Currently there is a great interest in aquarium fish - predators. Some aquarists say it's pretty boring to watch the small representatives of the underwater world. The habits of large predators are really fascinating. Bright representatives of the inhabitants of the aquarium can be called aquarium pike, similar to the inhabitants of the rivers.
Carapace in natural conditions
In Central and North America, Cuba, in the Caribbean is found shell-type pike. She likes fresh or slightly salty water. Sometimes you can meet her at sea. This species was known about 200 million years ago. You can see 7 species of armored pikes. They are predators. The body as armor covered with thick scales. The pike has elongated jaws with sharp teeth. Coloring is spotty, which makes it similar to a simple river cousin. Pike looks like an alligator.
Crab pike grows to enormous size. Weight can reach 130 kg, length - 3 meters. They are aggressive and very dangerous. Known attacks of this predator on humans. Her meat is edible, but little is used in food, it is very interested in sports anglers. Not everyone will be able to catch such a giant. She lives 18 years. Its color is from yellow to brown. Pikes have rocky scales. Other features:
- elongated jaws
- sharp teeth,
- variegated color
- big weight
- long body
- hard scales.
Many predator fish are adapted to live in aquariums. Carapace aquarium pikes are no exception. They live quietly in aquariums, despite the exotic appearance, with a satisfactory meal and suitable neighbors. Large individuals need a spacious tank. They usually contain young fish that show aggression towards other species and even towards their relatives. There are several types of these individuals:
- The common pike is a standard species of predatory fish that can exist in an aquarium. She does not reach large sizes in captivity. Do not recommend keeping it in a tank containing less than one hundred and fifty liters. An important condition - the water temperature is maintained within 18-20 degrees. Raising the water temperature to a 22 degree mark causes a temperature shock and can lead to death. This species has hard scales that look like shell. The length of armored pikes in nature reaches 120 cm, in captivity - 60 cm. Jaws with sharp teeth, body elongated. The swim bladder is used in fish during the respiratory process.
- Viviparous pike belonezoks. Belongs to the family of carp and eats the same food. Belonesox live-bearing plants have 12 cm long males - 20 cm, a long stigma, crooked teeth, due to which the fish find it difficult to close the mouth completely. This species is characterized by the ability to live birth. This is a feature of this species. The female produces live fry. Fertilization of eggs occurs in the body. Belonezones are fertile. The appearance of offspring happens after a period of 38-40 days.
- Carapace pike. Common predator. Placed in a spacious tank, the fish grows up to 39 cm. In length. In a small container, it ceases to increase in size, starting to add in volume. Fish differs from other species in its structure. Her vertebrae do not have deepening from 2 sides, but only from 1 side. From the opposite, they are convex, it is typical for amphibians. This fish has a swim bladder that helps in breathing, and there are hard scales that resemble geometric tiles. Under natural conditions, pikes reach a size of about 120 cm, with a captivity of only 60 cm. In fish, powerful jaws with sharp teeth.
A representative of the predators popular for the aquarium is a shell-type pike. For normal growth, it requires a spacious container. With its exotic appearance, fish is unpretentious. Loves to swim at the top of the aquarium. Neighbors, with larger sizes, on the bottom. It gives a peaceful existence.
These pikes are predatory fish, distinguished by relatively large size and suitable for free tanks. In aquariums mainly contain young individuals. However, they are aggressive. Fish can be kept in ponds. Sometimes carapace pike in an aquarium eats small fish, for this reason it cannot be kept near them. It has dense scales, tolerates loneliness well. But when choosing the right neighbors it can be hooked up to other predators.
They prefer to swim closer to the upper layers. Water should be 18-20 degrees, and for the comfort of an armor-shell 12-20 cm. For viviparous individuals need a warmer water temperature. Create an easy movement of water, because fish loves to swim in river water. Carapace and ordinary pike indifferent to green algae. On the contrary, viviparous prefer to hide in the thickets. Scenery fix the aquarium so that predators do not damage the interior.
Adults are fed:
Pike preference is still given to natural food.
Aquarium and water requirement
A spacious aquarium of about 150 liters is required. And for larger fish - 500-liter volume. Parameters: temperature 4-20 degrees, hardness dH 8-17, acidity pH 6.5-8. Mandatory aeration and filtration. Greens can be a bit, because for fish it is more desirable to free up more space so that they can move around. Design does not play a big role, just secure the elements and decorations.
Favorable breeding them in homestead ponds. They feel great there. Pikes have a great appetite. They eat small fish and are very voracious. With good feeding, the fish resembles a floating log. Do not place pike with small fish. Due to their greed, shell pike in an aquarium sometimes gives a fight over food. In the absence of fresh fish, they can eat squid, bloodworms, and shrimps. But live fish for pike habitual necessary food. If you follow these simple rules, you can observe the behavior and habits of armored pike.
