The body of the fish has a discoid shape with an elongated dorsal fin. In artificial reservoirs, the length of a pet rarely reaches 10 centimeters. The flesh color of a scalar fish as a result of many years of breeding work can be varied - from black to rich golden. Business card of the form - dark vertical stripes that run all over the body. According to their saturation, we can talk about the state of health of Pterophyllum scalare. The scalar fishes are calm, peace-loving, kept in groups of 5-7 individuals. Harmoniously coexist with small and comparable non-aggressive waterfowl.

Optimum conditions of maintenance: the volume of water - from 100 liters. The view requires a glade for free swimming, vegetation for shelters. As decorations and shelters can be placed at the bottom of intricate snags, mazes and other structures. Prefer dark ground. To water hardness insensitive. Suitable temperature is 25-27 degrees Celsius. The light should be muffled, without sudden drops.

Dry algae prefer live food. Angelfish are prone to overeating, from which they suffer, it is important to feed them systemically and portions.

Terra - a real decoration of the aquarium

Domestic fish of this species reach 4-5 centimeters in length. The body is slender, elongated, with a characteristic dark stripe horizontally. The tail fin is divided in two, there is a fatty fin. Anal fin slightly elongated. Body color - saturated lemon. Dorsal fin black. Females are fuller than males, pale in color. Lemon tetra is a schooling peace-loving fish. It does not impose special requirements on the volume of the aquarium; it loves living vegetation, it needs a territory for free swimming.

Optimal conditions of maintenance - dark soil, you can use small pebbles or medium sand, closer to the coarse fraction. Peat filtration shown. Recommended replacement под of the water every 7-10 days.

Lemon tetra in food is unpretentious, prefers both dry and live food. May eat foliage aquarium plants. Prone to obesity (why females suffer from infertility), so it is necessary from time to time to practice preventive fasting for a day (once every two or three weeks). It is also important to provide them with enough space for active movement.

Neon kind Hifessobrikon (Hyphessobrycon)

Fish belonging to this species are distinguished by a dorsal upright fin. In the fin area there is no scales. The body is compressed laterally, high. Deeply cut tail fin, rectangular anal fin. Neon red differs in magnificence of the coloring, is mobile, peaceful.

Optimum conditions of maintenance - a small-sized aquarium with soft water. Representatives of the species are difficult to tolerate her shift, it is necessary to do it as rarely as possible. The installation of the peat filter is shown. The priority is a slight darkening, densely planted with underwater vegetation areas should be alternated with areas for swimming. Temperature range - 22-25 degrees.

As feed, neon red prefers dry algae, bloodworm, enchitreous, crustaceans and small insects.

Sex differences are poorly expressed, an experienced professional can cope with the task.

Golden Karasik - the most popular aquarium fish

The body of the waterfowl is elongated, in shape resembles its ancestor - a crucian. The tail fin is single, rounded, flattened, the size does not exceed ¼ of the body of the fish. Pectoral and pelvic fins are paired, anal - short, single. Goldfish have a distinctive orange-red color, rare albino red and white.

The optimal conditions of maintenance - water of medium hardness and acidity, safely tolerate lowering the temperature to 10 and increasing to 28 degrees. Prefers more swimming space. In the aquarium should be equipped with bright lighting, use the soil fines, snags, stones, etc. The high endurance of the breed allows you to keep it in an open decorative pond.

Goldfish are omnivores. Use live, vegetable food, concentrated feed.

Betta fish

Cockerel fish got its name from aggressive males who fight among themselves, like roosters. At home, in the countries of the East, they are bred for fights, and real coaches are preparing for the competition of participants. Representatives of the species have a body elongated in length, rounded in cross section. Mouth with swollen lips. Color dark brown with rows of green with overflow of spots. In the aquarium reaches a length of six centimeters. Life expectancy is 1.5-2 years.

On one water area it is supposed to contain one male and several females. Buying two males involves the installation of a glass partition, otherwise the victims can not be avoided. The aquarium should be closed from above so that the air above the water surface is warm and the pets do not have a cold. The lighting is top, the ground is dark, thickets of living and inanimate plants, houses, caves, and so on. Allowable temperature - 25-27 degrees.

The cockerel fish prefers live food in the form of a bloodworm. Practiced feeding options dry vegetable product. Representatives of the species are prone to overeating, which together with insufficient space for active swimming can cause the development of diseases. Experts in the field of aquaria recommend arranging fighting days for fighting fish in the form of fasting no more than once a week.

Barbusses - keepers of peace and comfort in the aquarium

The body of a black representative of the oval-shaped species, elongated and squeezed on the sides. Silvery spots are located above the pectoral fin and in the area of ​​the tail. On the body is printed mesh pattern scales. The fish is a black female barbus larger than the male in size, the color is pale. The individual is a schooling, calm. It is recommended to keep five to seven fish in the aquarium. Swim in the middle layers of water.

