When a new nature lover masters a vegetable garden, he will think about getting animal products. Breeding chickens at home for beginners - the first experience of commodity production of meat and eggs. Chickens are the most tolerant of care deficiencies, almost omnivorous and friendly. This is almost a waste-free production - litter, eggs, meat, feather - everything goes to work.
First of all, it should be determined whether seasonal or year-round bird herd will be kept. For summer time, enough light shelter and walking area. In winter you need a warm barn. In the summer in order to eat eggs, you need to buy chicken pullets. For beginners, breeding chickens at home all year round, determines the quality of chickens. It is better to buy a batch of daily chicks at the poultry farm with the guarantee that the livestock will be pedigree and zoned.
It is necessary to read the literature and determine the physiological standards for the maintenance and feeding of chickens. Some facts about the conditions of breeding chickens will need to know in advance.
In case of floor keeping, the room should have an area of 5 chickens per 1 square meter. The temperature of the content is not lower than 5-7 degrees. The room should be warm, bright, dry, egg-laying depends on it. At night, regardless of the season, chickens should be indoors, equipped with perches. On the perch, each hen is set aside at 20 cm and all of them should be placed on the same level.
In the cellular content of the bird develops faster, rushing and fattening weight. 5-7 individuals are placed in one cage. A rooster in a flock is needed if, in the future, fertilized eggs are required to hatch chicks. In the dacha life, a rooster is needed for the beauty and the flooding announcement of a new day.
Walking area for chickens is necessary, they should be in the fresh air. A canopy is needed for the flock to shelter from the rain.
For beginners breeding chickens at home, it is important to determine the number, place of residence of birds.
What breeds of chickens are suitable for home breeding
Not all breeds of chickens are suitable for subsidiary farming. Therefore, to choose chickens for home breeding should be tailored to the specificity of the content, simple or pedigree. Simple less demanding on the balance of food, to the conditions of detention. There are breeds of meat or egg orientation. For example, meat broilers can be grown for a full-bodied slaughter with a weight of 3-4 kg per season. Egg breeds of chickens rush plentifully, but during the molting period they can be slaughtered, the soup will be rich. For personal farms, it is recommended to breed egg chickens:
- Russian white,
Bought daily chicks, what's next?
Need to take a big warm box. Daily chickens will knock on the wall, if it is cardboard or foam, they will pick and die. At the bottom of the bottom lay a newspaper, they put a trough and a feeder. From above put the incandescent lamp on a tripod, adjusting the height so that the floor is 30 C. At the bottom of the box the brood will interfere and illuminate on the first day, even at night, later the light day is reduced from 5:00 to 8:00.
Food and drink should always be. Clean up a newspaper with pipettes 2 times a day. If chickens are heap-small, they are cold, the lower ones can be crushed. If you lay flat out of the light, it's hot. From the fifth day, the temperature is reduced to 26 degrees and every week another 3 degrees, so to 18. From the box, the chicks are transferred to the litter, gradually increasing the area.
By 4 months, chickens are slightly smaller than adult hens, at 5 months they begin to nest.
While the chickens were growing up in a cramped, but warm room the first two months, they built a chicken coop. House for chickens can be a decoration of the estate. The main thing is that it should be without gaps, so that there would be no draft. The floor is covered with a thick layer of sawdust or straw.
Arrange feeders with three compartments:
- dry food,
- mineral supplements
The feeder should be separated by bar gratings so that the bird can peck rather than trample the feed. Separately installed drinking bowl. It is necessary to arrange a sand bath in the old trough. By the time the hens are ripe, nests should be prepared - deep crates lined with dry grass with a hollow. Install them in a secluded place at the cost of a nest for 3 hens.
With the summer maintenance of the house can be built from plywood with a walking range, fenced mesh netting. For winter, you need a warmed, ventilated, heated room with electric lighting and a walking platform. With good care, chickens in the winter rush like in summer.
How to make a chicken at home will tell any rural woman. Here is only one neighbor year-round sells an excess of eggs, and the other scolds their lazy. To recoup the cost of livestock maintenance requires good care and balanced feeding of birds from birth.
Chickens need two times more water than feed. Therefore, the water should be fresh water. The first time diaries need to drink 5% glucose solution.
Food is poured onto cardboard sheets up to seven days of age, then feeders are installed, preferably suspended ones. The first feeding of chicks consists of:
- small crushed grain,
- hard boiled egg,
- dry low fat cottage cheese.
Later, the egg is no longer given, the cottage cheese contains calcium, promotes plumage. From the second day, the addition of finely chopped greens to the feed is welcomed. In winter, when there is no clover, you can germinate cereal and add greens to food.
From 3 days the mash can be prepared on yogurt, meat broth. They feed only fresh mash, after an hour the remains are thrown away, the feeder is washed and rinsed with potassium permanganate. Weak pinkish solution of potassium permanganate should be fed to chickens in the morning twice a week. Five-day chickens are already viable. They gradually increase the amount of feed, add vitamins, fish oil, from the first day need fine gravel, eggshell, coarse sand. Up to two months of the use of cereals, only crushed cereals are used.
Compound feed for adult chicken is needed in the composition:
- corn - 40%,
- wheat bran - 8%,
- barley flour - 20%,
- sunflower cake - 10%,
- fish meal, meat and bone 1: 1 - 10%,
- fodder yeast - 3%,
- mineral supplements, salt - 5%.
Such a mixture in pure form and mash is given 2-3 times a day. For good work of the stomach, be sure to feed the chickens with dry grain, better if the films on oats and rye are smaller.
Homemade egg to taste is always different from the factory due to a diverse feed. The presence of carotene makes orange color, it is associated with a large amount of vitamin greens in the nutrition of layers.
It is impossible to overfeed a hen, it will be difficult for her to nest, her insides will become fat. Instead of eggshell, eggs will begin to be covered with a thin film, pouring out, contaminating the nest. This circumstance will allow the feathered to know the taste of the product, in the future will begin to peck.