Conditions of detention
This fancy fish can not be called a pet for beginners. Mainly experts are engaged in it, settling in huge public aquariums and creating biotopes of North America. An amateur can afford such an inhabitant only in a pond or a spacious home aquarium of 500 liters or more, if the neighborhood is planned with other fish.
For comfortable living, young carapace pike requires dense thickets of aquatic vegetation in which it can hide. As the animal grows, the plants are removed, and the aquarium is decorated with snags. The flow must be weak and the lighting dim.
Sometimes fry of shell claws can be found on sale, and the seller is not always aware of the actual size of adult fish.
Recommended water parameters:
- temperature: 12-20 ° C (cold-water fish, but with the help of a gradual increase in temperature, it can be adapted to life at 26-28 ° C),
- acidity: 6.0-8.0 pH,
- hardness: 5-20 ° dH,
- Filtration, aeration and replacement of 30% water weekly is mandatory,
- shellfish feel better in salted water.
Mississippian shellfish or pike-alligator is the largest member of the family, which can grow up to 2.5 meters.
Crustacean pike is predominantly a night predator and the basis of its diet is crustaceans, live fish, tadpoles and worms. If it is not possible to provide it with live food - it does not matter, the shellfish gladly eats pieces of frozen fish, squid and shrimp.
It is undesirable to feed crusty pike with meat of mammals, since some species of lipids are poorly absorbed by the body of fish. This can lead to indigestion, obesity and other long-term health problems.
Young individuals should be fed as often as possible to ensure their rapid growth. Adult fish, by contrast, are rarely fed once or twice a week. It is necessary to accustom shell pike to frozen food from a young age, adult fish transfer to it reluctantly and often die from hunger in the process of schooling.
The feeding process itself is carried out with tweezers, as the fish will not take food from the bottom, and sudden movements will attract its attention and awaken its hunting instincts.
If live fish is chosen as food, then it is better to take it from proven aquariums, and the fish caught from the wild should be sent to a two-week quarantine to prevent various diseases from entering the aquarium.
Successful cases of breeding in captivity are not registered. All individuals caught in the aquarium, are caught from their natural habitat.
In nature, males reach sexual maturity at the age of 2-3 years, and females somewhat later - at 3-4 years. Sexual dimorphism is weakly expressed, and the sex can only be determined by size - the females are larger than the males.
Spawning occurs from May to July in shallow water among dense thickets of aquatic vegetation. The female throws up to 20 thousand eggs on the plants fertilized by the male. Incubation of caviar lasts 10-14 days, after which the larvae hatch. Juveniles lurk a lot of danger, often fry are eaten by representatives of their own species.
Pelvic pikes contain mostly one by one, since juvenile individuals may have pronounced intraspecific aggression. As neighbors for them choose large fish that do not fit armor in their mouths. Other inhabitants should be planted only with large volumes of the aquarium.
If it is possible to accustom the pike to warmer water, then it is possible to keep together with its large neighbors:
Content with peaceful small fish and shrimps is strictly not recommended - they will be eaten by pike on the first night.
Carapace fish: description
In this article, we will find out what the shellfish is (placoderm). Where does she naturally meet, can she live in a home aquarium, besides, can she be with other fish in the common body of water?
Dunkleosti is an armored extinct fish, which is known for its skulls, whose age is 360 million years. Their remains were found in Cleveland, Ohio, Tennessee, Pennsylvania, California. Other duncleosteides were found in Russia, Poland, Morocco, and Belgium.
Dunkleostey was covered with thick outer plates. Although, unlike the rest of the placoderms, his smooth armor did not cover the whole body, but only a small front part with the head together. To be more precise, in the process of evolution, the lateral and spinal plates were somewhat shortened, while the rest of the body remained free of them, thus making it possible to maneuver freely, and to develop a decent speed while pursuing prey.
Pectoral fins protruded far to the sides, like a shark. Probably, the protrusion of the fin in the side exceeded half the width of the body of the fish. In the pectoral fins, the arthrodir contours were similar to the contours of the Paleozoic cartilaginous fins. Probably, the structure of the pelvic fins was also similar.
Crabfish (sargan) lives in the waters of Central and North America, as well as in the Caribbean. She prefers a little brackish or fresh water. Rarely enough, but it comes across in the sea.
Some researchers claim that shellfish on our planet lived in the Cretaceous era - 200 million years ago. The remains of this fish were found in America and Europe. To date, there are 7 varieties of such pikes in the world.
Crustacean fish, photos of which are presented in this article, grow to impressive size. Although very large samples are quite rare. The largest carapace reaches 130 kg in weight and more than three meters in length. Her appearance is fully consistent with the character - she is very aggressive and, as locals say, dangerous. Predator in the fight with other fish with sharp teeth digs into the head of the victim, and then bites off it. Then she returns to the body of her prey in order to continue the meal. There are cases of attacks of these fish, even on humans.
