Fish and other aquatic creatures

Pterigoplicht brocade

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The brocade catfish is a widespread species of aquarium fish, which is included in the family of loricarium or mail catfish. For the first time, the classification and description of such creatures in 1845 was performed by the famous Austrian ichthyologist Rudolf Kner. The researcher gave the name to the fish, which sounds like a brocade catfish antsistrus. In the 80s of the last century, the popular inhabitant of aquariums was counted among the genus of pterigoplichts.

According to the description of biologists, a typical brocade catfish has the following appearance. The fish has an elongated body with a massive wedge-shaped head. A characteristic feature is the presence of pronounced, protruding nostrils. Their mouth resembles a sucker.

Before the dorsal fin, a barely noticeable outgrowth in the form of a crest departs from the head. Large dorsal fin may contain 12-13 rays. Pectoral fins are widely spaced to the sides and their appearance resembles a sail. Standard brocade catfish color is brown spots, which are separated by an extensive network of yellowish veins.

Under natural conditions, representatives of the species inhabit the shallows of rivers with a rocky bottom. Brocade catfish are widespread in the Amazon and Orinoco. In the rainy season can move to flooded fields.

The brocade catfish is a rather warlike fish. Representatives of the species often fight with each other for the territory and attention of the female. During the peculiar fights, these creations widely spread the pectoral fins, trying to stab the enemy. Similar behavior is observed for the brocade catfish in the wild. In particular, such actions often save the species from predators who are trying to swallow them.

Under natural conditions, the activity of brocade catfish depends on the seasons. When drought occurs, such fish dig into the mud, waiting for the rain. During this period, they are able to fall into anabiosis, slowing down the vital activity of organs and systems. When brocade catfish are kept in an aquarium, this behavior does not manifest itself.

There is another interesting point. Stretching the fish out of the water, the owner can hear hissing sounds. According to ichthyologists, representatives of the species use this strategy to scare off the aggressor.

Content Features

The brocade catfish needs an impressive amount of free space. Therefore, aquarium with a capacity of 100 liters or more should be chosen as housing for representatives of the species. It is important to constantly maintain the temperature of the water at a level not lower than 22 o C. You should not forget about installing special units that will perform high-quality filtration and aeration of the liquid.

To maintain health, brocade catfish require access to pulp. For these purposes, a fresh sprig should be placed in the aquarium. The fish will scrape the bark from here every day, getting a sufficient amount of cellulose, which is involved in digestion.

Aquarium arrangement

Most of the day brocade catfish in an aquarium prefers to spend at the bottom. The fish is hidden in dense vegetation, hiding behind stones, snags, and decorative elements. Given this way of life, it is necessary to create appropriate conditions for catfish.

The bottom of the aquarium must be covered with an abundance of large and small pebbles. Here you need to organize all kinds of shelters. A good solution would be to use pieces of plastic pipes and tree branches. Alternatively, you can purchase a special decorative grotto at the pet store.

In the aquarium it is necessary to place numerous artificial and living algae. Planting plants, you need to consider that these fish love to dig in the ground. To protect the algae roots from damage, it is recommended to strengthen them with large stones.

Brocade catfish need a varied diet. The basis of the daily diet should be a live feed. It is necessary to offer these fishes to the crank, the crushed shrimps, and also the larvae of the shaker. The menu should include vegetable food, in particular green peas, nettles, dandelions. Only with such a rich diet, catfish will actively gain weight and feel completely healthy.

Alternatively, the daily diet can be built on the basis of specialized feed, which are sold in pet stores. Such products contain ideally balanced substances necessary for the growth and maintenance of excellent health of soms. However, such food is all exactly recommended to supplement with fresh vegetable food. Otherwise, catfish will actively pluck aquarium plants.

It is recommended to feed the representatives of the species at night, when the other inhabitants of the aquarium show reduced activity. Otherwise, the food may not arrive in the right amount to the bottom. The result will be starvation of catfish, which will lead to their irritability and aggression towards other fish.

Compatibility with other fish

What fish do brocade catfish live with? This question is quite complicated. After all, representatives of the species jealously protect their own territory and are ready to show pronounced aggression towards any creature that swims too close.

The most reasonable way to settle them is with medium-sized fish that prefer to stay close to the surface and rarely sink to the bottom of the aquarium. Among them are gourami, cichlids, polytterius and astronotus.

Brocade catfish are incompatible with sedentary fish, in particular gold. Representatives of the species often stick to their bodies and cause quite impressive injuries.