To feed the hen it is necessary:
- mash - 65-75 g,
- dry grain mixture - 30-45 g,
- germinated cereals - 10-12 g,
- root crops - 20-25 g,
- fish oil, yeast, gravel, shell for 1-2 g.
You can add leftovers from the table to the feed, diversify the menu. The more ingredients in the feed, the tastier the egg. The menu depends on the season. However, if you visit the base, the chickens can eat vitamins all year long - often green leaves and fruits are thrown into waste containers. Chickens especially like mangoes and oranges.
The golden age of the hen is up to 15 months, later it is less often carried, the meat grows coarser. By this time, be ready for a new brood of chickens - this is how chickens are raised in the compound. Usually the first eggs of pullets are brought in at the age of 110-120 days.
Signs of disease
It is necessary to warn for beginners breeding chickens at home to know the main signs of disease. Despite good hygienic conditions, pigeons, stealing food, rodents can carry the disease. Sick birds can be seen immediately. They are lethargic, do not go to the trough, do not stand on their feet, there are convulsions. The sick bird must immediately be separated from the flock.
Sign of beriberi is considered lethargy, lack of appetite. Feed greens, irradiate with ultraviolet lamps, give fish oil and everything will work out. More terrible to cope with cannibalism of chickens. If there is a wound on the body of the bird, it will attract the attention of companions. Therefore, the light in the chicken coop should not be bright, the muffled and reddish color hides the fresh wounds.
To be on the lookout, expect to be slander and understand the reasons for this illness you need:
- Chicks peck the fingers in the blood - it is hungry:
- pecking head - setting the hierarchy,
- gnawing cloaca- when she is inflamed by improper feeding,
- when the cesspool is inflamed and falls from the socks of very large eggs,
- pluck feathers - there are few minerals in the feed,
- the presence of insects - peroedov, lice, ticks.
How to keep chickens and have a productive flock of a multifaceted question.
How to start breeding chickens
First you need to learn the theory to be prepared by the guide.
You can turn to a rural woman, to the one who succeeds in this, because her neighbor, who calls her laying hens lazy, probably misses something in her care and can give wrong advice. It is also useful to read independently. specialized literature on the subject.
Having studied all the subtleties and nuances of the poultry industry, you will be insured against unforeseen difficulties that you will have to face and you will know what actions to take, and you will make conclusions whether this activity is suitable for you at all.
If the desire is firm, and you decide, for the summer season you start a chicken or for year-round maintenance, then it remains to determine the product that you want to receive. There are target breeds of chickens aimed at obtaining eggs, meat or both, but in smaller quantities.
Birds need a home. This could be a chicken coop specially built for them, or it is necessary to equip an already existing barn, an extension to the house.
Its functionality will depend on how long you start a chicken for a season or on an ongoing basis. Birds need to be provided with good nutrition, cleanliness in the house and the hygiene of the chickens themselves.
Needed long walks in the open air to obtain vitamin D, which contributes to a higher wearing of eggs.
Arrangement of the chicken coop
First of all, it should be warm, ventilated, without drafts and cracks room. Dry, lighted and spacious. Chickens should not be crowded, otherwise fights for space are inevitable.
A maximum of five chickens seamlessly can get along on one square meter. At the bottom of the room lay the sawdust, straw, which must be replaced. Chicken droppings can be collected - this is a valuable fertilizer.
For bathing chickens in order to get rid of annoying parasites, baths with sand and ash are installed.
To chickens rushed more productively and in a civilized way, they need to equip nesting places. They can be made separately for each chicken by placing boxes with hay inside or joint persons for three.
If you do not take all the eggs for the first time from there cleaned up, and leaving one, a couple, then chickens, like constant birds, will be carried to the same place without changing it.
This greatly facilitates the collection of eggs.
Despite the jokes about chickens and the fact that they fly badly, these birds inherited from their ancestors the need to take off, climb a tree for overnight.
Therefore, the chicken coop equip perches at a height that the hen is able to master. They should be enough so that everyone can find a place for themselves that will provide comfort and silence at night in the hen house.
They can be installed at different levels or put a wooden ladder with crossbars obliquely.
Types of feed
The food must be balanced, fresh and in clean feeders. They are installed in a chicken coop at a small height, fixed, in order to avoid tipping. Accordingly, the drinking bowl should be located next to it. In some regionswhere the climate is hot and water is scarce, it is advisable to start an indokur. They are resistant to such adverse conditions.
Recommend to put chickens three types of food:
- Dry mixes,
- Warm mixed liquid food,
- Mineral supplements.
Food composition may include: cereals, oil cakes, root vegetables, greens, fish and meat and bone meal (for the strength of egg shells), fish oil, leftover food from the table. On chicken day should receive a little more than 200 grams of food. In the summer, food is simpler, the birds get their own food, they eat grass for a walk, especially they like clover.
Choice of purpose and breed
Depending on the product, which is a priority in the plan to breed chickens, choose the breed of bird:
- Meat (broilers). These include Brahma, Kormish. Food must be enriched with carbohydrates for weight gain.
- Egg (Russian white, lomann, legorn, Oryol, red-tailed, Tetra). These breeds are suitable for meat, but during molting.
- Universal (egg and meat). And the eggs are well and not the soup set, they feed enough meat. Poltava, May Day, Kuchinsky, Wyandot.
There are also decorative breeds, fighting ones, but this is already a narrower profile of breeders.
Buying Chickens and Adult Chickens
They buy birds from their hands, at the poultry market, at the poultry farm. Poultry farm is preferable, as there is confidence in pedigree and the health of future pets. If you start them for the season for meat or for eggs, then there is no point in buying chickens. In the opposite case, it is more profitable to buy chickens, they are cheaper, but there is more trouble with them.
Chickens sell daily subsistence allowance., they need to be put in a box with solid walls in order to avoid sticking in the surface of the beaks, which is fraught with the death of the chicken. An incandescent lamp is placed above them to establish a temperature at the bottom of the box of 30 C.