Shellfish is rarely used for food, but its meat is quite edible. In some markets in Central America, it can be found on sale. Of greater interest are the jars for sports anglers specialized in catching various exotic individuals. It is necessary to admit, not everyone will be able to catch such a giant. Yes, and find it in small overgrown reservoirs is very difficult. Under force is only an experienced angler.
Shellfish is also called the spotted shellfish. She is a predatory fish. It grows up to 1.2 m. The largest known weight is 4.4 kg. Her life span is about 18 years. The body can be colored in several colors - from brown to light olive shades. It shows a pattern of spots of darker shades. The sides are slightly lighter than the back, while the belly is almost white. Slightly rounded tail fin. The dorsal and anal fins consist of nine or seven rays.
This fish lives in the Mississippi, as well as the rest of the rivers that flow from the Noeces to the west of Florida into the Gulf of Mexico. She chooses brackish water.
Aquarium shell pike
At the present time, this representative of predators is very common. Carapace fish in large aquariums reaches 30 centimeters in length. In small tanks such a pike quickly ceases to increase in volume and grow.
Its scales are hard as stone. It is located oblique rows and resembles the form of decorative tiles. This fish has a klyuvoobraznaya muzzle, with long and narrow jaws, studded with a huge number of teeth.
This fish has an unusual anatomical structure. In her vertebrae do not have depressions on both sides, present in the rest of the fish. They are deepened on one side and bulging on the other. This structure is more typical for amphibians. In armored pikes, the swim bladder is also involved in respiration.
This is a single large individual, suitable for a spacious and roomy demonstration aquarium. Fish arouses the interest of specialists due to the external similarity with the usual Central European pike. At home, they usually contain not old fish, although even they are quite aggressive to all the other inhabitants of the tank.
At the present moment there is a tendency to the fact that at home there are predatory fish. Many believe that watching the miniature and calm inhabitants of the underwater world is quite boring. While large predatory fish, their morals are actually interesting. Connoisseurs of exotic appreciate the bold nature and the manifestation of aggression.
Crab pike is considered to be a prominent representative of the community and an incredibly popular inhabitant of aquariums. To make it reach 30 centimeters at home, she needs an aquarium of at least 150 liters. This predator dimensions directly depend on the parameters of its home. The most popular among aquarists is considered to be an armored spotted pike.
This fish prefers to live in the upper parts of the water. Its neighbors are mostly larger. They live in the lower layers - this allows them to peacefully coexist with the predator considered by us.
Requirements for water and aquarium
We told that for the maintenance of these fish a big aquarium is needed. If you wish to grow an individual of large size, then you will need a “reservoir”, the volume of which will be at least 500 liters. Water should be the following parameters: hardness - dH 17, temperature - 20 ° C, acidity - pH 8.
For the maintenance of such pike, water filtration and aeration are mandatory. Plants should be a bit - for fish much more important is the space free for swimming.
Experienced aquarists claim that these predators do not suffer from lack of appetite. They eat small fish in an incredible amount. In other words, carapace is incredibly gluttonous. Therefore, caring owners can most often be found in aquariums of well-fed individuals, sometimes resembling a floating log. Due to the greed of these fish do not need to keep them with small individuals.
Not so long ago, Sandomirsky Mark, a Candidate of Medical Sciences, said in a television program that there are huge reserves of mental destructive energy in sediments of the Devonian period, which were left by the twilight consciousness of shellfish, which are a great danger to humanity. This program caused a lot of rumors, conversations and mostly ridicule. We will refrain from commenting ...
Siamese Tiger Perch - Reference Predator
Siamese tiger perch (Indonesian) (Latin Datnioides microlepis) is a large, active, predatory fish that can be kept in an aquarium. His body color is golden with wide black vertical stripes. In nature, tiger perch grows up to 45 cm in length, but in the aquarium two times less, about 20-30 cm. This is a wonderful fish for keeping in a large aquarium, with other large fish.
Siamese perch live in coastal rivers and swamps of Southeast Asia. Как правило, количество полос на теле может сказать о происхождении рыбы. Окуни выловленные в Юго-Восточной Азии имеют 5 полос, а на островах Борнео и Суматра 6-7.
Обитание в природе
Сиамский тигровый окунь (ранее Coius microlepis) был описан Блекером в 1853 году. Он не находится в Красной книге, но обильный промышленный вылов и ловля для нужд аквариумистов, значительно уменьшили количество рыб в природе. They are practically not found in the Chao Paraya river basin in Thailand.
Indonesian perch inhabits large bodies of water: rivers, lakes, reservoirs. Keeps places with a large number of kryagi. Juveniles feed on zooplankton, but over time passes on to fry, fish, small shrimps, crabs, worms. Also eat vegetable food.