How to determine the sex of the fish?

Even experienced aquarists find it difficult to distinguish the male brocade catfish from the female. To cope with the task, you should pay attention to the following points. Males of this species have a more massive body structure. Their color is brighter. Pectoral fins armed with outgrowths in the form of sharp spines. In addition, mature males of brocade catfish have the so-called genital papilla, which is a small process located near the anus.

Breeding

To reproduce offspring, these fish need special conditions. In the natural habitat of a female brocade catfish lays eggs in a deep mink, which the male prepares in shallow water near the shore. Caring parents guard such a nest throughout the week. Then numerous fry are born. The last for a long time have no need for food, because I continue to feed on substances from my own yolk sacs.

Implement the above conditions in the aquarium is quite problematic. Therefore, brocade catfish bred on special farms. It creates a kind of natural water bodies in which the fish without any interference are engaged in reproduction.

Diseases

Representatives of the species are quite resistant to all kinds of infections. The only thing that can harm them is an impressive concentration of suspended organic matter in the water column. Along with the lack of kryag in the aquarium, this can lead to all sorts of digestive disorders. Although brocade catfish have the fame of real water cleaners, even they sometimes feel unwell, if the water has not been replaced for a long time.

Habitat in nature

These representatives of the Chain Som family live in rivers of South America and nowhere else. Locals meet these colorful fishes.

  • in the basin of the great river amazon,
  • in the shallows of the great Orinoco River,
  • in small Peruvian rivers flowing into the Amazon.

Brocade catfish-suckers prefer shallow water, and during severe drought and shallowing of reservoirs they are buried in mud, silt, where they wait out a dry season.

Under natural conditions, fish can reach 60 cm in length, and the lifespan is about 20 years. Longevity, is not it?

Brocade catfish feed mainly on plant food, but can also eat carrion at the bottom of the reservoir. In principle, they are omnivores.

  • The body is slightly flattened from above, long, with a large tail fin.
  • The dorsal fin is very high, resembles a hard, sloping sail.
  • The pectoral fins are also large, consisting of thick bones, which helps the catfish to dig into the ground.

The main background of the entire body and head is yellowish, over which large brown round spots are scattered. Moreover, all fins are covered with spots, including the tail fin. The color of these spots may be different: from black to olive, there is an albino species, where the spots are not visible at all. With age, the color usually turns pale, and the "old" individuals can no longer be called leopard.

The head of all representatives of the species is large, with prominent nostrils protruding forward, and the mouth often acts as a sucker. With it, fish can stick to the surface or to other fish so strongly that it is sometimes very difficult to tear them off without damage to their health.

The body of catfish is designed so that they can consume oxygen not only through the gills, but also by swallowing air bubbles into the intestines. It is this ability that helps them to survive when there is a lack of water during periods of drought.

It is necessary to note the unusual structure of the eye. The fact is that they are convex, like in many crustaceans. This structure allows the brocade catfish to look not only forward, but also on the sides and even behind him.

The brocade catfish was described quite a long time ago, an outstanding Austrian ichthyologist, Rudolf Kner, made it back in 1845. The fish was assigned to the catfish group, the chainmail catfish family. In 1980, scientists continued the classification and identified the genus Pterigoplihty, and in 2003 renamed the genus differently - the Glyptoperichts. The current Latin name is Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps.

Scientific research did not affect the popular name of these interesting in all respects freshwater animals. In many sources they are referred to as brocade glyptopericht, and brocade catfish, and brocade pterigoplicht. There are other names that do not change the natural essence of this interesting fish.

Description and habitat

Brocade pterigoplicht belongs to the family of chain catfish. This is a large fish that grows up to 60 cm, even in aquarium conditions. The scales are small bone plates covering the back and sides. The abdomen is smooth and tender, without scales. The whole body, including the fins, is in large brown or black spots bordered with yellow veins. And on the body the size of the spots is larger than on the head. This pattern makes the color look like a leopard. As a means of masking the environment, there are other colors: greenish, gray, olive.

With age, the outlines of the spots become blurred, the coloring fades, the pattern becomes reticulated, or it may blur, forming irregular stripes. In old catfish the color of the body becomes monotonous. There are individuals, albinos without a characteristic pattern on the skin.

At a young age, pterigoplichts are very easily confused with catfish as plexostomus, which are more modest in color and much cheaper in price.

