How much does a horse weigh? The question is undivided. To accurately determine the dosage of drugs for vaccination and correctly formulate a diet, to know the weight of the animal is simply necessary! This mass can differ, no less, a thousand times!
Degrees of fatness
The term “fatness” is an integral part of the evaluation of horses by workers in the meat processing industry. By the degree of fatness, they divide these noble animals into two categories - I and II.
Breeders and horse lovers operate on a different scale. And, depending on how much the horse will receive, including the “fatness” parameter, determine its purpose.
Why know the weight?
There are several reasons that require an answer to this question.
- Breeding horse breeding. The live weight of the animal is directly related to its physical capabilities. This is especially true when breeding heavy breeds, where it is important how much a horse weighs. The average weight calculated for a specific breed of each gender and age group of animals helps to control the development of the young. Indicators below the average indicate perhaps insufficient nutrition or illness of foals. Live weight (by breed) may be correlated. In addition, the body index of animals is calculated using the body mass: density, mass, and weight of the metacarpus.
- Treatment. A veterinarian prescribing the use of medications for treating an animal is repelled by its live weight. Overdose is fraught with serious complications, and an insufficient number of drugs will not give the expected effect.
- Sport, work. Excessive sports or workloads can lead to weight loss. Excessive body weight will cause the body to over-exert during exercise. Control over the state of the animal will avoid undesirable consequences for its health.
- Feeding, fattening. Growing horses for meat during fattening or fattening is economically beneficial if animals gain weight quickly. Horses rent for meat, when they reach the fatness above the average.
- Sale. Horses on a personal farmstead get old, it happens that born and raised young animals are also not needed in the farm. There is a question about the sale, and its weight becomes the basic unit of measurement for the value of a horse.
Determination of body weight
There are several methods for determining the live weight of an animal.
First, the weighing. Reliable and accurate, but expensive due to the high cost of equipment. Not all private farms have scales at their disposal. There are special for weighing animals. They most accurately determine the weight of the horse. The average deviation is no more than one kilogram. Automobile ones will also be suitable, but the error in determining the body weight can be up to 10 kg.
Secondly, by the formulas. It assumes the measurement of an animal with the subsequent calculation by the formulas:
- Y = X * 6-620, where Y is the desired weight of the animal, and X is the chest girth behind the shoulder blades. Suitable for all types of horses.
- Y = X * K, where Y is the desired weight of the animal, X is the chest girth behind the shoulder blades, K is the coefficient for horses of various types:
- light horses - 2.7,
- average - 3.1,
- heavy - 3,5.
It is necessary to take into account that this formula is suitable for animals of average fatness.
You can measure the horse and a special tape. It is applied grading in kilograms, allowing you to immediately determine the weight of the horse. Moreover, the tape is designed for different breeds of horses, ponies, young, separately for mares and stallions.
Measurement with the subsequent calculation does not give an absolutely accurate figure. The actual mass may differ from the calculated up to 20 kg in one direction or another. Not suitable for measuring body weight by measuring foals, mares, depleted or overweight animals.
Recommendations for measuring horses
The correct calculation of the live weight of an animal is affected by the quality of its measurement. It is advisable to hold it on a flat platform with good lighting and always with an assistant. The result may be affected by the coat of the animal. A few extra centimeters of thick and dense wool add a dozen kilograms.
A measuring tape with a length of at least three meters is suitable for measurement. But the metallic sound may scare the animal. The easiest way is to measure a horse with an ordinary baled rope, and then measure the length of the rope with a tape measure. You should not use a sewing meter, it stretches and does not give an accurate result.
Developed standards for live weight to control the development of young stock greatly facilitate the work of breeding farms. Foals are born with a weight of about 35 kg. From the first month of life a good set of live weight indicates health and proper development.
The average weight of horses 2 years, 1.5, 1 years and 6 months is given in the table:
How do weight categories differ
It is surprising that with all its grace the horse has a fairly large body weight. Adults are divided into several categories:
- Lungs, which are usually riding, their weight is not more than 400 kg.
- Medium - weigh from 400 kg to 600.
- Heavy possess special power, they weigh from 600 kg and above.
- Shaira is the largest and highest breed of English horses in the world, which weighs from 1000 to 1800 kg.