Optimum conditions of maintenance: in the water area it is necessary to create an atmosphere of twilight, pick up a dark image for decorating the back wall, use a dark background of the soil and brown algae. To muffle the overhead light, to shift to a forward wall. The quality of water, fish, homemade undemanding. The temperature range of comfort - 18-28 degrees Celsius. Water properties do not matter.

Barbs love spacious aquariums from 50 liters with places of solitude in the form of plants and structures. Recommended filtration and aeration, the replacement of 20% of water weekly.

Fish unpretentious in food. Use dry, lively and concentrated feed.

Somik ordinary

The body is stocky, shortened. The back, head and fins are covered with numerous dark spots. Dorsal fin high. The line of the back is arched, the belly is almost flat. Two pairs of antennae on the upper lip are the distinguishing feature of all catfish. Eyes are mobile. The back, head and tail are light brown in color, the abdomen is pink, with a golden sheen. In captivity, males grow up to six centimeters, females - up to seven or eight. This is a schooling species, it is supposed to contain at least five to seven individuals in the same water area.

Fish catfish speckled - one of the most unpretentious species. The comfort temperature range is 2-35 degrees Celsius. A special way of intestinal respiration allows the water user to comfortably exist in dirty water, a small aquarium, in the absence of aeration. Acceptable acidity is not more than 8.2, hardness is up to 35. Domestic fish do not tolerate salt water. The soil is worth picking up the small, they are happy to dig. Mandatory real or artificial plants, in the shade of which the species is resting and hiding. Bright light is not required, sufficient daylight.

Food - vegetable, live (bloodworm, coretrus, tubule). They prefer to pick food that sinks to the bottom.

Little yes remote guppies

Representatives of the species belong to the viviparous fish that do not spawn, but produce live formed fry. The fish described are one of the smallest inhabitants of the aquarium. The largest males reach 4 centimeters in length, the females are larger - up to six centimeters. Guppy fishes in an aquarium are presented in a wide range of species. The main difference is in the color and shape of the fins. A special attraction for aquarists are the tail, round-tail scarf, fork and voile guppies.

Optimum conditions of maintenance: small waterfowl safely endure adversity. Allowable temperature regime - 23-26 degrees, daily deviation - no more than 3-5 degrees. They live in packs of 8-10 individuals. A change of one third of the water once a week is recommended. The content of elite guppies provides for the presence of an aquarium of fifty and more liters. For a comfortable existence, a male needs a liter of water; a female has two. Required intensive filtration and aeration.

Prefer dry and industrial canned food. Domestic fish can go on a week-long hunger strike, and overfeeding often becomes the cause of death.

Macropodus opercularis - members of the labyrinth family

Representatives of the class can be recognized by the oblong, flattened body from the sides. In length, individuals reach six to seven centimeters. Head and body are proportional. The fins of the back and anus are of the same size, the pectoral is pointed, the tail is lyroiform. Color varies from brown to dark yellow. The transverse bands passing through the body tend to change color.

The volume of the aquarium should start from 20 liters. The bottom should be densely planted with plants, arrange a few koryag. Representatives of the labyrinth unit have an organ through which they breathe atmospheric air, so there is no need to install an air compressor. A weekly change of 20 percent water is shown. Those who live at home macropod fish, its compatibility is interested. She gets along well with comparable gourami, barbs, colises.

Predators by nature prefer to eat fish fry, mollusks and invertebrates. In an aquarium setting, the preferred diet should consist of black mosquito larvae, tubule and bloodworms. In order to increase the brightness of the color, carotenoids (live daphnids, shredded shrimps, cyclops) should be added to the food periodically.

Aquarium Fish Compatibility

The question of combining different types of waterfowl in one area is one of the most burning and debatable. The correct combination of types of domestic fish will not only ensure the comfort of the existence of each of them, but also save from death. Recommendations of professionals will help protect newly minted owners of a closed ecosystem from gross, sometimes irreparable mistakes.

The key to creating a favorable microclimate in water space will be the use of knowledge and compliance with the list of compatibility criteria for waterfowl:

  1. The need for a variety of environmental conditions. Inexperienced users should begin settling an aquarium with river and sea fauna. They are less demanding on aeration, acidity and hardness of water, will safely endure 1-2 days of fasting and do not need constant replacement of water. Exotic creatures are more demanding of habitat conditions, need careful care.
  2. Suitable temperature conditions. Cold and heat-loving fish are bad neighbors. Some will suffer from overheating, while others will freeze. Such experiments will lead to a rapid reduction in the number of inhabitants of the aquarium.
  3. Character. An attempt to combine waterfowl aggressive and peace-loving disposition will lead to the fact that the first will attack the second, and in the case of physical superiority - eat. Experienced aquarists are advised to select fish that are similar in size, since cases of cannibalism are not uncommon even within the same species, when one individual is substantially larger than the other in size.
  4. School fish need special housing conditions. They feel comfortable, safe, and ready to breed exclusively in the group. A small fish in a single specimen without congeners will experience severe stress and will die.