A characteristic feature of the brocade pterigoplicht is the large fourteen-ray dorsal fin, in shape resembling a sail. Before the fin appears tubercle, especially noticeable in adults. Tail and pectoral fins are also large. The upper part of the caudal fin is sloped towards the head. Thick bones in the pectoral fin frame help the catfish to dig in the ground.

The head is large, with prominent nostrils and a strongly developed leathery fold above them. His pterigoplicht brocade uses as a sucker. Catfish can cling so tightly to other fish, glass, or to the surfaces of the scenery, that tearing it away is a very difficult task. The eyes of the catfish are bulging, like those of crustaceans, so they see not only what is happening in front, but also on the sides and behind. But against the background of a general color, small black eyes are almost invisible.

The natural habitat of the brocade pterigopliht is the Amazon and Orinoco river basin. He chooses slow-moving reservoirs and territories flooded during the rainy season. Som prefers to live in the shallows, and upon the onset of drought, it may burrow into the mud in anticipation of rain. This is possible due to the ability of soms to breathe not only the gills, but also to swallow air into the intestines.

The brocade Pterigoplicht was moved to Asia, where it is now actively bred on farms for sale.

Water and equipment

Pterigoplicht brocade, like most hydrobionts, prefers clean water. In polluted water, fish may begin necrosis of the fins. Therefore, the aquarium is equipped with a powerful filtration system. In addition, the filter will create a moderate current that catfish loves.

The presence of a powerful filter does not replace a regular water change. A weekly replacement of 40% of the water from the total volume is carried out.

Small fluctuations in hydrochemical indicators do not negatively affect the health of pets.

The following water parameters are optimal:

  • active water reaction is neutral,
  • temperature - 24-27 ° C,
  • stiffness - medium.

If there is a shortage of oxygen, the catfish may float and swallow air, but it is better not to allow such a state and to ensure sufficient aeration.

Scenery and Shelter

Soma are nocturnal, preferring to spend daytime in shelters. Therefore, the aquarium is equipped with snags, grottoes, caves. But very often pterigoplicht does not lose activity during the day. When arranging with scraps of pipes, as a shelter, one should take into account even the slow but steady growth of the pet. Stuck in the pipe, the fish quickly dies.

Snags are also needed to stimulate digestive processes. They contain a lot of cellulose, necessary for fish as a food additive.

Coarse river sand and small pebbles are suitable for backfilling. This soil creates a greater similarity with the natural habitat.

Compatibility with other hydrobionts and behavior

In the aquarium, the pterigoplicht will surely choose a shelter for itself and will protect it from all fish. But at the same time, the brocade catfish is a peaceful neighbor for other inhabitants. He shows territorial aggression towards his brethren by sight, if they are inhabited at different times. Then you can observe how the pectoral fins of the catfish become at an angle of 90 °, and the fight begins, during which the fish drag each other over the fins.

Soma use these organs and in order to appear in a frightening form before the enemy, and to exclude the possibility of being swallowed by a predator. After all, due to ruffled fins, they look much larger. In a state of excitement, even the color becomes more expressive. In a calm state, the fins are pressed against the body, and the color brightens.

Conflicts may arise due to the lack of food with other aquarium cleaners: antsistrus and gyrinoheylus.

It is better not to settle the pterigoplicht with slowly swimming fish, clinging to their body or tail, it can cause them serious damage.

The brocade catfish has a special relationship with vegetation in the aquarium. If the fish does not eat up, then very soon the grass will be eaten all. In addition, the aquatic animal likes to dig in the soil and digs up plants very easily. For this reason, plants covering the soil with a carpet are not recommended for planting. Other vegetation must be securely fastened (either stoned or planted in pots) and the catfish fed. For coexistence fit cryptocoryne, valisneria, apogeton wavy.

Diet and diet

Pterigoplicht is very voracious and omnivorous, but prefers plant food more. The favorite treat of the brocade pet is algae. To combat the blue-green fouling will not need chemicals, if the catfish lives in the aquarium. Eats cleaner and organic sediments formed on the stones and scenery in the life of the inhabitants.

The main vegetable diet (80%) consists of the following products:

The menu should be diversified and protein food. Worms, shrimps, bloodworms will do. Eat well and commercial food for bottom fish, which can be the basis of the diet.

Make a feed before turning off the light. When kept with other species of fish living in the middle layers, it should be controlled so that the feed reaches the bottom. Very often, more frisky individuals intercept food and catfish go hungry. To find out whether a pet is fed, you need to look at its belly: it should be round. You can not overfeed pterigoplichta, otherwise he begins to be lazy and stops cleaning the aquarium.