Indonesian perch is a large, powerful fish whose body structure is typical of a predator. The body color is very beautiful, golden with black vertical stripes running through the whole body. In nature, they can grow up to 45 cm in length, but less in an aquarium, up to 30 cm. At the same time, life expectancy is up to 15 years. The tiger perch family (Datnioididae) has 5 species of fish.
Suitable for advanced aquarists. This is a large and predatory fish, but as a rule, it fits with fish of equal size. For the maintenance you need a spacious aquarium and brackish water, it is also quite difficult and expensive to feed them.
Omnivores, but in nature mostly predators. They eat fry, fish, shrimp, crabs, worms, insects. In the aquarium, Siamese perch should be fed mostly with live fish, although they can eat shrimp, worms, and insects. One look at their mouths will tell you that there is no problem with the size of the feed. They do not touch a fish of equal size, but any that they can swallow is swallowed.
This fish lives in the upper water layers, and its neighbors may be fishes living “lower” and necessarily larger. Pike-shell pike belongs to the subclass of ganoids. The mere sight of her reminds us of some ancient monster. In general, as such, it is in reality because it is representative of the long-extinct family of Lepidosteidae, who lived in the tertiary period.
Her scales are hard as stone. It is located in even oblique rows and is shaped like small tiles. The muzzle of the fish is klyuobraznaya, with fairly long, dotted with many sharp, small teeth jaws. The fins are absolutely similar to those of sharks; their outer edges are provided with 2 rows of spindle-shaped sharp scales.
Aquarium crab has a curious internal anatomical structure. The vertebrae of her spine, like all other fish, are not equipped with small depressions on both sides. On the one hand, they are deepened, and on the other, they are convex. This feature occurs in amphibians. And their swim bladder is involved in breathing.
Carapace pike is a large solitary fish that is more suitable for a very roomy, demonstration aquarium. It draws attention to itself due to some outward resemblance to the common pike. In aquariums they keep mainly young individuals, but even they are distinguished by their aggressiveness towards relatives and other types of fish.
The type of decoration of the aquarium does not really matter, the most important thing is to secure the existing decorative elements very securely. These fish can be kept in the ornamental and greenhouse homestead ponds.
In the food of this fish is used quite rarely, although its meat is edible. In Central America in some markets it can be seen on sale. Sargans are of much greater interest for sports anglers who specialize in catching exotic individuals. Admittedly, not everyone can catch such a giant. And to find it in overgrown, shallow reservoirs is very difficult. This is only a fisherman with experience.
Spotted Carapace Pike
It is also called the spotted armor. This is a predatory fish. The length of her body reaches 1.2 meters. The largest recorded weight is 4.4 kilograms. Life expectancy is about eighteen years. The body of the fish can be painted in different colors - from light olive to brown shades. It shows a pattern of dark spots. The sides are slightly lighter than the back, and the belly is almost white. Caudal fin slightly rounded. The anal and dorsal fins consist of seven or nine rays.
This fish lives in the Mississippi and other rivers that flow into the Gulf of Mexico from the west of Florida to the Noeces. She prefers brackish water.
Carapace Aquarium Pike
Today, this representative of predators is very common. In large aquariums carapace grows to 30 centimeters. In small tanks, this fish quickly stops growing and increases in volume.
Her scales are hard as stone. It is located oblique rows and its shape resembles decorative tiles. The muzzle of this fish is klyuobraznaya, with narrow and long jaws, studded with a huge number of teeth.
Aquarium and water requirements
We have already said that for the maintenance of such fish a large aquarium (150 l) is needed. But if you want to grow a larger individual, then you will need a "body of water" of at least 500 liters. Water should have the following parameters: temperature 4-20 ° С, hardness dH 8-17 °, acidity pH 6.5-8.
Aeration and water filtration are obligatory for keeping pike clams. There should be few plants - for the fish, space for swimming is much more important.
The type of decoration of the aquarium is not of fundamental importance. The main thing is to secure all decorative elements. Many contain armored pikes in the backyard ponds, where these predators feel great.
Experienced aquarists claim that these predators do not suffer from lack of appetite. Small fish they eat in large quantities. Carapace pike is very gluttonous. Therefore, most often, very caring owners can be observed in aquariums of very well-fed individuals, which sometimes resemble a floating log. Due to their greed, these fish should not be kept together with small fish.
While eating predators can fight among themselves. When pike do not get fish, they can be satisfied for a long time with strips of squid fillets, large bloodworms, and shrimps. However, if the attentive owner observes how shell pike react to live feed fish, he will understand that this is their most necessary and natural food.
Observing the simple rules of keeping armored pikes, you will be able to observe their behavior in the underwater world, to see their habits during the hunt.