It is important to understand: the acquisition of an aquarium, as well as the selection of its inhabitants should not be accidental. First you need to decide which representatives of the fauna you want to see in your own home pond - predatory, peaceful, decorative or schooling. Evaluate your abilities in the matter of care, what conditions you can create with the condition of their constant maintenance at the initial level.

Answering these questions, you can proceed to the choice of a specific model of the aquarium, its size, functions, properties. When the equipment will be put into operation, you should not fill it with inhabitants to the limit. Practice on a small number of unpretentious fish and gradually increase the population, not forgetting the basic rules of compatibility.

White Agamix (Agamyxis pectinifrons)

The white-spotted Agamix (Agamyxis pectinifrons) is a very beautiful and relatively small catfish for the home aquarium. He is also called the talking catfish, as he is able to produce croaking sounds and clicks with his fins. If you get a catfish from an aquarium, you can hear well how he "speaks". In aquifers, however, these aquarium fish are not very popular because they are nocturnal and because of the rattle they produce.

Akantoftalmus Kühl (Pangio kuhlii)

Akantoftalmus Kühl (Pangio kuhlii) is a charming, active, small fish from the family of wines, named after the German zoologist Heinrich Kul. Its behavior is typical for all members of the genus Akantoftalmus (Pangio): these fish are always in motion, fussing all the time, moving around, both in the space of water, and between plants and decorations. These aquarium fish will be great help for you, they will take care of the cleanliness of the aquarium, picking up the remnants of food that has settled to the bottom.

Cockerel aquarium: selection, installation, launch

Cockerels - one of the most popular aquarium fish around the globe, both among amateurs and professionals. This is not surprising, because these colorful fish are very attractive! The variety of colors and shape of fins causes the desire to immediately get a cockerel. If you decide to start these interesting fish, you should choose in advance and the house for them - the aquarium for the rooster.

Among the things you need to know when buying a rooster is the type of aquarium in which it is contained. If you want your cockerels to be healthy, you need to consider several factors when choosing an aquarium: its size, water condition and potential neighbors.

Amazonian or South American puffer fish (Colomesus asellus)

The Amazonian or South American puffer fish (Colomesus asellus) is a very popular aquarium fish, a member of the puffer or tetradon family (Tutraodontidae). Very active, intelligent, curious, constantly in motion.

Most puffers look very cute, cute and comical, but they are all aggressively different and often cause damage to their neighbors in the aquarium, especially slow fish and with long fins. Amazonian pufferfish is surprisingly peaceful fish, and even so shy that it can not be kept with aggressive neighbors. In addition, the South American tetradon lives in nature in clean freshwater bodies, therefore it is a good choice for a peaceful community of tropical freshwater aquarium fish.

Antsistrus ordinary - seaweed cleaner

Ancistrus ordinary (Ancistrus cirrhosus) is a very popular freshwater aquarium fish, also known as catfish-sucker. Its natural habitat is a tributary of the Amazon River in South America, in particular, the Paraná River Basin. Prefers water saturated with oxygen. Ancistrus colonize swift waters with a gravel-covered bottom and very muddy bodies of water with standing water and a clay bottom. During the rainy season they inhabit flooded forests. Adult fish prefer dark places, while juveniles tend to be found in shallow, well-lit places.

Ramisini apistogram or butterfly (Mikrogeophagus ramirezi)

A ramiresi apistogram or a butterfly apistogram (Mikrogeophagus ramirezi) is a beautiful, small, peaceful South American cichlid, one of the most popular dwarf cichlids in South America. Oval-shaped fish, bright with a beautiful color pattern.

Aquarium fish: description and photos, especially the content and choice for a home aquarium

Not so long ago, aquaria was considered an occupation worthy of Bohemia. The fact is that aquarium fish was very difficult to get. Today everything has changed. There is not much excitement around the accident hunt. She became an ordinary hobby for many people. And the fish themselves have become ordinary pets. And all because the equipment for aquariums, the aquariums and fish themselves can be bought in any city where there is a pet shop.

Если человек решил стать аквариумистом, ему не стоит покупать первых понравившихся рыбок. Для начала ему нужно научиться ухаживать за ними и разбираться в видах этих обитателей аквариумов. В этом ему поможет эта статья.

Видов обитателей аквариумов очень много. Это значит, каждый аквариумист сможет подобрать питомцев, лучше всего соответствующих его предпочтениям и финансовым возможностями.