Photos of brocade pterigoplicht

History and features of brocade pterigoplicht

Pterygoplichtys gibbiceps brocade (Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps) is a freshwater ray-finned fish (family of mail catfish). It was first described by Kner and Günther in 1854. This species was classified as pterigoplichts in 1980. А в 2003 его отнесли к глиптоперихтам. Эту кольчужную рыбку называют по-разному: сомик, леопардовый глиптоперихт, птерик и т. д.).

Птерик — это крепкая, сильная рыба. Всеядная, но питается преимущественно водорослями, поэтому 1–2 рыбки могут держать в чистоте аквариум большой вместимости. Так как образ жизни у сома донный, то он не пренебрегает и падалью (в естественной среде обитания).

Парчовые сомики любят лежать на камнях

Этот сомик родом из Южной Америки. Like other catfishes, it occupies the shoals of rivers (Amazon, Orinoco, Xingu, etc.). Loves slow currents and flooded land. If the drought season begins, the catfish hibernates. To sleep, choose a cave where you can hide in the mud. Currently, pet stores sell many varieties of pterigoplicht (up to 100 species).

Appearance Description

Pterik is a large fish. In the natural environment can grow up to 50-60 centimeters. Such catfish are recognized as long-livers (life expectancy is more than 20 years). In aquarium conditions pterik lives to 15 years. Its size depends on the volume of the aquarium. Pterigoplichty happen different color. The body of the fish is slightly flattened on top and covered with hard plates, for which he was called a catfish. The stomach of such a fish is smooth, without covering. The brocade catfish is distinguished by its high dorsal fin (length - up to 15 centimeters, consists of 10 or more rays). High on the head are the eyes.

Catfish muzzle flattened, elongated

By the way, the young brocades som looks very similar to adult individuals. On the face of the pterica there are large voluminous nostrils. The head is long (head length equal to the length of the first ray on the dorsal fin). The body color is brown, with lines and patterns of lighter tones (yellowish, gray and other shades). The picture is very similar to the color of the leopard. On the body spots are larger than on the head and fins.

Color and pattern on the body of the fish may vary with age. These changes are also affected by the conditions of detention. The nature of fish is designed so that they adapt to the environment in which they live.

The mouth of the fish is in the form of a sucker. Catfish can cling to something so hard that it will be difficult to tear it off safely. At the bottom of the mouth is an oblong skin fold, the edges of which smoothly pass into the antennae.

Eye catfish (except the pupil) may also be stained

To determine the sex of this fish is not easy, but it is possible (even at a young age). The size of the male is always slightly larger, and his fins are longer. In addition, there are spikes on the male's pectoral fins, and females do not have them. The color of the female individuals a little dimmer. Professional aquarists can distinguish between females and males of pterika on the basis of their sex (female adult has a genital papilla).

Varieties of pterigoplichtov

The most popular among fans of spotted catfish are red, gold and leopard pterigoplichts. But there are other, no less beautiful subspecies, which are popular with aquarists:

  • nethering pterygoplicht (Рterygoplichthys disjunctivus),
  • Pterigoplicht Yozelman (Pterygoplichthys joselimaianus),
  • yellow sailing pterygoplicht (Pterygoplichthys weberi),
  • brocade pterigoplicht (Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps).

Not only experienced aquarists, but also amateurs can distinguish these catfish.

How does pterigoplicht differ from other species?

Sometimes pterigoplichts are confused with other species of bottom fish. This is used by unscrupulous breeders. However, if we consider soms more closely, we can notice the characteristic features for each individual species. Most often, pterika are confused with plexostomus (Hypostomus plecostomus).

The easiest of all these fish to distinguish when they lie at the bottom of the aquarium. The antennae of the plecostomus are thin and long, while in the pterica they are conical. Also, the plecostomus does not have such a pronounced skin fold, as in pterigoplicht. You can also pay attention to the rows of small spikes along the body of the fish. In the brocade of such rows there are two, the upper one begins at the height of the eyes, and in the plecostomus only the lower row is clearly visible, which begins at the level of the pectoral fin.

In the plecostomy, a line of spines can be seen on the side of the body.

The catfish adhered to the transparent wall of the aquarium are distinguished by their whiskers. The antennae of the plecostomus are filiform, almost colorless, and in the pterica the mustache is thick and dense. In addition, pterigoplicht's gill covers are brightly colored, which is not the case with plexostomus.

Also brocade catfish confused with Ancistrus (Ancistrus). Some amateur aquarists keep these fish in the same aquarium and may not notice the difference between them for several years. Not to confuse them without certain knowledge is difficult, especially if the fish of similar color. But you can distinguish them by body shape and other details. If the age of fish is about the same, the difference will be in size. In pet stores you can find young antsistrus about 2 centimeters long, and pterika - 3-4 centimeters. And there is a bright spot over the tail of the ancistrus, but pterigoplicht does not have such a feature.

If you look closely, you will notice that the body of the fish and the tail are as if separated by a light transverse band.

In addition, brocade catfish have more open fins and crisp, “hard” outlines. Ancistrus looks softer, body shape is more streamlined.

Water parameters

In the wild, pterigoplichts live in rivers, so they are used to slack movements of water. Low flow can also be made with a filter. Ichthyologists recommend mandatory water parameters:

  • temperature - 24–30 ° С,
  • alkalinity - 6.5–7.5 pH,
  • stiffness is average.

It is also important to change the water at least once a week. Capital renewal of water is optional, it is enough to replace a quarter of the volume. Brocade fish themselves choose a comfortable place, so special lighting is not required. You can install a lamp for other fish, and catfish to the proposed conditions adapt.

Feeding rules

Aquarium catfish eat everything. In addition to algae fish can be a simple vegetable food:

The body of catfish is designed so that they can use animal protein:

The correct balance of minerals and vitamins observed in the finished dry feed for bottom fish. Also brocade fish can eat other fish. This is not a consequence of aggression, just catfish see food in the slowly swimming fish. Most often, from the suckers of the catfish, the scales lose the discus and scalar (flat and slow). The ideal diet for brocade catfish is a combination of carbohydrates (70–80%) and proteins (20–30%). If pterigoplicht was already grown up, then it is not necessary to drastically change the usual diet to the "right" food. Otherwise, he may refuse to eat.

In addition, any fish can not take unusual for her food. For example, ptera was fed with moth, and you give him pills — maybe not. Can not eat for a long time.

Novel, experienced aquarist

https://aquastatus.ru/viewtopic.php?f=12&t=32872

Because of the nocturnal lifestyle, pterik eats little during the day. Therefore, if you pamper fish with goodies, then you can give, for example, frozen live food for the night. Everything that will not be eaten, including other fish, will settle on the ground. At night, catfish will pick up the remains and eat. Some brocade fish, reaching adulthood and increasing in size, begin to pull out even large plants. Therefore, you need to install algae with a strong root system.

If you like tender algae with weak roots, you can put them in pots. At the bottom of the dishes need to make small holes, so as not to close the space. After transplanting the soil in the pot should be sprinkled with pebbles. The entire pot must be wrapped in a fine mesh (for example, a mosquito net), leaving a hole only to exit the plant. This trick catfish can not get around.

Coconut shell - a convenient substitute for snags

Somams really need snags. Such elements are overgrown with small algae, and pterigoplyhty eat them. This feeding will not replace a full meal, but is important in the diet. Brocade and other catfish get the necessary trace elements from these algae, which affects the digestive system, color brightness and overall immunity. Bottom fishes are very slow, so they often do not eat enough (other fish are swallowed up by food). Therefore, you need to make sure that all the other inhabitants of the aquarium ate, and then pour a little more food. The well-fed fish will ignore the new food intake, and the catfish will calmly eat. It is possible to determine malnutrition by examining the belly of the fish (a dense, rounded belly indicates satiety).

Compatible with other fish

In the wild, if soma is in danger, he spreads his fins to become larger in size and the enemy could not swallow it. During hibernation pterik, buried in the dirt, hisses. So nature has provided for catfish "alarm", which is triggered when the fish are asleep and poorly controlling what is happening around. In the aquarium, such a critical danger does not threaten the fish, therefore conflicts arise only between males of any kind of catfish. The fish straightens its ray-finned fins in order to intimidate the opponent.

If two somiks of the same species do not conflict, they may be of different sexes.

Since pterigoplicht can grow up to half a meter, the neighbors must match its size. Cichlids, gourami, polypterus, etc. can be attributed to “convenient” neighbors. However, it is impossible to make the catfish addicted to absolute vegetarians. Catfish eat or pull out all that he can, and the herbivore neighbor will starve.

Pterigoplicht is notable for its gentle disposition and friendliness. But sometimes disputes between fishes can arise in cases when an already grown up catfish is planted in a common aquarium. Males, even other species can be seen in the newcomer future rival.