In determining the norm of weight takes into account the number of years lived and the size of horses. Heavyweights, for example, grow 6 years, so the standards provide for deviations. Upon reaching the same mature age, the mass can only deviate in a big direction, because their endurance and strength depend on such an important parameter.
Attention! There are breeds of small horses, whose weight may be less than 400 kg. Ponies weigh even less, up to 200 kg.
There is also a gradation of horses based on their fatness:
- Exhibition - these individuals have a clear rounded shape, they have a beautiful shiny wool, noble appearance.
- The factory ones are also well fed, their weight and size should allow them to mate and bear offspring without difficulty.
- Working category - these horses must work a lot, but because they can not have a single gram of excess fat, they are considered to be fairly plump.
- Poor fatness is already a negative sign indicating a dishonest attitude towards the horse, the reasons are lack of food, excessive exercise, old age or illness.
How can weight be calculated
Find scales for weighing horses mildly problematic. Therefore, there is an alternative way. There is a formula by which this indicator is easy to calculate, the main thing is to know some parameters of body size.
There are several formulas. The simplest one was suggested by Ulrich Durst, where only two components appear: one of them is a constant factor (its own for each breed), and the other is a variable value - the girth of a horse's chest. OG in cm is multiplied by 2.7 for light horses, by 3.1 for medium gravity, by 3.5 for heavy.
ZHM = OGh (constant)
Formula Motorina is also a very common method. For it, you need to know the horse's chest volume, multiply this figure by 6, and subtract 620. ЖМ = ОГх6-620
More complex calculations are used by professionals of tribal plants. The following data is required:
- breast volume
- belly girth
- body length, measured by oblique.
Which must be multiplied by the constant, in the end we get the following formula: FH = OGh1,455 + OZh1,832 + DTx2,315-580,4
Good horse breeders always strive for higher rates. To do this, they need to take proper care, to provide them with favorable conditions for an active and healthy life. An example of such an attitude was the record holder among record breakers - the Australian horse Samson weighing more than 1.5 tons and growing about 2 meters. No one has managed to beat the record so far, but after all, nothing is impossible?
Horse weight categories
How much does a horse weigh? Looking at the weight the horse possesses, it can easily be attributed to any weight category:
- A light weight. These include horses no heavier than 400 kilograms. There are horses weighing less than 2,000 kilograms and even weighing 20 kg, which is why this category is the most massive.
- Moderate weight. Horse weight from 400 to 600 kilograms.
- Heavy weight. These include horses, whose mass exceeds 600 kilograms.
Also, depending on the destination of the horse, there is a table of fatness of the animal, which he must follow.
- Exhibition. The horse has a high fatness and rounded shape. Animal hair shines beautifully.
- Factory - well fed well. Parameters of horses do not prevent them from breeding easily and bearing foals.
- Workers. Animals are well-fed, but do not have excess fat deposits that could interfere with the work of the animal.
- Low fatness. Such a mass is usually possessed by horses, whose owners are poorly cared for and contain an animal. Excessive horse fatigue, poor circulation, malnutrition - all this can cause a horse's low weight. Also, the reason for reducing the weight of the animal can be a postponed illness or a big age.
Sled and heavy-haired rocks represent their class. These are large and strong animals that impress with their size and weight. Such strong horses include the following breeds:
- Arden heavy trucks - 600–700 kg.
- Vladimir heavy trucks - 700–800 kg.
- Kledesdale - 800–900 kg
- Percherons - up to 1,000 kg
- Brabancons, 900–1200 kg.
- Shira-900–1200 kg.
Each breed of horses to have its own standard weight. How much does a little pony weigh? The average weight of such a horse will not exceed 200 kilograms. This breed of pony, like Falabella, usually does not weigh more than 20 kilograms.
Horses, repeatedly participating in races, have their own weight parameters. Lightweight horses do not weigh more than 600 kilograms, the lower weight mark is 200 kilograms.
The weight of heavy breeds varies from 700 to 900 kilograms. The average weight of the Shire horse is up to 1,400 kilograms.
How to determine the weight of the animal?
To determine the weight of a horse, you can use one of several formulas for determining weight. Most widely used Ulrich Durst formula. The variable in this formula is the chest girth of the animal, and the multiplier is the coefficient that individually fits only one breed. The mass value for a lightly stressed rock can be found by multiplying the chest circumference by a numerical value of 2.7.
For animals with moderate weight, the factor is 3.1, and for heavy animals it is 3.5.
Another world famous formula is formula Matorina. Its value is found when a sixfold chest circumference is found, from which the value of 620 is subtracted.
There are also more complex formulas for the weight parameters, which are needed for accurate calculations. This formula is used in large enterprises of horse production. The formula has several variables - it is the girth of the abdomen chest (in the widest part) and the length of the body, which is measured along an oblique line.
The animal is able to withstand only a certain weight.
Comfortable and most appropriate will be a value equal to 20 percent of the total weight of the animal. The extreme point is 30 percent, with this value the animal receives a debilitating load. With such high physical exertion for several years, an animal’s health problem or even death can occur.
Normal weight in relation to the breed of a horse is important for maintaining appearance, productivity, the ability to participate and win in various races and exhibitions, as well as for comfortable production of offspring.
That is why the owners must carefully observe all the rules of feeding and keeping the animal, and then the animal will surely live a long and full life.
Riding horses are fast and agile animals. They can quickly run the necessary distances and distances, but will not be able to cope for a long time with heavy weight loads. With a big burden, they immediately get tired, and with the passage of time they lose their working skills.
The maximum weight of the jockey and saddle should not be more than 60 kilograms. In everyday life, a horse can withstand a load of 80–110 kilograms. A weight of more than 150 kg can be called very heavy for a horse, and a caring owner will never subject his pet to such heavy loads.
Horses that are in harness, can drag weight much more than their own. Usually horses carrying loads from about 5 to 1.5 tons. Show the maximum result can only horses of the class of heavy trucks. They are able to carry loads that are equal to ten tons or even more, while it is not easy to move in steps, and even trot.
Horses are capable of carrying many things, but unlike cars, they are able to be good friends, delight in their beauty and become a real support. That's why everyone loves them so much.
Weight category classification
Foals at the time of their birth have a body weight that is 10% of the weight of the mother. This indicator may vary slightly in one direction or another within 5 kg.
Young horses grow intensively and quickly become similar to adult animals. By 6 months, foals have 50%, and by 1 year - 90% of the weight.
Further, the increase in kilograms slows down a bit. Under optimal conditions of maintenance and excellent health, the animal reaches its maximum weight by 3-4 years. In horse breeding, this conditional division of animals by weight categories is accepted:
- Light horses. Adult livestock weighing up to 400 kg.
- Average horses. Adult livestock weighing from 400 to 600 kg.
- Heavy horses. Adult livestock weighing from 600 to 1200 kg.
Today, horses are still widely used in many branches of agriculture, for transporting goods over short distances, tillage. Horse trips are popular with tourists, as well as horseback riding with city dwellers. Riding schools attract children and adults. Horses are used in sports - in horse racing, racing, jumping, dressage, etc. Animals are purposefully bred in stud farms to reproduce offspring.
Depending on the conditions of use and intended use, horses can be:
- Unsatisfactory fatness. This is how sick and old individuals and those who received insufficient food look like. They not only do not have subcutaneous fat, but also lack muscle mass. In animals, visually noticeably more than three ribs on the body, can be the bones of the shoulder blades and the croup.
- Sports or training fatness. This is the norm for stallions and mares, which are tested on the racetrack and act in competitions in equestrian sport. Horses in this category are notable for their relief musculature, healthy, strong appearance and fit forms.
- Working fatness. It is characteristic of a large mass of livestock of workers, farm and rolling animals. They are moderately fattened, they may have a small layer of fat, which, however, does not prevent them from actively moving and performing the functions assigned to them.
Factory fatness. It corresponds to the breeding staff of horse plants, animals intended for the reproduction of offspring and the continuation of the breed. These horses have a full-fledged high-quality diet and enhanced nutrition, they are distinguished by rounded shapes.
It is easier for mares to breed foals, and for stallions to perform their main work.
If you take the horses to the same breed with the same degree of fatness, then, on average, the stallions will weigh more mares, and the young - less than adult animals.
How are horses weighed?
In horse breeding, it is customary to constantly monitor the mass of animals, especially those that are in training or in a plant. The weight of the horse can be found by simply putting it on the scales. Suitable as ordinary devices designed for cars, and special, designed for weighing farm animals. These are convenient platforms with fences on both sides and a digital display on which values are instantly displayed. Modern electronic models allow you to get the most accurate weighing result.
If there are no weights, the weight of the horse can be found by conducting a series of measurements and simple calculations.
- The easiest way is to purchase a special tape. It has a unique, developed for each breed, kilogram scale, which allows, by measuring the girth of an animal's chest, to find out its weight. There are models for ponies, trotters, riding horses and draft horses. The main thing is not to confuse the specification, otherwise you can get an inaccurate result.
- The weight of the horse is calculated using the Motorin formula. For measurements, you will need an ordinary measuring tape. She measured the girth of the animal's chest. The result in centimeters is substituted into the formula V * 6 - 620 = M, where V is the same centimeters, and M is the desired result. This way of calculation is convenient to use in a private household, when there is no constant opportunity to weigh your pet on the scales.
- The weight of a horse of normal fatness is calculated by the Durst formula. M = V * k. V – известный обхват груди после измерения обычной рулеткой, k – изменяемый коэффициент. Для легких пород он равен 2,7, для средних пород – 3,1, для тяжелых пород – 3,5. Умножив требуемые значения легко узнать М, то есть вес животного на данный момент времени. Эта формула подойдет для тех, у кого в хозяйстве находятся лошади разных весовых категорий, например, пони и верховые полукровные животные.
- Есть и еще одна формула для установления массы коня. It is designed for sporting and working animals in uniform, but does not fit thin horses and pregnant mares. Weight is calculated by the equation M = V * V * L. In this case, L is the oblique length of the body, V is the girth of the horse’s chest, and M is the mass value in kilograms.
It should be noted that all these calculations give only an approximate result. They are good to find out how much a horse weighs, unless it is necessary to obtain extremely accurate data. Otherwise it is safer to use weights.
The relationship of weight, breed and capacity
The horse world is diverse. Most clearly the difference in the mass of animals can be seen on the example of various breeds. Pony - animals with a height of 80 to 140 cm at the withers, as well as small workers and pack horses of local selection are usually considered to be lightweight. Among them are the following breeds:
- Falabella - from 20 to 60 kg,
- American miniature - up to 80 kg,
- Shetland ponies - from 150 to 200 kg,
- Australian pony - up to 300 kg,
- Welsh pony - from 300 to 350 kg.
The average weight category is represented by breeds specially bred for sports, and large working animals. Among them the most famous are:
- American, Russian, Orlov and French trotters - from 400 to 500 kg,
- purebred Arabian horse - from 400 to 450 kg,
- English thoroughbred horse - from 450 to 550 kg,
- trakenensky and budenovsky breed - up to 500 kg,
- Holstein breed - from 500 to 550 kg.
The heavy division is represented by the horses of the harness and the hard-haired rocks. These are large, powerful animals that are impressive not only in size, but also in weight. Among the populations of animal warriors can distinguish the following breeds:
- Arden heavy trucks - from 600 to 700 kg,
- Vladimir heavy trucks - from 700 to 800 kg,
- Kledesdali 800-900 kg
- percherons - up to 1000 kg,
- Brabancons - 900-1200 kg,
- Shira - 900-1200 kg.
Riding horses - fast and frisky animals. They can with great speed overcome various distances, but they can not bear much weight on their backs. With a heavy burden, they quickly get tired, and over time they lose working qualities.
The load carried by the horse in smooth races is 10% of its own weight.
The maximum weight of a jockey with a saddle cannot exceed 60 kg. In normal life, the average is considered to be indicators of 15-20%, that is, 80-110 kg. A weight of 150 kg is already a critical value, and good owners try not to subject their four-legged pets to such trials.
In harness, horses are able to carry weight that is substantially greater than their own weight. Even tiny falabella are able to carry a cart with an adult. Ordinary horses can pull a cart with a load of 0.5 to 1.5 tons. To show the maximum results only by heavy trucks. These powerful animals are capable of moving loads in tens of tons, while moving not only in steps, but also in a trot.
The possibilities of horses are not limitless, but, unlike machines, they can give the joy of communication, amaze with their beauty, be a faithful friend and reliable helper. That is why they are loved and appreciated today.