The following families of aquarium fish are considered the most popular in aquarium husbandry:

  • Labyrinth fish. These small aquarium inhabitants are able to breathe atmospheric air. They are assisted in this by a special body known to us as a maze. Actually, the family got its name thanks to this body. The labyrinth species includes the following types of large aquarium fish: gourami, chelostomy, macropod, etc.
  • Loops. Perhaps this is the largest family of aquarium fish. It has more than 30 genera. The total number of species passes for 150 species. These inhabitants of aquariums are small in size.
  • Carp. This is one of the most popular fish family among aquarists. This is explained by the simple care of these aquarium fish. They easily get along with other aquarium inhabitants. This family includes such species as: goldfish, zebrafish, Oranda Little Red Riding Hood, etc.
  • Pecilia. This family is distinguished by the fact that almost all species of fish included in it are viviparous. These pets contain easy. In response, they delight people with their beauty. The most famous species of fish of this family are: guppies, swordtails, girardinus.
  • Characteristic. This family is from Africa. The fish belonging to him, a peaceful temper. Contain them in several pieces in an aquarium. Due to the small size of the fish such content does not cause trouble.
  • Cichlids This is really the largest family of aquarium fish. To date, scientists continue to describe new species related to it. At the moment, the description of 1300 species has been completed.
  • Soma. In this family of fish are many species and subspecies. Beginners in aquarism when choosing representatives of this family, you should remember that not all of them are decorative. Having bought a fish in an unfamiliar place, you can find yourself in a situation where this pet will destroy all other liquid in the aquarium and remain in splendid isolation. At the same time, it will grow to a size that is huge by aquarium standards.
  • Multishop. This family of fish got its name because of the unusual shape of the fins. Almost all species of fish in this family are predators.
  • Toothfish. Representatives of this family rarely find themselves in aquariums. The fact is that almost all species of fish from this family have a bad temper. They attack not only fishes of other species, but also their own kind.

How to choose a decorative fish for the aquarium?

Decorative fish and aquarium should match each other. Therefore, you first need to decide what you need to buy first. If there is already an aquarium, then the aquarium fish should be selected to it. Novice aquarists are advised to pay attention to fish that require minimal attention.

Before you make the final choice, you should read the description of all available in the store or from a private seller species.

It is necessary to find out not only the conditions of detention, but also to get acquainted with the photos of future pets. This is to avoid cheating. In recent years, fraudsters selling trash fish under the guise of expensive ones have increasingly appeared on the market.

After the aquarium fish is selected, you need to prepare the aquarium itself. It is necessary to fill in the soil, plant plants, set the scenery and even a house for the fish, if it is required.

It is important to remember that pets can be sent to the pet store only 3 weeks after the launch of the aquarium. It is best to buy aquarium dwellers from trusted vendors. And do not forget about quarantine.

Gourami honey

These fish will decorate any aquarium. They have a flaccid little body, slightly flattened on the sides. Small and somewhat elongated mouth. The eyes are big.

The photo clearly shows that these fishes have small fins on the chest, and filaments on the abdomen.

According to the official description, this species of fish is considered slow and fearful.

Gourami honey cannot independently compete with other inhabitants of the aquarium, so the aquarist will have to control the feeding process so that other fish will not leave them without food.

Gourami can live singly and in small groups. With other inhabitants of the aquarium do not conflict.

These are bright inhabitants of aquariums. They can be recognized by the scarlet fins and the striped blue-red calf. The blue on the body most. Red color is mainly represented by thin stripes.

The photo clearly shows that the macropods have tail fins with pronounced bifurcation. Moreover, the length of each part can reach 5 cm.

Macropods - lungfish. In their body there is a special organ - a labyrinth. Thanks to him, these fish are able to survive even in standing waters. At the same time, most of the time macropods are carried out at a depth; they float up beyond atmospheric air only if oxygen becomes insufficient in water.

Depending on the color of scales, the following types of macropods are distinguished:

There are fish with albino coloring. Their beauty can be seen in the photo. They are very much appreciated by aquarists, but because of their rarity they are not isolated into a separate species. Black Macropods are considered the most aggressive. They are able to attack other inhabitants of the home pond.

Keep macropods is a snap. They survive well even in the usual 3-liter glass jar. True, they will not grow in such a tight space. Ideal for their content - an aquarium on 20 liters.

Danio rerio

The description of this type of ornamental fish was given in 1822. This fish got into the aquariums of Europeans from Nepal.

It is distinguished by the variety of colors of the scales and forms of fins. On the Internet, you can find a photo, which presents different subspecies of the zebrafish.

A common feature for all representatives of this species is an elongated body and mouth, surrounded by two pairs of mustaches.

The zebrafish can also be recognized by its characteristic striped color. The strips start from the caps covering the gills and end in the middle of the caudal fin. It is worth noting that the color fin has only an anal fin. The rest of the fins lack color pigment.

Danio rerio is a unique type of fish. The fact is that it was modified at the gene level. These aquatic inhabitants shine into the dark thanks to the introduction of the genotypes of jellyfish and coral into their DNA.

It is very easy to keep daniro rerio. It is necessary that there is enough space for swimming and good lighting. The water in the aquarium should comply with the following parameters:

  • Temperature below 18 and not higher than 26 ° C.
  • Acidity is not lower than 6.6, not higher than 7.4.

They eat everything: from live to artificial and frozen feed.

Oranda Little Red Riding Hood

The name of this desired inhabitant of any aquarium received for fatty growths on the head, painted in red. They can be clearly seen in the photo.

They are shaped like a hat. Actually, it gave the name orande.

