohlik". So called those chicks who developed well during the incubation period, but did not hatch after its completion. The reason for this situation may be a violation of temperature, humidity, or hypothermia.
The article describes the procedure for making ovoscopic eggs. Let's sum up. What is this method for? It is an invaluable method of testing how well embryos develop. It is used by both ordinary rural workers and famous poultry farms. Thanks to the procedure, it is possible not only to reveal the defects of the embryo, but also to understand which eggs are prohibited for human consumption. There are some indicators that indicate infection. However, the main task of ovoscopying is to check the fertilization process, whether it has happened, how well the development of the embryo goes.
As has already become clear, in the process of incubation not one or even a dozen eggs are removed from the total mass. You can get a small amount of chickens from a huge lot. Of course, it is important to check how healthy they are during their development. Translucence works like an x-ray or ultrasound scan, it gives maximum data on the processes inside the egg. This method has been known for a long time and has been widely used for many years.
In order to properly ovoskopirovaniya and successfully complete the incubation, you should follow certain rules. One of them - you can not remove the eggs for more than 25 minutes. What will a violation of this rule lead to? The fetus may die as a result of a change in mode, hypothermia, or, conversely, too much heat. Indoor humidity and other factors also affect the future chick. Before sending eggs for incubation, you should check the condition of the bird that gave them. If she is ill, then a priori her future children must be destroyed. Unfortunately, this rule is not always respected by factory workers.
What else needs to be added? The procedure is as easy as possible. There is nothing complicated in it. Many rural farmers use powerful lights to check the condition of their eggs. Such an independent method helps them save money, since the ovoscope is expensive and is designed for large batches. Как уже было сказано, просматривать яйца при использовании ручных средств нужно вдоль продольной оси. Только так можно будет заметить все имеющиеся дефекты и состояние воздушной прослойки. За ней нужно тщательно следить. Ее состояние также напрямую связано с развитием плода.
Что представляет собою овоскопирование?
Появление на свет птенца – сложный процесс. Before it hatches, it takes a long time to form an embryo in the egg. People who farm are aware that far from every egg a chick appears. Therefore, hundreds of years ago, people invented a procedure that could simplify the selection process.
The first prototype of a modern appliance at home was an ordinary candle. Putting the egg over the flame, shone through the inside, to see whether there is an embryo or not. In subsequent times, used lanterns and other sources of light. Their main disadvantage is that the devices gleam at a certain angle and do not give the opportunity to fully consider the content.
Types of devices and their pricing policy
Ovoscopic chicken eggs during incubation is carried out by applying:
- homemade vehicles,
- store products.
The first option involves making ovoskop at home. Having a basic knowledge of technology, you can easily make the device with your own hands. A variety of available materials for the manufacture of the stand and powerful lamps for the light source are used. For example, the simplest option is a box and a light bulb or a flashlight.
Sample homemade ovoskop
First you need to cut a few holes in the box: for the eggs and for the light source itself. When it is ready - a flashlight or a lamp is inserted into the center of the structure so that the light will evenly and directly fall into place for the object of study. To use it, it is enough to turn on the lamp and insert an egg into the recess.
This part is applied, but not in the presence of a large production.
If we are talking about farms or large farms, it is better to use professional technology. To date, many manufacturers offer their models on the market. The most popular are:
- "NEST-30", the price fluctuates around 10 thousand rubles,
- OB1-60-1, cost about 7 thousand rubles,
- pkya-10, the price is about 6 thousand rubles.
Such devices are aimed at frequent use and are characterized by large capacity. The materials of which these models are made are distinguished by high strength, which allows the technology to function for more than one year.
First ovoskopirovaniya: when to do?
Many wonder about the immediate time of the procedure. It is done several times at different stages of the process. The development of the embryo is possible not in all the testicles, therefore, before putting them into the incubator, the first test is carried out.
In the process of previewing with the aid of an ovoskop, it is worth checking eggs for:
- the presence of fertilization
- no cracks in the shell.
A quality research object must meet a number of requirements. First of all, pay attention to the shell. A good coating has no rough edges, stains, protrusions, grooves. That is, the presence of any defect is the first sign of unfitness.
Also, when ovoskopirovaniya need to carefully examine the yolk. The embryo is formed from this part, respectively, and it is responsible for the overall suitability of the egg. During enlightenment, a good yolk necessarily has a clear contour and is located in the middle of the shell. When moving, he changes position little and slowly.
Also, there are requirements for general content. All internal liquid should be moderately transparent and homogeneous. The presence of clots, formations or foreign bodies indicates that the laying of eggs in the incubator is unacceptable. In addition, it is important that there is a scare. This is a small air chamber located in the upper corner of the shell.
We talked about how to choose eggs for laying in the incubator. But, this is not the only time when it is important to ovoskopirovat. How to check eggs in an incubator? Experts recommend in order to bring good and complete offspring to repeat the procedure for:
Eggs for an incubator after ten days of incubation will have completely different characteristics during radiography. First, almost half of the entire area should be occupied by the forming body of the chicken. Throughout the space in the shell, blood vessels leading to the center can be seen.
What do eggs look like by day?
Often, when viewed at home, the procedure of ovoscoping is carried out more often than 2 times. Therefore, it is worth knowing the main stages of development by day:
- in the first three days, the core remains uniform and clean, there are no clots or other elements,
- From 3 to 6 day the circulatory system is formed. Accordingly, it is possible to observe the appearance of a small seal in the center, to which red “strings” lead,
- eggs for an incubator on the 7th and 8th day are rapidly developing in size of the fetus, which already reaches one third of the volume of the egg,
- on 9 and 10 days, the outline of the chicken is clearer,
- from 11 to 15 days, an increase in the embryo is observed and its placement is lower in the shell than in previous days,
- after 15 days, the eggs differ only in the size of the chicken. Every day it takes up more and more space and on day 18 it fills completely the entire interior of the shell.
Trace such changes can be in the photo.
Fetal change by day
Major defects worth paying attention to
How to check an egg for unsuitability after several days in an incubator? There are a number of signs indicating problems of fetal development:
- At the first check pay attention to the circulatory system. If there are no vessels, then this indicates the death of the embryo. Accordingly, it is worthwhile to change such eggs in the incubator for new ones, since they will hatch from them nothing.
- At the second check, the body does not occupy the entire area in the middle of the shell. When a large lumen is observed after two and a half weeks of incubation, this also indicates the death of the embryo.
Timely replacement of eggs for the incubator will more effectively deal with the increase in its economy.
Frozen fruit looks like this:
The most easy to see it in the blood circle, formed in the middle:
In order to become more familiar with ovoskopirovaniya, you can view a special video about the procedure: