If there are any deviations from the standard in the exterior or behavior of the dog, this is considered a disadvantage. Brazilian Fila with pronounced deviations even subject to disqualification.
- short muzzle
- small or high set ears
- very bright eye color
- folds on the skull,
- arched back
- narrow croup (posterior torso),
- short step
- small head
- short upper lip
- round or bulging eyes,
- straight or humped back,
- too tight belly
- weak core,
- a lot of white markings on the dog's body,
- too tall.
The dog Fila Brasileiro, despite its excellent health, may still have problems with the gastrointestinal tract. That is why it is not recommended to overfeed. It is better to give the dog food several times a day, but in small portions. In animals, in addition to problems with the intestines, ischemia and eye diseases occur.
The dog feels great both in a city apartment and in a country house. Of course, in the summer cottage the dogs will be more comfortable. If you plan to keep the dog in the apartment, you must walk with him around the city every day to adapt it. Otherwise, it may happen that the animal, when meeting with strangers, suddenly shows aggression.
In the care of this breed is nothing complicated. It is only necessary to monitor the condition of the skin and wipe wrinkles from time to time. The eyes of the dog should also be washed with chamomile extract or tea.
The dog's diet should consist mainly of meat, since it is the main source of animal protein. It is necessary to feed the dog with vegetables, fruits, cereals, seafood, cottage cheese and chicken eggs. The dog should be given vitamins and minerals in pills or in the form of drops. Cabbage, legumes, sausages and smoked meats, pickled vegetables and various sweets should be completely excluded from the diet.
Reviews about the dog
Judging by the enthusiastic reviews of breeders and owners, the Brazilian mastiff is almost the most ideal guard dog, ready to protect its own owner to the last drop of blood. The animal is endowed with an extremely strong innate guardian instinct, which can hardly be found among representatives of other breeds. It is considered that the dog should be trained not by a dog trainer-trainer, but by the owner himself. With this approach, during training, any aggression on the part of the dog is completely excluded.
Breeders recommend breeding this breed only to serious and responsible people. Indeed, in bad hands, such a smart dog, distinguished by an excellent nervous system, can become a dangerous weapon. And for those people who sincerely love animals and are very serious about their upbringing and maintenance, Fila Brazileiro will become a faithful and devoted friend, a reliable security guard and a nurse for children.
Fila Brasileiro (Brazilian Mastiff, Brazilian Fila, Brazilian Guard Dog).
True, like a fila. Brazilian saying
The emergence of a powerful moloss in South America belongs to the beginning of the conquest of Brazil, when the Portuguese navigator Pedro Cabral in 1500 declared the land discovered by him to the possession of Portugal. The country was divided into 13 captains (later provinces), and Jesuit fathers created Indian settlements (missions), where the indigenous people of Brazil were used as slaves.
In the colony it was forbidden to produce goods exported from the metropolis — wheat, vegetable oil, wine, and other products. Brazil is becoming a huge plantation of coffee and banana trees, cotton, rice, corn and sugarcane. A large number of cheap labor was required, and from the 30s of the 16th century black slaves from Africa began to be regularly supplied to the colony. Since the end of the XVI century, in connection with the discovery of gold and diamonds, Brazil has become the richest colony of Portugal and the largest slave-owning power. The colonial period, which ended in 1825, lasted for three hundred years, but it was not until 1888 that the so-called Golden Law on the abolition of slavery was issued in the country.
For more than three hundred years, the dog was a constant helper and bodyguard of the overseers, a fearless hunter of jaguars and boars, a defender of hacienda from thieves and predators, a skilled worker with semi-wild cattle. Over the centuries, the breed of dogs was formed, the main advantages of which were aggressiveness, the ability to move easily in hard to reach places, unpretentiousness, short, hard coat, incredible dedication to the owner, his family and irreconcilability to everyone else, as well as excellent hunting qualities - strength, fearlessness, excellent scent. “The Brazilian filas are temperamental and full of strength. They react with lightning speed. They can go from drowsiness to action in a fraction of a second ”(L. Dazer). They attack silently, almost without warning.
For three hundred years, Phil was used to search and harass people — runaway slaves (matrons) working in the mines and plantations of Minas Gerais, Bahia, São Paulo, Maranhão. Where the cult of force prevailed, it was not possible without an overseer and his shadow — a formidable powerful dog. Dogs were trained to hunt down fugitives using specially made stuffed blacks. Practically it was legalized hunting for black people.