It should be noted that the “cap” is growing gradually. With its growth, the head decreases. The more fatty growth, the more valuable orana.

This is a hulking fish. This slowness is due to very thin fins and body shape, similar to an oblong egg. The fins of the orange cap are white.

This is a non-aggressive aquatic inhabitant. For this reason, it should be settled with the same innocuous aquarium pets. Aquarium for its maintenance should be oblong and roomy. Two fish require at least 100 liters of water.

Feed orando Little Red Riding Hood should be careful. She will eat all that she will be given in any quantities. Because of their gluttony, they often swim in fat and die.

These are small fish whose length in adulthood rarely reaches 10 cm. Often they grow barely more than 5 cm. Their bodies are elongated and flattened from the sides.

Eyes large, slightly protruding. The beauty of the fish can not boast. Scales mostly silvery. Only closer to the tail, it acquires a reddish tint. Pelvic fins are colorless. The tail and dorsal fins are red.

Rasborah rather demanding on the volume of the aquarium. It must be at least 50 liters. Water in it must comply with the following parameters:

  • Temperature in the range of 23 - 25 ° C.
  • Stiffness within 10 - 12.
  • Traditional acidity: 6.5 - 7.5.

Water must be enriched with oxygen using a compressor. To clean it better to use a special filter. The bottom of the aquarium should be lined with fine gravel and pebbles. And we must not forget to plant more vegetation. Rasbory love greens.

There are several species of these fishes, differing in color scales. Aquariums usually contain the following types of these fish:

  • Galaxy. It was discovered recently. Differs in small size, but bright color, for which he received its name.
  • Ribbon assembly The exact color of this species of fish is difficult to determine: it is too variable.
  • Brigitte You can recognize her by the bright red belly and large upper fin with a bright red strip.
  • Rasborah Hengel. They stand out for their increased activity. Behind them you need an eye and an eye, since they are prone to escape from the aquarium.
  • Heteromorphs, or wedge-shaped rasbora. They have a golden silver color. You can recognize them by a transparent tail with a deep notch of a dark wedge on the sides, starting from the middle of the body and ending at the beginning of the tail fin.

Mollies

This tropical beauty began to breed in aquariums from the middle of the last century. In Europe, it was brought from the waters of the United States.

Currently, these fish are considered the most popular aquarium inhabitants. Explaining the popularity is easy: just look at the mollies and everything will immediately become clear.

She has a very bright appearance. The color of these fish are green, black and silver-yellow. As for the size, they are quite diverse: from 3 to 18 cm. Moreover, large individuals are especially valued by aquarists. The larger the individual, the more beautiful it looks in the water.

Mollies is a very unpretentious creation. She can live in a very small aquarium of 6 liters. The main thing is to maintain a suitable water temperature. It should not fall below 25 ° C.

Beginners should be aware that the yellow variety of mollies needs bright light. Without light, it dies quickly.

Popular aquarium fish

These fish are mostly kept in the upper layers of the water, so decorating the bottom of the aquarium with plants is not necessary. Mollies love to hide from time to time in secluded places. So, for their convenience, you need to place on light ground artificial houses, snags and large pebbles. These fish can eat anything. But it is best to feed them with the following feed:

These products alone will not be enough for the normal development of the fish, so you should add chopped algae to your diet.

The most popular aquarium fish

Among the variety of types of ornamental aquarium fish there are those from which inexperienced breeders begin breeding. First of all it is a guppy. They belong to the killing tooth. These fish have several breeds. Their main differences are color, as well as the size and shape of fins and tails. Guppies living in captivity are much brighter and more beautiful than their wild relatives. Females and males of this species are very different. Males are more intensely colored. Their size is 1.5–4 cm. Females are larger — 2.5–7 cm. Their belly is enlarged, and the fins are reduced. Their color is paler and resembles a grid.

In terms of care, guppies are unpretentious. The content alone is not well tolerated. It is best to start them in a group of five pieces of each sex. The acceptable size of an aquarium for them is 25 by 25 cm (for a couple of fish), each new fish needs 15 cm² more. Water should be regularly replaced partially or completely. Guppies are those types of fish, the type of which directly depends on the quality of life. The better the food, the cleaner the water and the more light, the longer the fish will live (up to 3.5 years) and the more beautiful they will be. The optimum temperature of the water should be 24-26 ° C. When the temperature drops, they can stop breeding, but individuals grow larger, although diseases are likely. If the thermometer shows an increase in the norm, then the fish live less and stop growing. The bottom of the aquarium with guppies is covered with soil with plants planted in it. But it should be avoided very large with sharp leaves. Feeding guppies should combine vegetable and animal components. It is best to feed the fish often and little by little, removing the leftover food a maximum of an hour after feeding. Since Since these fish are sensitive to light, do not give food immediately after it is turned on, or before it is extinguished. One common mistake when breeding guppies is keeping together several fish species. No matter how beautiful parents are, the mixture will be pale and nondescript. It is also necessary to quickly respond to the appearance of fry: they are completely independent, but parents often try to eat them. Therefore, it is necessary either to move them to a separate aquarium, or to plant plants in the ground, forming thickets, to create a place for the fry to hide and maneuver.