Turn on the lamp the first day, day and night, then the lighting is transferred to 17 hours and adjusted to 8 hours a day. Also, the temperature is gradually reduced from 30 ° C in a few weeks to 18 degrees Celsius.
When chicks are cold, they begin to gather in piles and can crush the lower ones, in the opposite situation they tend to move away from the heat source.
In the temporary house of chickens should be kept clean, change the litter from the newspapers twice a day. To disinfect with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, it is possible to occasionally feed the chickens themselves with this solution.
At five days of age, babies are already quite persistent and tenacious. Nutrition fractional, small.
This may be a crumbled hard-boiled egg, low-fat cottage cheese, chopped greens, nettle, clover, and crushed cereals.
When purchasing adult layers, special cotton should not arise, as long as the chickens are healthy. Choose the cost of active, clean, with good plumage and uniform color of the scallop of birds. Broilers should not be planted in large enclosures so that they do not lose their fat.
Layers make comfortable nests in a shaded place. And if a hen has a incubation instinct and has a goal to get chickens, then do not take eggs from the nest for some time. To achieve a sufficient amount, she will sit down to hatch them. And after 21 days, the babies hatch.
It is believed that domestic hens are darker and the more valuable the yolk, which is a consequence of a varied diet. Actually there is no difference, just in the diet of such a chicken carotene prevailed, which gave such color.
The important point is that there should be enough calcium in the feed, otherwise the eggshell will be fragile, the chickens of the product themselves will begin to eat. And in the winter, in order to ensure egg production is at the summer level, the diet should be rich.
To this must be added additional lighting and heating.
First symptoms of disease
If one of your pets has become lethargic, cannot get up and suffers from convulsions, it should be immediately isolated from healthy individuals in order to avoid infection, if it is an infection. Pigeons, rodents that attempt to feed chicken can carry them.
Chicken stock can weaken and vitamin deficiency, characterized by a lack of appetite, low activity. Enriching food with essential elements can easily correct the situation.
In any case, if something worries about the behavior of birds, their appearance, the advice of a veterinarian or a visit to him will be valuable.
Poultry at home chickens from time immemorial has been everyday occupation of villagers, and sometimes even necessary. Nowadays, when there is no shortage of feed, materials, information, any kind of person can learn to live with fish if desired. Many people share their experiences on the Internet, which you can use and get information.
How to build a business on breeding chickens at home?
Poultry farming is one of the main positions in the agricultural sector of the country. Experts say that keeping hens is a profitable business, because eggs never lie in supermarkets. Delicious chicken meat is no less in demand.
Due to the fact that feathered creatures are unpretentious, their content turns into a simple business, as is the case with sheep breeding at home. Но прежде чем открыть свое дело, следует ознакомиться со всеми нюансами, а также составить подробный план.
Курятник или птичник
При составлении бизнес-плана необходимо продумать каждый аспект. В первую очередь понадобиться помещение для выращивания птицы. Если говорить о разведении кур как бизнесе, то размер помещения должен составлять не менее 150 квадратных единиц.
At home, a small chicken coop will fit in a polycarbonate greenhouse. According to the same scheme, it is possible to build a large, 12-15 m long and 3 m wide poultry house in a few days.
It must be equipped with cages, a good ventilation system, and incubators. Each cage should have a drinking bowl and food container. It is advisable to install a generator in case of problems with power supply. The room must be a certain temperature.
Next, you need to provide a place in which the feed will be stored. This room must be dry and well ventilated, with a certain humidity. It is desirable that it is located near the place where the chicken herd.
Eggs or chickens?
The next question is the purchase of chickens or eggs. Eggs are cheaper. However, there is a possibility that the chick will not hatch from the egg, or it will be weak and will die. Buying chicks there is no such danger. Although they may die.
You can partially purchase chicks, and partly eggs. This will be the best option for the first time. Subsequently, everyone can decide for themselves which option is more acceptable.
But for this you need to try both options. Knowing the pricing policy of chickens and eggs in the region, you can calculate how much money is needed for such an acquisition.
Now you need to calculate the amount of feed you need to grow chickens. On the day the chicken needs about 150 grams of feed. If you arm yourself with a calculator, it is easy to calculate how much pet food will cost.
You should not ignore the associated costs.
These are vaccinations, payment of bills for electricity, replacement of drinkers, vet services, advertising. If we talk about industrial scale, it makes sense to hire workers. In addition, the owner himself must first have a source of income. After all, the first months of business will not generate revenue. Therefore, most likely the owner will have to go to work, generating income.
So you have to hire a worker, and maybe a few. Subsequently, it will be possible to make such a business the main and only source of income, and you will not have to spend money on employees' wages. However, for the first time such an item of expenditure will need to lay.
Lying all the resulting amounts you can see how much money is needed to open such a business.
Is breeding chickens profitable?
Now you need to go to the calculation of profit. For this it is necessary to study the market of the region. Prices will vary. When calculating the need to take the average. Profit will come from the sale of eggs and meat. Therefore, it is advisable to acquire both egg chickens and broiler chickens.
Another moment, which, perhaps, is crucial in the conduct of this business - the market demand. This question needs to be studied at the stage of drawing up a business plan. You need to go through the nearby shops and markets, run to the wholesale bases.
You should also pay attention to dining, cafes and restaurants that are nearby. Already at this stage, you need to start building relationships. As a result, the profit will be only when there is a buyer. It is advisable to go to the neighbors.
The last stage of planning is a comparison of costs and profits. Here you can already see how quickly this business pays off, and after what time it will start to make a profit. Now the business plan is ready. If the resulting amounts please the eye, then you can throw off all doubts and begin to act.
Summarizing all the above, I would like to note that such a business, like breeding chickens, does not require any special expenses. There is no need to register licenses, search for premises and pay huge money for rent, hire employees.
There are, of course, risks. Bird can get sick. But if you ensure the necessary conditions, timely vaccinations and monitor the quality of food, then such risks are minimized. In addition, the demand for chicken eggs and meat today is quite high.
If there are still doubts, it makes sense to read the reviews and talk with people with experience in the industry. They are unlikely to open their business secrets, but you can get a general impression of such communication.