So, together with the adventurers who are striving to conquer new territories, the ancestors of the Brazilian philes arrived from Europe. It is believed that the ancestors of the "cao de fila" were mainly three breeds of dogs: ancient bulldogs (doggen engclsen), mastiffs and bloodhound. From the mastiff Phil Brazilian inherited the aggressive nature of the dog, as well as stubbornness and perseverance. Of the external data - a powerful skeleton, raised croup and long ears. From the ancient bulldog and berenbeiser (barenbeiser) - strong temperament and perseverance, a large heavy head, powerful jaws, a broken back ear and all the basic colors. From bloodthrow - accentuated occiput, deep wrinkles on the muzzle, dewlap, excellent sense of smell and the ability to bark a dog during rut.
It has been suggested that the Portuguese colonists from the Azores brought to Brazil also the now-disappeared “fila terceirensc” - a cattle dog, and its influence on the formation of “fila brasilciro” is difficult to determine. It is possible that “fila terceirense” left behind the “fila brasileiro” curved tail (in the excited state, the tail of the dog rises and its end bends) and the ability to graze cattle.
Some researchers, that unpretentiousness, endurance and the ability to quickly adapt to the contrasting weather conditions, the Brazilian Fila is obliged to large native dogs with which their ancestors could interbreed, and even perhaps to wolves that once lived in areas of the Brazilian highlands.
The breed received its name from the Portuguese filar, which means “retain”, since the main job of the dog was to find and keep the runaway slave until the supervisor appeared. The second part - "Brazili" comes from the name of the Portuguese colony - Brazil, which, in turn, comes from "pau-brasil" - especially valuable redwood Pau-brasil.
For centuries, the Brazilian Phil bred, paying attention only to their working qualities, not caring about a single type. As a result, several breed variations have been formed. Brazilian dog handlers decided to create a single type, and in 1940 work began on creating the “ideal prototype” (Dr. P. Balle) of the Brazilian phile.
Kennel Club Paulista is being created, nurseries are being organized, where breeding work is carried out with the best selected specimens. In 1946, the breed was recognized by the Brazilian Conference of dog lovers. Bumbo da Villa Paulista (breeder J. Peyote from São Paulo) became the first champion among Brazilian films.
In 1968, Fila Brasileiro was recognized by FCI, and in 1976, the following standard was removed from the breed standard approved earlier: “The judge in the ring should not come close to the dog and touch it with his hands.”
Since 1992, Fila Brasileiro becomes known in Russia. In 1995, at the Russian Club of Rare Breeds, the Phil Brasileiro Association will be created, which united only five dogs of this breed, according to the pa Russian World Show in Helsinki “Russian” phyles won two champion titles.
FCI Breed Standard №225 01/01/1984
A country: Brazil
Typical moloss. The format is rectangular. The backbone is powerful. Addition is compact, harmonious and proportional. Despite its massiveness, the dog is agile and agile. Sexual dimorphism is well expressed.
The dog is brave and courageous. Obedient to the owner and his family, indulgent in dealing with children. Her loyalty to her master entered the Brazilian proverb: “Faithful as a fila,” she always seeks to win his favor. One of its characteristic features is aggressiveness towards strangers, however the dog is fairly well controlled. In a peaceful state, Fila Brasileiro demonstrates confidence and greatness. The psyche is strong. The dog is not embarrassed by loud noises or changes in the environment. In a calm state, her appearance expresses confidence and nobility, she is never annoying, while always ready to execute commands. In a wary state, takes a characteristic posture, the look becomes threatening. She is an unsurpassed guard, has a strong hunting instinct on large animals, and also protects and herds livestock.
Wide, with a large stretch of limbs, elastic, resembling the movement of large cats. The main gait is an amble (camel's gait), in which a pair of extremities initially blows out on one side, and in the next phase - a second pair on the other. At the same time, there is lateral rocking of the chest and the back of the body, which is often emphasized by the synchronous movement of the raised tail.
When moving in steps, the head is lowered below the back line. With a quick gait, with a transition to a gallop, the movements are free and elastic, the extremity of the limbs is maximum. At the same time, the dog develops great speed and is very strong, despite its weight and massiveness. Such mobility is peculiar in general for the majority of the Molossians, since they possess the characteristic structure of the forelimbs.
Heavy and massive. Proportional to the body. When viewed from above, it resembles a trapezoid or has the shape of a pear. When viewed from the side, the muzzle and skull are approximately the same in length, or the muzzle is slightly shorter.
In profile, the line of the skull forms a smooth gently sloping curve from the stop to the occiput, the back of the head is pronounced, which is especially characteristic of puppies. Seen from the front, the skull is wide, with a sloping topline. The space under the eyes is moderately filled, the transition into the face is smooth.
Seen from the front, almost invisible. The frontal furrow is moderately pronounced. When viewed from the side, the foot is flat, sloping, it is almost formed by well-developed superciliary arches.
Massive, wide and deep, always harmonious with the skull. Moderately filled under the eyes. Slightly narrowed towards the middle and slightly widening towards the nose. Seen from the side, the back of the nose is straight or with a small bump, a “Roman nose”, but never turned up. The upper line of the back of the nose and the line drawn tangently along the nose, form an angle in the range of 90 °. The lower line of the muzzle, formed by the upper lips - thick, drooping, covering the lower jaw and lower lips, is almost parallel to the upper line of the back of the nose.
Lip edging is always dark and has the shape of the letter "U". The lower lip always hangs and forms a pocket in the corners of the mouth. The depth of the muzzle in the widest part does not exceed the length of the muzzle.
Nose Well developed, with wide nostrils, but no wider than the upper jaw. Black colour.
Eye size can range from medium to large. Almond shape. Set wide. Eyes medium and deep set. Color - from dark chestnut to yellow, always in harmony with the coat color. Due to the loose skin of some dogs, the eyelids are overdeveloped, however this is not a disadvantage, but gives the dog a melancholic expression that is generally typical of the breed.
Hanging, big, thick. The form is V-shaped. Broad at the base and tapering towards a rounded tip. The ears (at rest) are set below the level of the eyes and in the lower part of the occiput. When excited, the dog raises his ears a little higher. The front edge of the ear above the rear. Ears dangling on cheeks or folded and laid back.
Strong and white. Noticeably wider than long. The canines are wide at the base, with sharp crowns, set wide apart. Scissor bite. Ticks are valid.
Fig. Exterior of the Brazilian Phil
Strong, well muscled and thick, which makes it visually short. The upper line of the neck is gently curved, the transition from the neck to the neck is well defined. On the throat - suspension.
Topline Withers wide and located below the croup.
Wide and long It is located approximately at an angle of 30 ° to the horizontal. A bit convex. Seen from behind, it should appear long and wide. The croup width should be equal to the width of the chest, and the bitches may be wider.
Very strong, wide and long. The skin on the body is free and mobile. The length of the chest is longer than the length of the abdominal cavity. The length of the body is greater than the height at the withers by 10%.
Rib cage Long and deep, to the level of the elbows. The ribs are mobile, but do not interfere with the work of the shoulder.
Short and not as deep as the chest. Conditionally divided into two parts. The lower part of the lower back is more developed. When viewed from above, the loin should be narrower than the chest, the waist should not be.
Long and parallel horizontals all over. It passes into a moderately tucked up belly, but should not be in the type of a hound.
Ideally, the shoulder blade and shoulder should be the same in length. The blade must be set at an angle of 45 ° to the horizontal.
The shoulder angle must be within 90 °. The articulation of the scapula and humerus should form a noticeable forbrust. Ideally, the distance between the withers and the shoulder joint should be equal to the distance between the shoulder joint and the chest bone. An imaginary perpendicular line drawn from withers down should go along the elbows, touching the paws.
The forearms of both limbs are parallel to each other. Move almost to the direct metacarpus. The backbone is strong. The wrists are well shaped and strong. Pastern short and slightly sloping. The length of the front limb from the elbow to the horizontal is equal to the distance from the elbow to the withers.
Strong. Fingers curved. Not too tightly lumped. Paw pads are dense, wide, thick. Paws should not have been turned outwards or tucked under the body.
The claws are strong and dark, but let's say white color with the corresponding coat color.
Straight and parallel to each other. No less powerful than the front limbs. The backbone is large. Hips well muscled. Tarsus well developed. The hock has a moderate angle. Hocks slightly sloping and longer than metacarpus.
Slightly more oval than the paws on the forelimbs. All other parameters are identical to the paws of the front limbs. Dewclaws should be removed.
Very wide at the base and gradually tapering towards the tailbone, which reaches the hock. In a state of attention, the dog raises its tail high and its tail bone bends. The tail should not touch the back or curl.
Growth Males ranging from 65 to 75 cm. Females ranging from 60 to 70 cm.
Weight Males - not less than 50 kg. Suki - not less than 40 kg.
All monochrome colors are allowed, except for disqualifying ones (white, mouse gray, variegated, speckled, marble, black and tan). Tigers are allowed on the main color, which should be with well-defined edges and contrasting. Allowed scooping mask. For all basic colors, white spots on paws, chest and tailbone are acceptable. On the other parts of the body white markings are not allowed.
One of the most important characteristics of the breed is tight, mobile and loose skin on the body.
A neckline is formed on the neck. Folds are formed on the chest, joints and on the abdomen. Some individuals may have folds on the skull and withers. In a quiescent state, the folds of the skull skins are smoothed and, on the contrary, when excited, they are collected along the skull.
Coat The coat is short, smooth, thick and close to the skin.
The test of bravery is conducted with dogs over 12 months of age to participate in subsequent performances. All champions must have a courage test certificate. The test includes:
Attack with a stick. The dog attacks the person involved and holds him. The figurant must not run away. It is forbidden to beat the dog with a stick. The test of indifference to the shot from a pistol. Выстрел производится па расстоянии 5 метров от собаки. Собака должнаоявить внимание и уверенность в себе. В течение всего испытания судья анализирует поведение и характер участника, обращая внимание на его реакции. При этом собака должна выказывать агрессивность к фигуранту, а также храбрость и уверенность себе.
Общие недостатки Крипторхизм. Альбинизм. Изменение экстерьера собаки с помощью искусственных средств и т.д.
Агрессивность к владельцу.
No pigmentation (pink nose).
Sticking teeth when mouth is closed.
The absence of one canine or me and one molar, with the exception of the third molar.
Light blue (porcelain) eyes.
Cropped ears or tail.
The croup is below the withers.
Colors: white, mouse gray, variegated, speckled, black and tan, as well as artificially changed coat color.
Growth below minimum.
Very serious flaws
Tight fitting lips.
The absence of two teeth, with the exception of PI (first premolars).
Indifference and timidity.
Straightened about limbs.
Poor y oost.
White spots exceeding 1/4 of the body.
The lack of pigment eye rims.
Square body format.
High posta ears.
Excessively light eyes.
Wrinkles on the skull when the dog is at rest.
The lack of two teeth.
Spiral tail. Tail thrown back.
Overly sloping pasterns and feet.
Excessive angles of the hind limbs.
The shortcomings falling under the following clause: all the flaws, not described by the standard and not falling into the previous paragraphs of defects and shortcomings.
Fila Brasileiro, Brazilian Mastiff, Brazilian Guard Dog - all these are the names of a dog breed introduced by conquistadors to Central America. Mingling with the local breeds, she gave rise to the Brazilian Mastiff genus. Despite the power (with growth up to 80 cm, this giant weighs about 90 kg), agility, dexterity and endurance of the Brazilian mastiff can be envied.
The main distinguishing feature of the breed is a two-stroke amble, in which the legs of one side move proportionately, as a single pair, back and forth. This gives the swinging movement to the entire body of the dog (the so-called camel amble), underlined with the tail raised upwards. For Phil, Brazilian is characterized by a strong, wide, deep muzzle, always in proportion with the skull. The upper lip is thick and drooping, overlaps the bottom with an immaculate bend, the bottom line of the muzzle is almost parallel to the top line. The lower lip is closely adjacent to the teeth on the jawbone with its loose jagged edges. The edges of the lips form a deep inverted letter "U". The eyes are medium or large, almond-shaped, set deep and relatively far apart. Acceptable eye colors: from dark brown to yellow, always in tint with coat color. Due to an excess of free skin, many representatives of the Brazilian fila have sagging lower eyelids. This is not considered a disadvantage, since it emphasizes a typical melancholic expression for the breed. Hanging ears are flush with the cheeks or laid back, which allows you to see the inner surface of the ear. The neck is strong and muscular, gives the impression of a short, a suspension is formed under the throat. The coat is smooth and short.
All monochrome colors are allowed, except for white, mouse-gray, spotted and speckled. With a fully tiger color can be both light and dark stripes. A black mask is possible on the face. According to the FCI standard, white markings not exceeding 1/4 of the skin surface area are permissible on the paws, chest and tip of the tail. In other places they are undesirable. Recently, black color is not considered a vice. Like all mastiffs, fila does not apply to long-livers. The puppy price starts at $ 1,000, and the elite starts at $ 1,500.
Fila is a guard dog in which the morale of ancestors lives. Her mobility and endurance can be envied. Until now, at home, Phil is used to hunt a jaguar. Today, the Brazilian mastiff is primarily a guard of the yard, at home. He does not hide his distrust of strangers. Even at exhibitions, the manifestation of aggression towards the judge is not a reason for disqualification, since it is embedded in the genes. The Brazilian breed standard advises the judges not to touch the dog. In rare cases, the Fila Brasileiro - assistant shepherd. But such a wealthy shepherd, who could contain a dog of this breed, still need to look. Mastiffs weigh about 90 kg on average.
Brazilian mastiff-type dogs were used for hunting jaguars and catching runaway slaves, livestock pen on the ranch and for ordinary work. The progenitors of this breed are the Bloodhounds. This means that mastiffs are the largest guard dogs of antiquity. The Brazilian Mastiff is one of the most attractive breeds in the world, but it can not be called common. For example, in Russia, its representatives can be counted on the fingers. You should not torment an animal, getting it in the city apartment. Such a dog necessarily need space.
Excerpts from the standard
Height at withers. Males - from 65 to 75 cm, females - from 60 to 70 cm.
Weight. Males - at least 50 kg, bitches - at least 40 kg.
General form. Typical representative of mastiffs. A powerful skeleton, a rectangular and dense figure and, despite this, a slender and proportionate build, very nimble. Sexual dimorphism is well expressed.
Character and temperament. Endowed with courage and bravery. When kept in the house, the dog is quiet, obedient, patient with children.
Color. All monochrome colors are allowed, except for disqualifying. Disqualifying are white, gray, speckled and spotted colors. Possible black mask, white spots on the paws, chest and tip of the tail. It is undesirable the presence of white color on more than 1/4 of the body.
Leather. Character and type - one of the main breed characteristics. The skin should be rough and mobile, lagging behind the body. A suspension is formed on the neck (often on the chest and abdomen).
In a calm state, the dog should not have folds on the head; in an excited state, the skin on the skull tightens and small longitudinal folds appear.
Wool. Short, soft, thick, tight to the body.
Head. Large, heavy, massive, harmonious with respect to the body. Seen from above, it has a pear shape.
In the profile of the muzzle and the skull should have a ratio of approximately 1: 1, the first is slightly less than the second.
Skull. In the profile along the upper contour, a gentle curve forms from the superciliary arches to the occiput, which is well pronounced, especially in puppies. The lateral surfaces descend by curved lines almost vertically, tapering towards the muzzle. Brow arc not seen from the front.
Muzzle. Strong, wide, always proportional to the skull. Complete under the eyes, tapers slightly towards the middle and gradually expands.
Nose. Black color Nostrils are wide, well set apart. Color - from dark chestnut to yellowish, always corresponds to the tone of the main color. In some dogs the eyelids are lowered, which is not considered a disadvantage.
Ears. Large, thick, in the form of a letter V. At the base - wide, and then taper, rounded. The ears are attached obliquely, the leading edge is much higher than the back. In a quiet state, the ears are lowered on the sides or folded back, revealing the inner surface.
Teeth. The incisors are wide at the base and pointed at the top. Fangs - powerful, well set and removed from each other. Perfect scissor bite, for example, a straight bite (pincers).
Neck. Strong, muscular. The upper line of the neck arcs. Well expressed transition from a skull to a nape. In the throat area there is a suspension.
Housing. Strong, stretched. The length of the body, measured from the chest to the back of the sacrum, is determined by the height at the withers plus 10 percent.
Top line. Withers tilted and located below the sacrum.
Rib cage. The ribs are bulging and do not affect the position of the shoulders. The chest is wide and strong, reaching almost the edge of the calf. The bottom line of the chest is flat, almost parallel to the ground along the entire length. The line of the abdomen rises slightly, but there should be no fryiness.