In the general aquarium, angelfish are easily compatible with fish of their size and temperament, but well-aimed fish are often perceived as food.

Pequilly The aquarium tank must be at least 50 liters (for optimum maintenance). It should be abundantly planted with vegetation, leaving enough space in the center, because These fish are very active and love the space. Perfectly get on with other breeds of fishes. Reproduction in compliance with temperature regimes (just like a guppy) is regular - every 5-7 weeks. Not uncommon birth simultaneously 200-230 fry. There are no special preferences in food. It is necessary to combine dry food and live (bloodworm, daphnia). Sword-bearers differ about guppies and placiums by their appearance and temper. And in terms of care, these types are identical. The Sword-bearers got their name because of the tail fin of the males, which is pointed and extended, which will give it the characteristic shape of a sword. There are several varieties with two “swords” above and below the fin. The size of males - 8 cm, females - 12. The colors of the fish are varied due to breeding, but fiery red is more common. Compatibility with other fish of similar sizes is beautiful. If the neighbors are smaller, the males of the Sword can terrorize them. They also often have clashes with each other, so it is not recommended to keep two pairs in one aquarium, it is better to increase the livestock so that the attention of the males is not focused on one opponent. Reproduction about once every 1.5-2 months. Up to 50 fry can be born simultaneously. Before giving birth, it is better for the female to be transplanted into a separate aquarium, and immediately after - to return back so that the fry are left alone, thereby increasing their chances of survival.

Among the catfish recently gained popularity antsistrus. This catfish moves thanks to its mouth-sucker, clinging to the stones and glass of the aquarium. Neg, unlike other fish, has no swim bladder. To overcome at least a small distance, he must actively work with fins. The average size of the catfish is about 13 cm. The body of an adult is brown with light chaotic dots over the entire surface. The abdomen is lighter than the back. Fins have bluish, less often dark shade. Especially in the appearance stands mouth-sucker. There are horn bumps on it, which are intended for scraping vegetation, which in nature is their main source of nourishment. Females and males are different. This is manifested in adulthood. The females are larger and slimmer, and the males have a mustache, reaching up to 2 cm in length.

Ancistrus likes clean water, which needs to be updated at least a quarter of a week. It should also be enriched with oxygen. Temperature conditions should be maintained around 22 ° C. Catfish love the shadow, various shelters. This must be taken into account when creating the atmosphere of the aquarium. In addition to the "grass" feed, which may not be enough, be sure to add to the diet of lettuce, bloodworms, strawberry, etc. When breeding males choose a place and take care of it, the female lays her eggs there. It is better if this occurs in a separate aquarium. The male himself takes care of the eggs. When the fry hatch in a week, the male is also transplanted back into the common aquarium. Feed the young need special food.

Antsistrusy get along well with other fish, but can become aggressive, protecting the chosen shelter, and bite the small inhabitants of the aquarium in case of lack of food.

Gourami-nitrophores is another type of unpretentious common aquarium fish. These fish have a special organ - the gill labyrinth, thanks to which gourami are able to breathe atmospheric air. It developed as a result of a lack of oxygen in shallow, stagnant reservoirs, where the nitrogens lived in the wild. If there are devices in the aquarium for the enrichment of water with oxygen, then you need to ensure that they do not create strong currents. The appearance of gourami sheet. Their body is flat and elongated. The most common colors: honey, pearl, gold, marble. Size 5-12 cm. During reproduction, the already bright color becomes even more expressive, and the stripes on the body darken. For their habitat do not need a large aquarium. Обязателен грунт и обильные растения, в том числе плавающие. Температура воды может колебаться от 24 до 28°C. Корм подходит любой, кроме крупного.

Процесс выхаживания мальков трудоёмкий. Для нереста нужно отсаживать пару в отдельный аквариум. Там повышается температура, что является стимулом к размножению. Рыб кормят крупным кормом, не напоминающим мальков. The male among the floating plants builds a nest. After fertilization, he collects eggs in him and cares for them. The female very rarely takes part in the process of caring for the offspring. Once the larvae hatched, the adult fish need to be removed. To feed the young need infusoria and rotifers. The labyrinth organ develops gradually, therefore, first of all, special attention should be paid to the purity of water and its enrichment with oxygen.

With other fish gourah get along well, but can be tattered by individuals larger. And males often fight among themselves over females. The life span of the nitropods can be 5-7 years.

Freshwater aquarium fish - the perfect choice for beginners

Passion for aquaria in many adults lasts a lifetime. Aquarium fish gives a man the incomparable pleasure of arranging the underwater world in a separate apartment. Children and completely grown-up personalities enthusiastically collect various types of sea or freshwater fish, snails, breed them, grow plants, exchange, create interesting thematic compositions.