Tips for breeding chickens we gave you. Even if you do not manage to reach an industrial scale, you can provide for your own family and friends, which is also important.
Good luck to you!
Video tips on breeding chickens at home
In the comments you can add your photos of laying hens, rooster and chickens!
Like this article? Share with your friends in social networks:
Is it profitable today to raise chickens at home?
Chicken and eggs - the usual food for many people, without these ingredients can not do most dishes. Due to its low cost and high nutritional value, chicken meat is the best-selling meat market. Not all people who use poultry and eggs buy them in supermarkets. Many prefer homemade, and therefore more natural products.
Breeding chickens should be organized properly.
Breeding chickens at home is a relevant and profitable business. You can start a small business in the village with small turns.
It is very convenient if the novice entrepreneur lives in a private house or has a suitable building in the countryside. But even a city dweller can rent a plot outside the metropolis and start building a poultry house.
The demand for poultry and eggs in the future promises to be high, which provides the businessman with a huge target audience and profit.
The popularity of the business in the maintenance of chickens due to the following indicators:
- relatively small investments at the start,
- rapid growth of chickens and ease of care for them,
- the popularity of chicken and eggs in the market,
- waste-free production (you can sell not only meat, but also feathers, litter),
- lack of seasonality (to breed birds and sell products really year-round),
- no need for large areas and expensive equipment.
The main stages of the organization of business in chickens
Considering the idea of breeding nutria at home or keeping chickens, you need to create a competent business plan, including:
- market and competition analysis, demand determination,
- options for the construction of the house, the purchase of equipment / inventory,
- choice of breed of chickens,
- purchase of food supply,
- business registration and obtaining permits,
- search for markets.
Two criteria are important for the development of the poultry industry: a properly selected food and favorable conditions for the housing of birds. Chickens are distinguished by precocity, they begin to rush already at the age of 5 months. Many breeds give eggs year round.
Working ideas for a garage business
This business, as well as fattening calves for meat at home, does not require special knowledge and skills. Even start-up entrepreneurs can cope with the organization of the house. Well-established sales markets and regular stocking will ensure stable profits and the possibility of further growth.
In order to resell profitably or sell chicken products legally, one should open an IP. For this you need:
- Fill out an application for registration of an individual as an individual entrepreneur according to form No. P21001.
- Select code of activity according to OKVED 01.47 “Breeding of poultry”.
- Choose a tax system. As in the case of business ideas in the service sector, a simplified form is suitable here.
- To pay the state duty in the amount of 800 rubles for the opening of the IP.
- Submit documents to the tax.
- Get registered in the Pension Fund.
- Order printing (if necessary).
- Open a bank account.
The future chicken coop should be located on a hill in a well-lit, dry and ventilated (but without drafts) place. If the property does not have suitable buildings, they will have to be built from scratch.
In the absence of self-reliance and unwillingness to invest large funds in the construction, it is possible to rent a house for rent. Today in the fashion of rural chicken coops.
They can actually be purchased in ready-made form or erected with your own hands using video and drawings presented on the Internet.
Deciding to grow chickens, you should allocate space for the pen, since it is important for the hens to keep an active lifestyle. Cellular content is suitable for birds of meat crosses. This option involves placing a large number of birds on a relatively small area.
Mandatory conditions for the coop - the presence of windows, lighting and ventilation. Light is of paramount importance, especially when laying hens. In a dimly lit room, the bird is sluggish, eats little and carries poorly.
Fresh air is important for maintaining good health and high egg production. Without a good ventilation system, the birds will suffocate in the fumes of their stool.
The windows should be placed on the south side, their sizes are calculated based on the floor area (1:12).
Another important factor is the temperature in the hen house. In winter, it should not fall below + 15⁰С. Heat in the house can be created by means of an electric heater or a gas column. Do not neglect this item, since many diseases of chickens are associated with hypothermia.
Purchase of equipment
The following equipment should be in the poultry house:
- Feeders. Free access of the birds to the feed and exclusion of losses due to scattering depends on their design and installation option. For dry mixes suitable wooden feeders for wet - metal containers.
- Drinking bowls. Each bird should receive at least 500 ml of water per day. At the cell content, the built-in drinkers are assumed, with the floor one any options are suitable. The most popular flute and automatic.
- Perches. It will take poles 5-7 cm in diameter, mounted on the same level at a height of 60-100 cm.
- Nests. It should be placed in a dark place at the rate of 1 nest for 5-6 females. Can be installed directly on the floor or at a small height (maximum 60 cm). Make them easy, they are a shelf or box, covered with straw or hay.
- Tanks for ash. That chickens can get rid of ticks and other parasites. Ash mixed with sand in a 1: 1 ratio.
All this should be kept clean and in sufficient quantity. Growing chickens, as well as breeding sturgeon at home, implies the availability of high-quality and convenient equipment. For the content of birds at home you need to purchase:
- separate cell for sick females,
- scrubbers for cleaning the floor and / or cells,
- forks for cleaning dirty litter,
- litter boxes
- feed storage containers
- egg collecting containers
- kitchen scales for weighing components when feeding,
- shovels, rakes, brooms.
The choice of breed of birds
After registering a business and equipping a chicken coop with everything you need, you can start buying birds. From the choice of cross depends on the success of the enterprise. All chickens are divided into three large groups:
- Layers. Unpretentious in feeding and resistant to infections. The egg production of some breeds reaches 350 eggs per year. These birds are suitable for meat, but their weight is insignificant compared to other breeds.
- Meat. Intricate care and prone to disease (especially broilers). Some breeds are ready for slaughter at the age of two months.
- Meaty. Up to 200 eggs are carried annually. The weight of an adult carcass averages 3 kg.
For a novice businessman, the best option would be to breed egg cross hens. The most popular hybrids of this group are:
- Leggorn - 300 eggs weighing 55 grams per year,
- Loman Brown - 320 eggs weighing 65 grams per year,
- Hisex - 320 eggs weighing 65 grams per year,
- Isa Brown - 340 eggs weighing 62 grams per year,
- Novogen Brown - 350 eggs weighing 62 grams per year.