Lumbar spine. It is expressed weakly.
Sacrum. Forms an angle of approximately 30 ° with the horizontal plane. Sacrum slightly above withers. Behind the croup should be wide, about the same as the chest. (A bitch croup may be wider than the chest.)
Before. The scapula is located at an angle of 45 ° to the horizontal and approximately at 90 ° to the humerus.
Front limbs. Are located in parallel. Ideally, the shoulder joint is at half height from the lower edge of the chest to the withers. Bones are powerful, straight, strong wrists, oblique short pasterns.
Paws. The fingers are strong, well-chosen, not too tightly closed, the pads are thick, wide, resting on a massive finger pad.
Hind limbs. Parallel. The femur is wide, hock joints have moderate angles. Strong metatarsals, podlyusny slightly curved and slightly higher than the metatarsus. The shape of the paws is more oval than in the front.
Tail. At the base is wide, tapers towards the end. At rest, the end of the tail reaches the level of the hock. In the excited tail rises and its end bends. At the same time, the tail should not fall on its back or curl.
Motion. Wide, elastic steps, like a cat. The main feature is the movement of the amble (camel's step), hence the rocking of the hull. When walking, the head goes down below the back line. Running is easy, soft, free, steps wide. Gallop is very powerful and extremely fast for a dog with such weight.
Features of the articular-articular apparatus allow the fillet to quickly and suddenly change the direction of motion.
- Cryptorchidism, albinism, atypical.
- An attempt using artificial means and cosmetic operations to make changes to the exterior.
- Aggressiveness towards the host.
- Lightened nose.
- The absence of one molar, with the exception of the third.
- Light blue eyes.
- Cropped ears or tail.
- The sacrum is below the withers.
- The color is white, mouse colored, speckled and mottled.
- Below minimum growth.
- Lack of mobile skin.
- Deviations amble.
Brazilian Mastiff (Phil Brasileiro)
FCI Group: Group 2: Pinchers and Schnauzers, Molossians and Swiss Herding Dogs
FCI Section: Section 2: Molossy
Subsection: 2.1 Mastiffs
FCI standard number: 225
Date of adoption of the standard: 2004-03-10
Systems recognized breed: FCI
Purpose of the breed: Service dogs
Alternative breed names: Phil Brasileiro
Country of Origin: Brazil
Territory: South America
Brazilian Mastiff (Portuguese. Fila Brasileiro, Eng. Brazilian Mastiff), a breed of working dogs. Another name is Phil Brasileiro. The appearance of mastiff-type dogs in South America dates back to the 16-18th century. It is connected with the arrival of the Spanish and Portuguese conquistadors to Brazil, who brought their Molossi to the continent, which, mixed with local dogs, gave rise to the Brazilian breed in the late 19th century. Perhaps the Bloodhound was involved in the creation of the breed, as evidenced by the folds of the skin on the head.
The Brazilian Mastiff was used not only to protect hacienda and plantations, work on the ranch and hunt panthers and jaguars, but also to catch runaway slaves. A distinctive feature of Phil is hotboo and running amble. This gives the dog undeniable advantages during long transitions.
There are several versions of the appearance of the Phil Brazilian breed.
The first version claims that the fila appeared as a result of the crossing of the English Mastiff, Bloodhound and the English Bulldog. From the mastiff, Phil inherited the shape of the skull and back, from the Bloodhund borrowed the hanging skin folds, sad eyes and keen scent, and from the ancient breed of bulldog she got a wild temper and stubborn temper.
Another hypothesis states that Fila is descended from Fil terceirense (a breed named after Terceira, which is part of the Azores). With the ascension of King Don Joan VI to the Brazilian throne, the English mastiff, popular in those years, began to be brought to Brazil. By virtue of random crossings, bred fila terceirense and mastiff appear.
In 1938, a common passion and love for this breed united its admirers and connoisseurs into a national congress with headquarters in Rio de Janeiro. All of them overwhelmed the passion to improve the breed. In the end, as a result of crossing several breeds over several centuries without the intervention of specialists, a new breed appeared. The first reference sample was selected from a large number of applicants in 1946. Exactly 30 years later, in 1976, a new version of the breed was bred, more “detailed”, but without the specific features characteristic of a particular breed.