Beekeeping may seem interesting and useful to many, but before breeding bees, it is necessary to have certain knowledge and skills, as well as familiarize yourself with the features of the biology of honey insects, the rules of care, seasonal work, diseases, pests and many others. In addition, for profit, we need a serious investment of forces and means.
Equally important is the correct installation and organization of the apiary. Only with the observance of all norms of beekeeping can a strong bee family be bred. And for this you need to have a suitable plot of land, so that there is a large selection of honey plants nearby.
Preparation for breeding
Where to start? First of all, you need to sensibly evaluate all the pros and cons. Keeping an apiary takes a lot of free time, especially at first. According to beekeepers, ten bee colonies need to spend about an hour a day, but this is on condition that they already have the skills to communicate with these insects.
In the first year, an inexperienced beekeeper must be prepared for difficulties and unforeseen circumstances. Breeding bees for beginners should start not with one, but with 3-4 families, this will provide an opportunity to exchange honeycombs between them. In case of loss of the uterus or lack of feed there will be an opportunity to take from other nests a frame with bees, brood or honey. And under favorable circumstances and increased skills, the number of families can be gradually increased.
It would be very good to establish contact with members of the beekeepers' union, such societies exist in almost every locality. They can advise how to breed bees, and help in the event of difficulties.
Breeding bees at home requires compliance with some rules.
- Put the hives in the country should be in a quiet, sheltered from the wind place. There should be a lot of trees around, it will protect insects from diseases.
- For good lighting, hives should be positioned with a slope to the south.
- The apiary should certainly be fenced with a fence, a paling, a fence (about 2 meters high).
- Bees do not like noise, so the house should be set up away from busy roads and roads. When locating the apiary at the dacha, it is undesirable that someone constantly walk near it.
- You can not put houses in the lowlands and damp places, as well as near large production plants, all these factors can lead to insect disease.
Where can I breed
Cultivation and the maintenance of bees can occur in various conditions, the main thing that climatic requirements were suitable for insects.
The place for breeding, called “points” in professional circles, should be surrounded by honey crops, preferably with different flowering times. If there is no such thing nearby, it is possible to transport the bees from a point to a point closer to the actual honey bearing plants. This occupation, started from scratch, is costly, but they will pay off over time.
To facilitate such activities, beekeepers have created a kind of pavilions on wheels to transport bees over long distances. The hives were replaced with plywood sections, thereby reducing the weight, making special notches for departure. And the facades of the pavilions are painted in different colors so that insects do not confuse their houses. Such a mobile building is well insulated with mineral fiber to preserve and year-round breeding honey plants. The construction, calculated on the maintenance of 15-30 families, is almost three times more economical than a regular stationary apiary, and the cost of breeding and equipment for bees pays off in full for a couple of years.
There are two options for solving the issue with beehives: buy or make one yourself. If everything is more or less clear with the first one, then choosing the second option will have to work a little. In order to build a house with your own hands, you need tools and quality boards made of soft wood. And also need to adhere to the drawings (preferably proven in practice).
No less important is the question of the correct painting with a special varnish-paint; this will protect the hive from moisture penetration into the wood and will enable the bee to see its house from afar. But since the bees do not distinguish between red and black colors, they should not be chosen. Optimal will be: yellow, blue, purple and green.
You should also prepare tools for the apiary:
- working clothes
- front mesh,
- the smoker
- special knife
- caps and cells,
- ice rink, etc.
It is very important to stock up on sheets of honeycomb in advance. They are inserted into an empty frame and rolled down with a hot rink. On this frame, the family builds its cells, if it is installed without a foundation, then insects can rebuild many defective cells.