Important: laying hens are distinguished by precocity and start laying eggs at the age of 4-5 months. This period lasts about 2 years, after which the old livestock should be replaced with young stock.
No less popular among poultry farmers and meat-crosses, namely:
- Foxy Chick - 250 eggs per year. The weight of an adult reaches 3.5 kg. Unpretentious care, easily adapt to different conditions of detention. The safety of chicks can be 100%.
- Plymouthrock - 170 eggs per year. These chickens have a weight of 3.5 kg. Good hens. They are characterized by high productivity.
- Kuchinsky Jubilee - 200 eggs per year. The weight of females is 2.8 kg. This breed was bred in the Soviet era, and therefore fully adapted for cultivation in the territory of the Russian Federation.
What business to do in the village from scratch?
At first, as long as the chicken farm is small (up to 200 heads), you can follow it without any help. But if the bird complex is removed from the main place of residence, then one owner cannot cope: at least a guard is needed. You may need an assistant who will take over some of the work. He can clean the territory, collect and pack eggs, care for the bird.
Where to look for product sales channels?
The simplest solution is to sell eggs and chicken in the market. The presence of a veterinary passport will allow to offer poultry farm products at fairs and shops. It does not hurt to open your own website and promote your product through it.
Customers can offer delivery on a pre-arranged schedule. This service is rare, and therefore will be in demand. If you plan to sell young stock, you should advertise your chicken farm at industry fairs, specialized agricultural forums, as well as publish ads in magazines.
With proper organization, a bird farm is an excellent source of income. Chickens are unpretentious in food and care. And thanks to the universality of some breeds, earnings can be formed not only from the sale of eggs, but also from the sale of meat and litter.
Breeding chickens, as well as greenhouses, will suit those who have a small start-up capital and a desire to make money on their own business. birds, though labor-intensive, but not so difficult, anyone can cope with it - both the rural and the urban dweller.
and breeding chickens at home: tips and advice for beginning farmers
It is believed that the first animal tamed by humans is a dog, and the first bird is a chicken. Almost 8000 years in households these feathery inhabitants grow roots.
Breeding chickens at home is not troublesome, say experienced villagers. They are sure that even children can handle it. However, novice farmers will find useful tips and observations.
Let's try to figure out how to start breeding an ancient bird, as well as what difficulties to face.
The first steps in the poultry industry
First you need to get acquainted with the poultry closer. Read specialized literature, contact experienced farmers, and use tips from online sources.
It is necessary to decide on the way of keeping chickens: it can be summer or year-round.
Decide what kind of "chicken" you need:
- flock for the summer season
- birds for year-round housing.
This will help to understand where the birds will live. "Summer" hens need to equip the yard for walking and light barn for the night and from the weather. Permanent residents will have to build a major insulated coop.
Meals for seasonal and year-round birds will also vary. The ration is better to think in advance, but be ready for its full or partial change.
Experienced farmers advise in advance to find out where the nearest veterinary clinic is located, to consult with a veterinarian on the subject of chicken herd disease, to buy vitamins for poultry.
Beginners are recommended to acquire only unpretentious breeds of birds. Before buying, decide what kind of chicken is needed: meat or egg.
Whom to choose: laying hens or meat hens
It is worth dwelling on the bird species in more detail. Today, there are more than 700 breeds of chickens in the world.
For beginner farmers of the greatest interest are three types:
In the photo are white egg chickens Super Nick.
Meat breeds differ in large size. In one season, the chicken can grow to 3-4 kilograms before the carcass. Egg such a chicken begins to carry in 7-8 months. Usually these are good hens. The most popular representatives of this species are considered to be the chickens Brahma, Gudan, broiler and Cornish.
Egg chicken rarely weighs more than 2.5 kilograms. But already in 5 months it starts to rush, eggs can be collected almost every day. Over time, an egg broiler can boil a rich broth. For beginning poultry farmers, the following species can be recommended: Leggorn, Oryol, Russian White, Red-Tailed or Rhode Island.
Representatives of meat and egg breed, such as Poltava, May Day or Kuchin chickens, will be ideal for the household. These are very hardy birds, which are characterized by high egg production, calm character. Usually they are good hens. Suitable for breeding at their summer cottage.
Important! The first bird flock should not be large. Optimally up to 20 chickens.
In addition to these three species of bird, there are decorative and fighting chickens. You can also have them in the household, but they do not represent financial value.
Where to buy and how to choose a bird
For year-round breeding of chickens, it is recommended to buy chickens.
Daily chicks sold:
- At farm fairs. It is better to take from familiar breeders, in addition to poultry, they can share useful tips on growing it.
- In bird markets. Профессионалы советуют проверять все документы у продавца. Часто на рынке обитают инфицированные животные.
- На птицефабриках. Это дает гарантию, что стадо районированное и действительно породистое.
Куриц можно приобрести на фермерских ярмарках, на птичьем рынке или на птицефабрике.
Чтобы уже летом без лишних хлопот собирать домашние яйца, стоит весной купить молодых курочек. This is the easiest option for beginner poultry farmers. In the autumn of proven, productive layers can be left for the winter.
What should be a young chicken:
- clean, well-groomed, without bald patches and growths,
- sticking feathers around the back of the hole can be a sign of an intestinal infection, it’s better to avoid such a bird,
- optimal skin color: pale pink, yellow skin - a sign of liver disease.
Movable cheerful chicken - a good option for the poultry farmer. Do not buy sleepy and lethargic pullets. Usually these are sick individuals, they will bring nothing but extra trouble.
In cramped, but not mad: ways to keep
In the summer, chickens necessarily need a paddock with a canopy from the rain. Approximately 1 square meter of yard is allocated to one hen. At night, the herd is driven into a closed room with equipped perches. Chicken "nests" should be on the same level. Each hen for perch is recommended to allocate at least 20 linear centimeters.