Content

The maintenance of a freshwater reservoir requires from lovers to master a certain amount of knowledge. For example, it is necessary to know the compatibility of certain types of fish. If you ignore the division of fish into predators and herbivores, then soon you may miss several instances from the collection - they will simply be eaten.

It is also necessary to know how future pets breed. Otherwise, it is likely that the delayed caviar before you will be noticed by other underwater inhabitants and will regard it as an increase in the diet.

Aquaria - a serious hobby. If you decide to buy a child a small underwater world, do not buy particularly rare and capricious in the care of fish. Stop for now while the specimens, which have been kept by amateurs for a long time, have adapted to domestic existences and are undemanding to care.

Remember: children do not need freshwater sharks, no matter how impressive they look. Children like to observe bright fish of whimsical form, differing in interesting behavior.

Beautiful freshwater fish

When fish are selected for the aquarium, you should consider a few rules:

  • • In one reservoir there are several species of only herbivorous fish. Predatory contain separately, and preferably in one species on the entire reservoir.
  • • Adult fish and fry are kept separately.
  • • Combined species that require similar temperature conditions of water.
  • • If you decide to contain several fish, select species that live in different water levels: at the bottom, in the middle layers, and near the surface. Then the fish will not interfere with each other.

Sometimes the decision to buy an aquarium comes spontaneously. And there is not enough time to carefully prepare, to learn more about the principles of breeding aquatic inhabitants. In this case, you can listen to the recommendations of the seller in a specialty store.

An ideal choice for beginners is the aquarium goldfish. In the process of long

content in artificial reservoirs was derived many of its varieties. Appearance differs a great variety - stand out voalehvosta, telescopes, monochrome, two-colored or multi-colored rocks. Care for them will require the same, it will be easy to master. And when the experience increases, you can move on.

Create an underwater world

In its first reservoir should not create dense thickets of plants. Beginners have too much to learn again. Therefore, put the washed pebbles on the bottom. We plant one or two algae varieties among the stones. Let it be an unpretentious Vallisneria and an original horn. We fasten the simplest filter to the wall, connect the compressor, close the body of the aquarium with a cover with a fluorescent light. Pour water. Soviet books offered to protect water from the tap for at least 24 hours before launching fish into it. Now the process simplifies the use of conventional household filters or reverse osmosis filters. Now everything is ready for a corner of the underwater world to appear in your house. In order for your aquarium in the interior to become a central object and attract everyone’s attention and attract the eye, think about the cabinet for the aquarium - on it your reservoir will look very different, it will fit perfectly into the interior and give a finished look to your underwater kingdom.

In the process of leaving the necessary skills are acquired. Soon you will understand what tools you need. Step into the store and buy additional equipment. With experience you will understand what you really lack.

Most popular types

How are fish selected for the aquarium? Your future pets have different names and belong to different types, let's see. As a rule, individuals of one family will get along together perfectly.

The carp family is famous for its bright color combining several colors. Here

include energetic and mobile barbs. They are active throughout the day. Fun flock extremely interesting to watch. In a spacious pond, individual specimens can grow up to 5 cm. Another member of this family is a danios. These are small fish with original coloring. Their flock keeps near the surface of the water. Frightened fish jumps up, and can jump out of the water. Therefore, the reservoir where they live danios should be covered with a lid. The carp family, rasbaras, and all varieties of goldfish also belong to the carp family.

Somics belong to different families -

armored, kallichtovy, armored, peristosovye and others. They are united by lifestyle and habits. They show activity mainly in the dark. They are classified as bottom fish. Somik with pleasure eat the small seaweed covering glass from within. Therefore, they are acquired in order to fight the growth of plants. Some catfish (Tarakatum) can jump out of the water - therefore, a lid is needed. Some species become aggressive with age - for example, ancistrus. Different types of catfish reach different sizes in development. Some of them will remain small, barely reaching 10 cm. Others can grow up to 60 cm, for example, the Oriok catfish. When buying, specify the maximum dimensions of the instance.

Family of cichlids. They are encouraged to breed wholesale amateur. These include scalar - one of the most spectacular fish. Modified pectoral fins they have transformed into a "mustache". The shape of the body is close to a rhombus stretched vertically. The owners often claim that the angelfish possess intelligence. They really differ in quite complex behavior and can give signals - peculiar clicks.

Other famous fish of the family are discus. They are characterized by an unusually beautiful color. Discus can be taught to take food from the hands of the owner.

Bright butterflies apistogrammy will always please your eye and not create compatibility problems.

Kharatsinovye - one of the most numerous families. For beginners

fish farmers are encouraged to start neons. Neons belong to the group of the smallest fish. They got their name for the luminous stripes on the sides of the body. A flock of shining fish in the water column looks like gems. They get along well with many underwater inhabitants. But it’s better not to share them with predators. Keep these gentle creatures necessary in soft water. To engage in their breeding requires considerable experience. Piranhas are found among neon relatives. Yes, these predators also belong to this family.