Part of the beekeeper's tools
Bees have many enemies and pests, the most significant of them are:
- mole Against it, there is only one way to fight - restoring order in the hives and growing strong families. If the presence of moles is established, then all spare frames are smoked with sulfur smoke, placing them in free houses. Fumigation with smoke is repeated after a week and again after 2 weeks. You can also use hops, mint, walnut leaves,
- the mouse. Rodents cause harm to honey plants only in winter time, they can nibble honeycombs, eat perga, honey, and sometimes live bees. Such pests disturb insects with movement and a strong odor, they can lead the family to a weakening and even death. To fight with mice, the wintering floor is made of clay with broken glass, and traps and baits are laid out. On fly-outs from autumn it is worth making barriers for rodents,
- ants. In order to protect against ants, you can handle the hives with a special pencil or make a small ditch with water. Placing the houses above the ground at a small height usually does not give a reliable result.
- birds. To protect against birds, it is worth making holes in the hives so that they could not stick their heads into them, but the bees could easily fly in groups of several working individuals.
Some birds like to eat bee brood
Income and expenses
Experts estimate that the cost of breeding bees for beginners in the first year will be approximately $ 3,700 for 20 bee colonies. This includes the cost of bee colonies, hives, inventory, equipment, preventive processing and other things.
From this you can get more than 1300 kg of honey for the first summer in its practice, in addition, to collect zabrus, wax, bee venom, and in the presence of pollen collectors and pollen. The income at the same time will be about 4400 dollars. Thus, the costs of breeding bees will pay off in the first season, and will continue to increase.
In beekeeping, accuracy and timeliness of beekeeper work is of great importance. Their main goal is to get strong and healthy families to the honey collection. A beginner beekeeper should carefully examine the procedure for conducting seasonal work and the rules for caring for bees.
What you need to keep the apiary
Choosing the right place - this is where to start is the right thing! Consider, you need to have at least 3 square meters per hive. m. It must either buy or make yourself. Their amount depends on how much honey you plan to collect at a time. Here is a clear formula for its calculation:
The total amount of honey = 1.5 kg of honey x for the number of frames (standard 10 pcs.) X for the number of hives.
Here is what is needed to keep bees:
Needed to pacify insects during the inspection of their families.
This includes a jacket of coarse calico, flax or gabardine, special gloves, a weight lifting bandage, cotton pants and a mask. All this is necessary to protect against insect bites.
- Honeycomb knife for printing honeycombs
For breeding bees, it is most convenient to use an electric model, but in any case it should be made of stainless steel.
It is intended for separating waxed frames glued together.
This option will make the growing of insects safer and more convenient, since they are very irritated by the use of a brush.
You can do it yourself, but if you don’t want to mess around yourself, you can purchase this item. He will be required next year. Its purpose is to remove a flock of bees from a tree and transfer them to the hive.
Buying it, it is better to choose an electric look. There is also manual, and by type it is chordial and radial. This cost item is the biggest for the beekeeper. Such equipment is necessary to separate honey from honeycombs under pressure.
VIDEO: How to start a bee - basic tips for beginners
Which hive is worth choosing
Here are 4 of the most popular options:
- Cassette is a smaller alternative to ordinary bee houses, resembling a chest of drawers with several drawers. Each of them is intended for one family. This option is not very convenient, since breeding and caring for the inhabitants of the hive require the beekeepers to bend their backs constantly.
- The lounger is one large oval-shaped body in dimensions of 45 cm x 78 cm. It is characterized by a fixed bottom and an open top with a hinged lid. The hive is always one-story. It holds from 20 to 25 frames. It is easy to care for him, due to the lack of need to raise the partition between the first and second tier. It also provides free access to the nest.
- Alpine is a beehive from several buildings with one window for departure of bees. There are no partitions and gratings inside, the ceiling is made in the form of a feeder.
The Alpine hive is ideal for the winter, as it is dry and warm. In such a home, the productivity of the bee colony increases significantly.
- Multicase - prepared mainly from pine, has walls more than 20 mm thick. The design assumes the presence of several compartments with grilles, which, if necessary, can be rearranged, adjusting in height. It is quite easy and easily transferred from place to place, which will greatly facilitate the breeding of bees for beginners.
In a multicase hive, only a strong family with a healthy uterus can survive.
Rules for breeding bees in the country
Here are some things to keep in mind when keeping bees:
- The best place where the apiary can be located is a cottage or a house away from the city center. But keep in mind that there should not be a roadway, paths for passers-by and neighbors' possessions.
The height of the fence enclosing the apiary must be at least 2 meters. The distance from the neighboring site should be at least 10 m. This will protect neighbors and passers-by from a possible attack of insects.
Apiary is desirable to surround the 2-meter fence so that insects do not attack the neighbors
- It is not allowed to locate hives in lowlands, in wet places, near water bodies and industrial facilities. But at the same time the houses were installed in the environment of numerous trees and the area closed from the wind.
It is advisable to choose the south side, where the sun shines better, but with protection from direct sunlight - this is not the best crown of trees.
- If you plan to breed bees on a large plot, it is recommended to plant sunflower and corn in the garden, which will create the desired shade.
- It is necessary to constantly adhere to sanitary and hygienic norms, conducting general spring-cleaning of bees in beehives each year in the early spring - wash grates, honeycombs, etc.
The appearance of a person in a state of intoxication at the apiary is unacceptable, since bees do not tolerate the smell of alcohol. Smoking is also forbidden.
VIDEO: How to care for bees
Theoretically, breeding bees at home is possible in two ways:
The first involves the crossing of a melliferous species with members of the genus Apis cerana and other species close to it. In practice, it is ineffective due to the incompatibility of these insects.
Central Russian bee close up
The second option is the mating of the uterus and the drone of one breed, which allows you to save the bee's gene pool.
To obtain brood can be applied layering or technology "half-summer". In the first case, it is necessary to ensure the replenishment of the family with new womb. For this, the superior fetal uterus in March is moved from one family to another. In her absence, the remaining inhabitants of the apiary themselves will begin to postpone fistulous queen cells. This stage takes about 2 weeks, after which they will need to be removed from the combs. In them, and place the layers, after which, approximately 20 days, grow new uterus.
Choosing what kind of bee breeding will be for beginners, the “half-summer” method is more suitable, but it is relevant only if there is a large and healthy family.
VIDEO: Bee layering how to make a lay without a uterus to increase the apiary
Rules breeding on technique “half-summer”
Here's how to breed bees according to this technology - the flock should be divided into 2 parts and settled on separately standing hives. Since the brood will lose its uterus, another one will be chosen, which after the early spring flight will leave many eggs in different honeycombs. To replenish the bee house will take about 50 days. At this time, its inhabitants should be given sugar syrup and pollen.
Cultivation and maintenance in pavilions for beginners
One pavilion with or without wheels is designed for 20-30 families in the apiary. In it should be provided for the entrance to the free insects leaving the home. So that members of one group do not penetrate into an alien “home,” the front wall is painted in different colors, preferably dim (blue, burgundy, purple, etc.).
How much the cultivation of insects, breeding and maintenance for beginners will be depends on the pavilion’s hull. It is made of a light metal frame, sheathed outside with a thin board. Plywood is used to finish the interior walls. Warming is carried out by polyfoam. The hives in this case need sectional, on several frames. They are placed on two sides, against each other, 12 in each row, in two floors. There should be a total of 48 houses.
To avoid overheating of the bees in the ceiling of the house make a hatch for airing.
To update the queens of the family in the apiary, only fetal bees are suitable, which almost always come back from the mating or familiarization flight, in contrast to the ordinary ones. So that the productivity of insects was as high as possible, in the winter the cells are placed in a hive. The best place for them is near the common warm wall. Feeding trough is established one on 4 families.
Example of pet bottle feeders
Around the end of November, the main gates are closed, leaving only the rear ones accessible, through which the room will be ventilated. It must be warmed with glass wool.
The temperature inside should not be below + 20 ° C.
To increase brood for the winter in the apiary, you need to prepare a frame with perga. At the end of February, sugar syrup with medicinal preparations is injected into top dressing. It is carried out in the intervals between the bribe. In the spring it is important to avoid bees swarming, for which they are loaded with work, adding a new house.
Multicase breeding hives
Here, the same technologies are used as suggested in the section “methods of breeding bees”. But first you need to create the following conditions for this:
- Only a strong family is chosen, with a fetal uterus, which has already brought more than one offspring.
- Bees are placed on two tiers.
- Around March, the uterus is moved up to where it is warmer, since the bees are bred at low temperature (
There should be enough food in the comb - sucrose, sugar syrup, candi, what to choose depends on the time of year.
- For the next winter in one family add new members, not forgetting to increase the amount of feed.
Instructions when using loungers
Before breeding bees in decks, you should expand the nest. To this end, the frameworks are placed in a sun bed opposite the entrance. Each week, add one to the hive, on top. The maximum allowable amount per household is 10 pcs. As a result, one family should occupy all the frames, after which they are separated from the vacated space by a partition. Through it, the brood will pass into another compartment, and the uterus will continue the brood by increasing the space for laying eggs.
Flower pollen and perga
Every 10 days, the frame with the fetal uterus should be delivered by 1 frame with dried or artificial wax, instead of the cleaned ones, which will speed up the laying process.
Features of working with decks
It is necessary to start settling from scratch, from another hive. First you need to put a sheet of plywood about 5 x 5 cm in front of the letke, this will avoid the penetration of two queues into the shoe. Then, when the “queen” is free and other inhabitants of the house fly behind her (they usually form a swarm on a nearby tree), the beekeeper will need to spray a flock of water with a spray gun so that it does not scatter. Next, brush with a soft nap to sweep the insects off at the swarm and leave them for an hour in a dark, cool place.
Cozy deck for bees
The second step is to successfully carry out the breeding of bees at home - until they come to their senses, you need to close the old hive. Матка, совершив первый облет, будет вынуждена залететь в подготовленный дом, а за ней последуют и все оставшиеся члены семейства. Среди них возможно присутствие другой матки, которую нужно будет «вычислить» и не пропустить – ее запускают в оставшийся пустой улей. Таким образом, получится создать две разных семьи.This method may seem very difficult for beginners, so it will be safer to immediately buy queens - choose individuals older than 2 years.
Proper care for apiary residents
Without this, effective breeding of bees will be simply impossible. This issue is especially important in the winter-spring period. At this time, you need to follow the following points:
With brood, it should not fall below 30 ° C, when the thermometer shows 15 ° C, the brood cannot fly.
For the winter, you can put boxes of caramel, on the upper bars of the frames put sweet and use sugar. It can be poured on cardboard sheets, which replace the space formed due to the removal of several frames.
- Keeping beekeeper's diary
Breeding and maintenance of bees will be unprofessional, if you do not make records about the uterus, the breed, the number of families, the speed of flight of insects, etc. The marks are left after a visual inspection of the dwelling. Each family should have a separate sheet.
- Processing bee house
It is held at least once a year, in the spring, using vinegar, soda and other disinfectants.
Every year you need to clean the houses - to get rid of cobwebs, mold, handle walls, paint, etc.
This is a prerequisite for the successful wintering of insects. For its implementation, you can use the diaphragm, moss, straw, tow, pine needles, wood chips.
It is best to use omshanik for wintering - special insulated rooms where evidence is carried for the winter.
Knowing what the proper breeding and maintenance of bees should look like, even a beginning beekeeper can cope with such a difficult task and regularly receive tasty, fresh and natural honey at home!
VIDEO: Beekeeping for beginners
Breeding bees at home: features
- Apiary located in a windless place, around it should be a large number of trees.
- It is recommended to locate the hive with a slope on the south side, this will allow the apiary to always be under the influence of sunlight.
- Apiary, located in the backyard garden, it is desirable to protect. To do this, use a fence or fence, the optimum height of which is 2 meters.
- Hive should be located as far as possible from the road. People and animals near the apiary should not constantly walk.
- The apiary should not be located in low and damp places near the plants. This can lead to serious bee diseases.
The distance between the hives in the apiary should be 4-6 m, and between the rows 5-6 m. But this is not always possible in the garden plots, so the hives are placed more closely (under trees, buildings, along the fence, in the stationary and mobile pavilions). With the onset of stable cold, beehives with bees are transferred to a purpose-built winter house or to adapted rooms for this: a dry barn, a temporary house, a country house, a low-basement cellar, etc.
Methods for breeding bees can be different. When choosing is taken into account:
- wintering of families,
- possibility of honey harvest
- design and type of hives,
- breed characteristic of bees.
One of the methods of breeding bees - the use of layering. This is done as follows. In early spring, the uterus is removed from one hive and transferred to another. Bees that remained in the first hive, not finding the uterus, begin to lay fistulous queen cells. After about 2 weeks, you can cut out mature queen cells and move them into layers. They consist of frames that are taken from other hives. On the 16th day uterus appears from the queen cells.
Breeding bees for beginners is a rather complicated task, so they recommend choosing the “Half-summer” method. It consists in the following: they choose one of the strongest bee families and share equally. Honeycombs with brood are installed in different hives, which are placed at some distance from each other. The first half of the insects should be kept in one hive, and the second in the other.
If there is no uterus, care should be taken to acquire a new one. Better when the bees themselves grow it. Then after the flight, she will lay many eggs.
Cultivation and the maintenance of bees in many respects depends on climatic conditions. In some regions, it may take 40 days to build up a family, in others - about 100, on average, the build-up period lasts 70 days.
A beekeeper must see to it that there is enough food and pollen for bees.
Bees: breeding and maintenance for beginners in pavilions
Honey plants, as a rule, quickly fade away, and bees cannot be left idle. They are transferred to another place. Breeding bees for beginners is not easy. To facilitate the work, they invented a special pavilion with wheels where the hive is placed. In order for the bees to have free flight, you must provide cages. The front wall of the pavilion is painted in different colors so that each family is guided exactly where their housing is.
In the pavilion there should be some space left so that the beekeeper can work. The glass wool construction is insulated; this gives the bee family the opportunity to survive and develop for a long time.
The costs for the pavilion will be the same as for the apiary itself. If the breeding of bees is chosen for beginners as a business, then you will face the issue of profitability. So, the costs will be able to pay off in two years. Each pavilion can accommodate up to 30 families.
What you need to purchase
To begin, you, as a businessman, need to make a list of what you will need to spend money on:
- For the purchase of hives.
- On thoroughbred bees.
- For special equipment, tools, costumes.
If everything goes as it should, after the first honey harvest, the apiary will be able to fully pay off, since 30 families can produce at least 1000 kg of honey, and it is an expensive product.
Who can beekeeping?
How to master beekeeping for beginners? Where to begin? The first thing you need to evaluate yourself. A true bee lover must have a combination of many qualities:
- knowledge of nature and its laws
- care when handling insects,
- iron nerves and steel restraint (to endure sting, which will not be enough).
Beekeeping skills come with time. The difficulty lies not so much in the study of special methods of caring for bee colonies, but in the ability to select those that are best adapted to the existing climatic conditions.
The amount of time required to bees
How to calculate the time that beekeeping requires for beginners? How to start his account? It all depends on the level of skill of the beekeeper and the automation of his movements when performing operations of the same type. The statistics collected during the study of this issue are the following: care for 1 bee colony will require 834 minutes during season 1. Simple calculations allow us to establish that the beekeeper spends 10 hives at the beginning of the season from 5 to 6 hours per week.
Number of bee colonies
Considering the breeding of bees for beginners, the master class will elaborate on the number of beneficial insects. In this matter, it is necessary to proceed from the specific conditions available on the site. The optimal amount for an inexperienced beekeeper will be from 3 to 6 bee colonies. Such a number of hives will allow you to work out the technology of care for insects, immediately looking at the prospect.
In this case, the beekeeper will immediately plan the flow of work with bee colonies, not limited to any one. A person may not follow a large number of hives due to lack of experience. The more active the beginning of the breeding of bees, the closer the moment when the apiary will develop to the planned size. Such a strategy does not guarantee the absence of errors (including fatal ones), but it is much more dangerous to risk dozens of bee colonies.
Have you already decided on where the bees will live? Breeding and maintenance for beginner beekeepers can not do without resolving this issue. It is good if the beginning beekeeper has the opportunity to choose the site for the location of the hives. It is better to dwell on the one whose conditions are closest to those of the bees. It is desirable that the number were hills, lowlands and other elements of the relief.
Well, if within a radius of 2 km from the apiary are wild-growing honey. A positive point is the presence of natural protection from prevailing winds, for example, a slope or tree planting. The apiary should be illuminated by sunlight, and not hide in the shade of buildings or forests.
The effect of plot area on bee breeding for beginners may not be entirely clear. However, there are standards for placement of hives: the minimum distance is from 3 to 4 m. If the bee houses are arranged in rows, then the distance between the latter must be maintained from 4 to 6 m.
Not everyone has such spaces of land at their disposal. At many summer cottages, hives have to be placed much denser. They are placed in all free places: under the trees, along the buildings on the sunny side, near the fence, under special sheds. Installation density of bee houses reaches 1 per m 2.
What to wear?
Mastering the breeding of bees for beginners (the photo of the process demonstrates this) is necessary in working clothes, to which rather strict requirements are made:
- protection of all parts of the body from bees.
There are several options for special clothing beekeeper:
- The bees of the southern regions are characterized by peace-loving, so only a net covering the face and a white robe are visible on the beekeeper.
- Central Russian bees are more aggressive, especially at the time of their transportation. The robe was replaced with a thick-woven gray jumpsuit. The bees are irritated by dark-colored clothes with a nap (they get confused in it). They will not slow down their reaction to sweat, gasoline or smoke that permeates the fabric.
- Abroad, beekeepers additionally wear rubberized or thick gloves. But inspect the hives in them extremely uncomfortable.
Beekeepers with experience learned to follow the behavior of insects and, noticing the first signs of irritability, calm them with smoke. The reaction of bees depends on the purity, accuracy and agility of the beekeeper. You can often find a lover of bees, working with them without a grid. Such people try to cover their hair with a white hat.
The event log
It is much easier to keep records of work performed, the state of affairs in bee colonies and much more with the help of beekeeper's diaries. Breeding bees for beginners is not complete without the results of inspections, zanosychiesya in the journal with the obligatory fixation of the actions carried out, errors found to improve the work of the apiary in the future. Each family is considered individually for the purpose of calculating the most productive and powerful among them. In the future, they are used in breeding work.
Each family of bees in the magazine assign up to two pages. In the heading it is prescribed its serial number, the data of the uterus (year of birth, breed, origin). Entries are in columns, their approximate names are as follows:
- Date of inspection.
- What gave (combs, frames, syrup, etc.).
- What they took (combs, bees, brood).
- What is left.
- Results of the year.
Individual beekeepers make entries on cards stored under the roof of each hive. Starting the inspection, the beekeeper looks at the result of the previous one, recalls the work done and plans further actions.
Does the weather affect the breeding of bees? For beginners and experienced beekeepers, this is a good reference point. Depending on what is now behind the window, work is planned for the current day. On the basis of long-term forecasts, important events are being prepared from transporting bees to studying the nature of the main bribe.
The beekeeper does not always have the opportunity to get up-to-date weather information for the near future, because he is away from the city or there simply isn’t enough time for it. How then to act? Rely on your own intuition and folk omens, transmitted from time immemorial.
How to breed bees at home
For proper organization of the apiary, you must adhere to the following rules:
- the apiary should be surrounded by trees and be on the windless side of the plot,
- to ensure good lighting, beehives should be placed at an angle to the south side,
- if the apiary is located on the plot, then it should be fenced with a two meter fence,
- honey plants do not like the hustle and bustle around their homes, so hives are better placed away from the road,
- the location of the apiary in a lowland, damp place, or near the plant, can cause serious diseases in honey plants.
Hives must be placed at a distance of 4-6 m from each other, and the gap between the rows can be 5-6 m. In small areas, such an arrangement is not always possible, so beehives are placed near buildings, under trees, along the fence line, in stationary and mobile pavilions. For the period of winter cold, beehives should be transferred to an equipped winter home or any suitable room with low humidity.
For beekeeping, it is necessary to prepare money for the purchase of the following things:
- on quality and suitable hives,
- on the family of purebred bees,
- on inventory, special tools and costumes.
These costs, with properly organized apiary work, will pay off at the end of the first honey harvest. With 30 families of bees, you can get up to 1 thousand kg of high-quality honey.
Beekeeping and breeding for beginners using pavilions
The flowering of honey plants is short-lived, so beehives must be constantly transferred to a new place so that insects do not remain without work. To simplify this task, special facilities were created - pavilions on wheels. Installed in their hives conveniently transported from place to place. To ensure the smooth departure of the bees, you need to make tap-holes. Front wall Pavilion is painted in different colors to help honey plants find their home.
The pavilion requires additional space for the work of the beekeeper. The whole structure can be insulated with glass wool, which will allow bee colonies to develop well and bring honey for a long time. The cost of equipment and maintenance of the pavilion is similar to the cost of an apiary. The profitability of beekeeping is especially important for beginning beekeepers. One pavilion can accommodate 30 families of bees and will pay off after two years.
The hive is the main element of the apiary and with its preparation begins the breeding of bees. Ready hive can be purchased at the store or build it yourself. In any case, it is necessary to study the structures and types of hives in order to choose a model suitable for a particular apiary. Types of hives vary in number and size of frames. Hives can also be double-walled and single-walled, have an integral or detachable bottom.
Multiple hives for breeding bees
A strong family needs to be divided into two bodies. In springtime, the queens should be transferred to the upper part, where more heat is stored. When the frames are filled with brood and the family expands, the hull will need to be swapped. For families that spent the winter in the same building, you need to add other individuals and an additional building containing honeycombs with food.
After the winter you need to check families in multicase hives and replace the framework with a wrinkle. After changing the location of the buildings, a separating grid is fixed, which will prevent the bees from swarming. Multiple hives allow you to increase the productivity of bee colonies and get a big brood.
Sunbeds for breeding bees
Sunbeds - a simple and convenient way for breeding honey plants. This option has several advantages:
- ease of transportation,
- no need to constantly raise the hull,
- the presence of a heat-absorbing device
- in the sun beds you can additionally engage in the breeding of the nucleus,
- the uterus brings more eggs in the loungers,
- You can get a large number of strong, strong families of bees,
- there is a diaphragm behind which cuts are created, which prevents the bees from swarming.
In winter and spring, bees require more careful care and care. Paying due attention to the hives during this period, you can get quite strong families and a large amount of nectar in the summer. It is necessary to constantly monitor the temperature indicators in omshanik and hives, monitor the development of brood, bees and queen bees, count the submorphosis. Insects must be provided with food. and feel comfortable in your hive.
Bees have many pests and enemies. The main ones are the following types:
To prevent the appearance of moths, it is necessary to constantly keep order in bee hives and grow strong families. If the pest has nevertheless appeared, it is necessary to fumigate the spare frames with sulphurous smoke and place them in the free hives. The second fumigation should be carried out after a week and repeat it after another two weeks. To combat moths, you can also use a bed of hops, nut leaves, and mint on the bottom of the hive.
Mice usually harm the hives in the winter. They can eat honey, perga or even bees, nibble honeycombs. Mice bring concern to honey plants its smell and movement, which can lead to the weakening of families and their death. You can fight rodents with baits and traps, as well as covering the ground in the conservatory with clay and shredded glass. In the autumn, it is necessary to install on the gage of the barrier from mice.
You can protect yourself from ants by treating the hive stands with special chalk or by building a small ditch with water. Установка пчелиных домиков на некотором расстоянии от земли, обычно не приносит защиты от насекомых.
Защитить ульи от птиц помогут маленькие входные отверстия, через которые смогут свободно пролетать группы рабочих пчел, но не смогут просунуть голову пернатые.