If the bird is kept year-round, it needs a warm chicken coop with perches and nests.
For wintering is necessary to build a chicken coop, which can be heated air. The temperature in it should not fall below 5-7 degrees.
The coop should be warm, dry and relatively light. With outdoor content, up to 5 birds can live on one square meter. Up to 7 individuals live together in a cage. Experienced farmers claim that in a cage the chicken gains weight faster and is more often carried.
Stages of building a chicken coop
Chicken - the bird is not whimsical, so any shed can be equipped under the chicken coop. If you want to have more profits from livestock, it is better to build a separate chicken coop.
So, we build a chicken coop:
- Foundation. Ideally, it is poured with concrete, if there is no such possibility - lay the flooring of the boards. You can not install a chicken coop on bare ground, otherwise the chickens will freeze and suffer from rodent attacks.
- Walls. They can be erected from ordinary boards or to spend money on aerocrete. The walls should not let the wind pass.
- Roof. Usually constructed of boards and slate. The blood is important to warm.
- Walking area. Enclosed by a net.
The coop consists of a basement, walls, insulated roof and fenced paddock.
Most importantly - the chicken coop should be warm. It is best to build it in a place where sunlight gets all day.
Internal arrangement of the coop
Inside the coop should be warm and clean. If necessary, in the winter frost, you can use electric heaters. The floor is insulated with dry and clean straw and sawdust.
It is recommended in the cages to clean up the bird every day, in the outdoor henhouse - twice a week. In the summer, when the herd is often on the street, cleaning is carried out 1-2 times a month.
Important! Electric light is needed in the hen house. It should not be too bright. A typical 40-60 watt bulb will do.
Experienced farmers recommend whitening the walls with lime mortar. This helps reduce the chances of getting sick. Inside for each hen it is important to equip the place of the roost: to nail the poles not high from the floor. Place the feeders.
It is desirable that the coop was 2 small windows, as well as 2 doors. One should be at the top to ventilate the room, the second at the bottom - to exit the herd in the pen.
Rules for breeding chickens
For breeding chickens at home need a rooster. For fertilization 10-12 chickens usually have one male. To make hatching eggs easier for novice poultry farmers, an incubator will help. Eggs for him should be chosen the same size, without defects, the correct form. Very large eggs, as well as eggs with two yolks for incubation will not work (see detailed instructions for incubating eggs).
At home, chickens are removed in an incubator.
So, chickens appeared (hatched, or bought day-old chicks), what next?
It is necessary to create special conditions for them:
- A large box is taken.
- It is warming. You can not leave the "bare" cardboard walls. Chickens will begin to knock on hard walls and may die.
- The bottom is laid out from the newspapers. We put on them a drinking trough and a feeding trough.
- The newspaper needs to be changed 2 times a day.
- On top of the incandescent lamp. The first days the temperature should be 32-34 degrees, on the fifth day it is regulated to 30 degrees. After - every week the temperature should be done at 3 degrees lower.
- When the temperature becomes 18 degrees, the chicks are transferred to the litter.
If the chickens in the box begin to cluck, it means they are cold. If heap away from the lamp - hot. In both cases, they can begin to stomp each other. By 4 months, chickens will be slightly smaller in size than adult chickens. At the 5th month will begin to sweep.
Features of feeding small chickens and chickens
Carefully follow the diet of chickens and adult chickens. Clean water should always be in the water bowl. Daily chicks recommended to drink a solution of 5% glucose.
It is necessary to closely monitor the diet of chickens and adult chickens.
The first week in the diet of birds should be present:
- low-fat cottage cheese (helps to quickly fledge),
- boiled egg
- finely chopped greens (from the second day).
Next egg from the diet can be removed. In two months, chicks can already be sent to the chicken coop. Gradually increasing portions, the diet becomes more diverse.
Laying eggs first already in 5-6 months. However, it is believed that closer to 1.5 years is better to put such a chicken on the soup. She already carries fewer eggs, and the meat begins to grow rude.
Overfeeding is unacceptable, otherwise the inside of the chicken will be fattened, and instead of the shell the eggs will begin to be covered with a thin film. This can lead not only to the rapid contamination of the hen house, but also to the peck of the product.
In the menu of adult chicken should be present:
- feed yeast,
- mineral supplements
- wheat bran,
- barley flour, fish and meat and bone.
Large stocks of food do not need to buy. But it is important to add to the diet of cereals, minerals and animal feed. According to reviews of experienced farmers, chickens love to feast on tropical fruits such as orange and mango.
Tips for beginner poultry farmers
The ideal formula for breeding birds does not exist.
It is necessary to monitor the health of the hens: the sick and the weak should immediately be deposited in a separate room.
However, you need to know some subtleties and nuances:
- Light is needed to make the chicken rush all year round. The lamp in the hen house should not be too bright or too dim.
- To prevent pets from getting worms, add salt once a week.
- The bird will not carry eggs in a dirty place. Perches need to be changed regularly.
- Calcium must be in the diet: cottage cheese, chalk, charcoal.
- Coop need to be ventilated.
Particular attention should be paid to the health of feathered pets. Sluggish and sleepy chickens should be immediately separated from the pack. Otherwise, cannibalism is likely. If the relatives see wounds on the body, the pecking will begin.
For several weeks, a sick bird is recommended to be fattened with greens, fish oil and irradiated with an ultraviolet lamp. If there is no improvement, show the vet.
Watch the video guide on breeding and keeping chickens for novice farmers. Enjoy your viewing!
Growing chickens at home for beginners - detailed instructions!
Breeding chickens in the garden is a big help for every family. This lesson will not cause much trouble, but it will provide meat and eggs. Children can be attracted to growing chickens, for them it will become an interesting and exciting activity.
Raising chickens at home for beginners
Chicken and eggs are very important products for every person. They belong to the category of dietary and healthy products. Chicken meat contains a small amount of fat, but it is rich in protein, vitamins and amino acids. Meat obtained from the breeding of domestic chickens, have a special aroma and taste. It does not come to any comparison with the chicken meat purchased in the store.