Breeding

At the age of three, the brocade catfish will become sexually mature. Often, aquarists, knowing this, begin to prepare for the addition (they buy another catfish of the other sex, prepare a grater, etc.). But at home it is almost impossible to breed pterigoplichtov. The fact is that in the wild, the female lays eggs in the burrows. The indentations in the ground must be oozy and of such a size that an adult male could hide in them (he protects the eggs).

Therefore, all the fry, which are sold in Russian aqua stores, brought from fish farms. Breeders place pairs of brocade catfish in specially equipped ponds with a silty bottom and soft soil. Commercial pterigoplichtovye farms are in America, Australia and southeast Asia.

Diseases of Pterigoplicht

Brocade catfish - fish resistant to all sorts of ailments. But if the conditions of detention are violated (poor nutrition, lack of snags, dirty water, etc.), the immunity of the fish may weaken. The most common health problems in catfish are disorders in the digestive tract and infectious diseases.

Bottom fishes are predisposed to infection with protozoa. But a healthy pterigoplicht just does not get sick, so it is important to preserve the immunity of the fish (proper nutrition, cleanliness of the aquarium, etc.). Soma can get ichthyophthiriasis (colloquially - "semolina"), the causative agent of which is the ciliate-slipper. If the water does not change for a long time and violate other conditions of detention, then the infection can be transmitted to other inhabitants of the aquarium. This sore comes with a new fish (so you need to remember about the three-week quarantine for beginners). Detect the disease can be on white spots on the body of the fish. If your pterik in some places was covered with "mold", you need to urgently go to the veterinarian. Prescribed medicine will need to give, otsadiv sick fish in a separate container.

If only one spot has appeared recently, it means you can try to cure a catfish yourself. To do this, the temperature in the aquarium (the tank) is increased to 30 ° C. Water is made slightly brackish. It is hoped that the causative agent will not survive fundamental changes and leave your pet's body. If it does not help - urgently in the vet clinic. It is important to treat pterigoplicht, because, despite its size, catfish, like other fish, can also die from the disease.

If the fish lies limp and does not move, it may be sick

Inexperienced aquarists may think that you can not take care of the bottom unpretentious fish, but it is not. If the conditions for keeping the catfish are violated in any way, the fish will become sick and this will manifest as symptoms:

  • behavior has changed (hiding even at night, beating against the walls of an aquarium, etc.),
  • brightened body or separate parts (abdomen, fins, back),
  • catfish looks emaciated (lost weight, mouth, etc.),
  • his eyes are white or bulging
  • there are holes between the rays of the fins or the fins look torn,
  • a light film appeared on the surface of the water, light flakes (not from food) or light strands of mucus “hang” in the water,
  • the fish have lost their appetite
  • Pet lies at the bottom.

Pteriki most often get sick from the accumulation of organic matter. The products of metabolism, remaining in the water, cause an increase in the level of harmful substances (nitrites, ammonia, etc.). But to despair and put up with this state of affairs should not be. Various fast tests are now being sold that can be used at home (it is not necessary to buy expensive ones).

It is necessary to choose tests for recognition of different salts at once (nitrites, nitrates), chlorine and pH level.

The instruction is attached to any test. So you will understand what rolls. One of the ways to deal with harmful substances - air conditioning. These are special additives that can neutralize poison. The conditioner is chosen for use in a specific volume of water. It is also necessary to replace part of the water (1/4). This also requires air conditioning (for example, Akutan or Aquaseyf). New water should be treated with this tool, if necessary - heated to the desired temperature and pour into the aquarium. If it is not possible to buy such an additive, then water can be treated in a more troublesome way (boil and cool).

When the water returns to normal, the catfish's immunity will begin to recover. Then there will be a chance that the fish will recover. Pterigoplicht usually swims low, touching the fins of the ground. If the pectoral fins do not move, and the fish simply lies (and does not eat anything), the owner starts to panic. In addition to the above reasons, this behavior of catfish can be caused by stress. For example, when a pterik is a novice in an aquarium with other fish (or in a catfish a new aquarium). If all conditions of detention are normal, then you can wait a couple of days. When the brocade gets used to the new conditions, he will surely begin to swim and eat.

Brocade pterigoplicht is a catfish whose body is covered with solid plates. These fish eat vegetable and protein foods, are bottom-dwelling and do not sleep at night. Pterigoplicht can live up to 20 years in aquarium conditions.

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