Chicken eggs - the main source of protein. Homemade egg yolk is rich in carotene, vitamins and other beneficial substances. Nutritionists recommend be sure to eat eggs.
Breeding chickens at home does not take a lot of trouble. In the summer months they can be kept in open space, where they can swim in the ground, get worms, insects, peck the grass.
For the maintenance of chickens in the winter need very different conditions of detention. Beginners should start with breeding simple breeds of chickens, and later it will be possible to move on to purebreds.
There are differences in their content requirements.
Tips for choosing the breed of chickens
First you need to decide on the breed of chickens. They are divided into:
Each owner must decide what he wants to get in the end. If there is a desire to receive only an egg, then it is worthwhile to breed eggs hens. Such chickens are considered unpretentious, resistant to diseases that actively carry eggs. In the period of falling egg production such a breed can be put on the meat.
The most popular breeds of egg are:
- Russian white,
- Kuchinsky anniversary
- Oryol layer,
These breeds of chickens begin to lay eggs at the age of 5-7 months. During the year, egg-bearing breeds bring about 300 eggs. The average weight of one egg is 60 g. Chickens of an egg breed weigh from 2 to 4 kg.
If the purpose of growing domestic chickens is meat, then it is worthwhile to start meat breeds. They grow pretty fast. Buy meat chickens need to spring. Until the end of autumn, they gain enough weight. Meat breeds also carry eggs, but the number per year is much less - from 100 to 130 pieces. And begin to lay eggs at the age of 8-9 months.
The most popular meat breeds:
- Plymouth Rock,
- Brahma is bright
- Brahma is dark
- Brahma kuropatchataya,
- Brama Fawn,
Chickens of these breeds by the end of autumn grow from 4 to 5 kg, the largest individuals reach 7 kg. They are distinguished by their calm nature and are very fond of greens.
The meat-egg breeds of chickens include Bress Gallic. They start to rush quite early - at the age of 5 months. 190-220 large eggs weighing about 80g are produced throughout the year. Chickens of this breed by the end of autumn have a weight of about 3.5 kg, and roosters - 5 kg. They are hardy, well tolerate winter. With free range in the summer, you need to know that these chickens fly very well.
Decorative breeds include:
These birds can often be found at exhibitions. Some have rather small sizes, but still each breed carries eggs, albeit in small quantities.
Choice of breed of chickens
Having decided to start breeding chickens, raising them and keeping them, you first need to decide what do you want:
- Lead chickens for the season or for year-round housing.
- Grow purchased chickens or breed birds independently.
- Get meat or a lot of eggs.
Chickens come in various breeds:
- meat - have tasty meat and quickly gain weight,
- Egg - carry many eggs, but have less weight,
- universal, meat - egg. These chickens have normal dimensions. They have delicious meat and they have enough eggs,
- fight hens. Such breeds are rarely bred in the usual compound,
- decorative. Their breeding is a pleasure of contemplation, but there are no gastronomic and financial benefits.
The most popular breed of hens are layers.. The purpose of breeding laying hens at home is to get eggs regularly. On average, one hen per year carries 250 eggs. Chickens of this breed are unpretentious. They have a high disease resistance. Breeding laying hens at home begins with the construction of a chicken coop.
For the house fit a barn or an old building. But you can build a special new room, which will decorate the garden. To do this, pick up a dry place without drafts. Next you need to fence net area for walking. The grid must be at least two meters. The best option would be the presence of a mesh roof.
Important points to consider when building a chicken coop:
- The presence of ventilation. The house should have vents or special exhaust systems. It should not be allowed to have a draft in the room. This can lead to chicken disease.
- The coop must be equipped with feeders, drinkers, perches and nests. The number of nests depends on the number of birds. They are placed in the shaded corners of the house.
- An important role is played by lighting and temperature. In the cold season the room must be heated. If this is not possible, the coop must be well insulated. Also for the prolongation of daylight in the winter it is important to have artificial lighting.
Perches do from strong wooden poles at the rate of 25 cm on one chicken. Install them at a height convenient for birds (50-60 cm). To perch should attach flat, smooth boards or ladders.
Nests do from baskets, buckets, boxes with a height of 30 cm, width and depth not less than 40 cm They are covered with hay.
Poultry house it is better to sprinkle with lime, covering the top with chips, sawdust and hay thickness up to 10 cm. This litter needs to be changed. It should always be dry and clean.
Feeder should be trimmed with stubble bars so that birds do not trample down food.
Inside the chicken coop or on the walk additionally installed boxes filled with sand, the so-called ash baths. They are needed for self-disposal of birds from parasites. Before running the birds in the chicken coop, they must be disinfected. Such an event is subsequently held several times a year, as well as when settling a new bird.
Growing chickens at home for beginners and keeping them is not a difficult task.. Chickens are naturally good hens. They themselves grow their offspring. All that is required is maintaining the required temperature and filling the trough. But it should be borne in mind that the natural litter of one layer is about 15 chicks. If you need much more chickens, you will need to purchase an incubator. An alternative option may be the purchase of daily chickens at the poultry farm.
To keep the chickens will need a warm box. The box should not be cardboard or foam, because the chickens can knock on the wall with a spout and impose on it, which, in turn, can lead to the death of the chick. Near put the incandescent lamp on a tripod. At the bottom of the box is covered with newspapers, put the feeder and watering. Above they have a lamp on a tripod in such a way that the floor is 30 C. On the first day, the lighting should be even at night, reducing the daylight hours from 5 pm to 8 pm.
Drinking and food should always be. Chickens need more water than feed twice, so it should always be fresh. Subscribers for the first time watered five percent glucose solution.
Until seven days of age, food is poured onto cardboard sheets. Then install the feeders. Better - suspended. For the first feeding you will need:
- small crushed grain,
- hard boiled egg
- low fat dry cottage cheese.
Cottage cheese promotes plumage, as it contains calcium. From the second day should be added to the feed finely chopped greens. In winter, it is possible to germinate cereals for this purpose.
The newspaper should be changed twice a day. Need to watch the chickens. If they are going to a "bunch" - they are cold, if they are sprawled away from the light - it is hot. The temperature starts to decrease from the fifth day to 26 degrees, decreasing every week by three degrees, the final temperature is 18 C. The grown chickens are transferred to bedding, gradually increasing the area.
Buying a bird
If meat-breeding chickens are purchased, broiler chickens can be bought for day old. After a month and a half, their weight can be equal to 3 kg.
Hens for a season buy already grown up. Chickens start feeding at 4-5 months. Choosing a bird, you should pay attention on color scallops and earlobes. It should be smooth and bright. The belly of young chickens is big and soft.
Having made the decision to breed laying hens at home, you need to purchase a rooster, with the calculation of one rooster for 12-15 chickens.
Growing, maintaining and caring for chickens is simple. You must perform the following tasks:
- clean and air the chicken coop regularly,
- maintain temperature and light conditions
- monitor the availability of clean water in the drinking bowl,
- feeds the bird only high-quality, balanced feed. The taste of eggs and meat depends on it,
- provide year-round walking of birds in the open air,
- in winter, to enrich the diet of poultry with mineral additives.
One of the tasks in keeping chickens is preparation of the correct diet of birds. The basis of poultry food is basic dry food: grain, granulated mixtures of flour and grain waste, corn. In addition, the diet should be juicy wet food. In the summer, these are root crops and greens, in winter - sprouted grains, food waste, root crops.
On average, in winter, one chicken eats 250 grams of feed, in the warm season - the rate is slightly reduced due to the presence of natural supplements, fresh greens. Dry feeds make up 2/3 of the total feed. One third should be wet mash.
For that the eggshell was hardCalcium must be present in the feed. Therefore, in the bird food mix chalk and crushed shell.
From the third day, the mash is best cooked in meat broth or yogurt. Feed the chickens only need fresh mash. Остатки через час следует выбросить, а кормушку вымыть и сполоснуть марганцовкой.
Цыплят выпаивают дважды в неделю по утрам слабым раствором марганцовки. Цыплята пяти дней от роду уже жизнестойкие. Постепенно им увеличивают количество корма, добавляя в него рыбий жир, витамины. From the first day the chicks need eggshells, small gravel, coarse sand. From cereals up to two months of age, only crushed cereals are used.
As part of feed for adult chicken should include:
- wheat bran - 8%,
- corn - 40%,
- barley flour -20%,
- sunflower meal - 10%,
- feed yeast - 3%,
- meat and bone meal, fish meal - 1: 1-10%,
- salt, mineral supplements-5%.
This mixture is given 2-3 times a day in pure form and mash. For good stomach work, it is important to give dry grain to chickens, preferably if there is little film on the oats and on rye.
Do not overfeed the hen. She will be fat and it will be difficult to rush. Eggs instead of shells will be covered with a thin film, at the same time spreading and flooding the nest. If the bird tastes the taste of an egg, the pecking will begin later.
Layers should be fed:
- 65-75 g. Mash
- 30-45 g. Dry grain mixture,
- 20-25 g. Of root crops,
- 10-12g. germinated cereals,
- 1-2 g fish oil, gravel, yeast, shells.
In the feed, you can add leftovers from the table. It diversifies the menu. The more ingredients there are, the tastier the egg.
The golden age of the hen is considered age up to 15 months . Then she rushes less often, her meat grows coarse. Therefore, it is necessary for this time to prepare a new brood of chickens.
Where to buy good chickens?
Having decided on the breed of chickens, the question arises about the place of purchase. There is a big choice here. You can buy at the poultry farm, from the breeder or on the market. Novice poultry farmers, it is desirable to make a purchase from a professional breeder. He can immediately advise on feed, vitamins and preparations for chickens.
For the cultivation of meat breeds daily chickens are acquired. From egg breeds it is better to buy young animals that have reached four weeks of age. When buying, you should always pay attention to the appearance of the chicks and their behavior.
Daily chickens are covered only with down. In no case should it be wet or dirty. When buying a more adult young, you also need to pay attention to the plumage. You also need to pay attention to the legs.
They must be even, the chicken must stand firmly on them.
Place preparation for chickens
Having built a major chicken coop you need to think about where the first time small chickens will be kept. A place for them can be set aside in a built poultry house, by isolating a small plot on the ground, but there the young can be cold. Therefore, it is better to build a large box and put it on supports, raising 0.5-0.7 m above the floor.
little chickens in the early days
The bottom of the box must be laid out with papers, so it will be easier to replace them. The floor must always remain dry. Otherwise, the young can become ill, leading to their death. It is important to maintain cleanliness in the chick box.
They also need constant airing of the room, but the main thing is to avoid drafts and observe temperature conditions. The temperature in the room with the young, in the first week of their life, should be kept at 30 ° C. In order to monitor the temperature, it is necessary to install a thermometer in the room.
You need to know that chickens of different ages can never be kept in the same box. Older youngsters peck more young.
Feeding Chickens and Chickens
It is necessary to take the feeding of young stock very seriously. It is best to buy ready-made starter feed. This feed should be given the first 10-14 days. After this period, you can gradually enter chopped vegetables, and after another 10 days - greens and mixed fodder. Water should always be present in the drinker. As often as possible in it it is necessary to make replacement.
The process of feeding chickens and chickens
For full development, good weight gain and egg laying chickens need good nutrition. You can purchase ready feed for poultry.
In the composition of the feed about 65% of carbohydrates, the rest are protein supplements. Ready feed differs in composition and is designed for different ages. There is a special feed for laying hens.
It is rich in minerals and very nutritious. Mineral supplements can be added to the feed yourself.
Chickens should get a variety of foods.
Food for chickens is given in both dry and wet. It is best to use grain in the morning and in the evening for feeding. At lunch, the chickens need to be fed wet feed. In addition to the grain, potato peels, cabbage leaves or beet leaves can be given. Adult chicken per day should eat:
Table 1. Sample menu for chickens