From the family of petsiliev should be called guppies. They are advised to start breeding the inhabitants of the domestic sub-house of the world. It is the most unpretentious inhabitant of reservoirs and is capable

make the most "harsh" conditions that so far only a beginner can create. However, pedigree members of the family are extremely demanding of the environment, it is appropriate, also, to mention here the guppy endler, which is described in more detail here. Multicolored male guppies with flowing tails are able to decorate any body of water. These peace-loving creatures are able to get along with other members of the family - swordtails and mollies.

The labyrinth family represents liliusi, macropods, and gourami. They are extremely demanding

water temperature. A cold snap or warming can destroy them. Fish make their way through the plants beautifully. They are distinguished by the habit of occasionally swimming up to the surface in order to take a breath of air. Because of the original structure of the lips and the habit of swimming to each other with their noses, they are called kissing fish. Labyrinth, as a rule, have a calm and peaceful nature.

These are only a few of the most popular types of fish for the aquarium, in fact there are thousands of them. And Each has bright features and its own character. The choice is yours!

Fish food

Experienced lovers prefer to feed their pets with live food. Live food is rotifers, daphnia, bloodworms, ciliates. Food can be purchased in stores or markets. Its only drawback is the high probability of entry of parasites. To avoid potential pathogens of aquarium fish, professionals breed live animals to feed on their own. Novice lovers better to use dry food. Now you can buy it in various forms, very effective.

Fish can be taught to feed at certain hours. Overfeeding them should not be. Excess feed remains at the bottom and can affect the composition of the water.

Aquaria - a great hobby. The kind of fish in your underwater world has a calming effect on the nervous system. And unlike other pet pets are silent!

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The best aquarium fish for a novice of the family.

This group is one of the most popular and favorite among the owners of underwater pets. Small and undemanding, such fish are ideal for a beginner. They belong to viviparous, so that over time you will be able to increase the number of individuals in the aquarium without wasting money.

Mollies

Cute and colorful fishes with a large selection of interesting colors are most favorable to beginners, aquarists and forgive them many mistakes. The only exception is the selection mollies-balloon - it is better for lovers to refuse such a purchase.

Pros:

  • The most survivable in their family
  • They know how to stand up for themselves in the general aquarium,
  • They eat everything they give, calmly pick food from the bottom,
  • Get on with most fish, except aggressive predators,
  • They live from 4 to 8 years, depending on conditions.

Minuses:

  • Prefer stable water temperature in narrow limits +24 .. + 28 ° С,
  • They require a lot of greenery and intense illumination,
  • When breeding it is difficult to save offspring from eating by other fish.

If you are not sure that you will be able to provide your pets with the right care, choose a mollies of modest color - these types are more tenacious and unpretentious. Too bright breeds are artificially bred and will cause more trouble.

The males guppies are brightly colored, often have a voile tail. Nondescript females are slightly larger, but they need 3-4 pieces for each "boy." These calm fish are so undemanding in their care that they can even live in a three-liter jar. True, this applies only to the “purebred” guppies, and not imported.

Advantages:

  • In a small aquarium of 15-30 liters can live up to 15 individuals,
  • No need to spend money on lighting, filtration equipment and aeration,
  • Omnivores, calmly withstand a week-long hunger strike
  • Undemanding to water temperature: they feel great at +18 and at +30 ° C,
  • Get along well with other residents of the aquarium,
  • They breed easily, the female brings up to a hundred fry at a time.

Disadvantages:

  • A relatively short life is about a year,
  • You can not keep in the same tank with a large aggressive fish,
  • Can eat their own offspring.

Guppies give birth to fry up to 8 times in their short life, but they are not good parents. If there is no thick duckweed in the aquarium where the little ones can hide, send the “mother” into a separate jar, and after the appearance of the offspring, immediately return it to the others.

There are 25 varieties of these fish of the brightest color. They are larger than guppies: the female is 12 centimeters in length, the males are usually a little smaller. Some representatives of this species are pugnacious, therefore it is better to reduce the male population to a reasonable minimum: at least 2 females should fall on each individual.

Advantages:

  • Minimum requirements for conditions of detention: fairly normal filtration and aeration, periodic water changes every 1-2 weeks,
  • Quietly tolerate short-term lowering of temperature in the aquarium to +15 ° C,
  • Like all viviparous are easy to breed,
  • In food unpretentious, but dry and live food is better to alternate,
  • Racks to diseases, live to the age of 5 years.

Disadvantages:

  • They need a larger aquarium than a guppy (at least 50 liters), while its width is very important,
  • Males can fight each other if they lack females,
  • They do not get along with the veil fish and pull out their tails.

Remember and that the swordtails - lovers jump. To prevent fish from dying, always cover the aquarium with a lid.

gold fish

There are many variations of this fish: ranch, telescope, oranda, etc. But for a beginner, the best choice would be veils. However, they are also considered one of the most beautiful members of their family.

Advantages:

  • Unpretentious in food and undemanding to water temperature, preferring more comfortable for themselves +18 ° С - the main thing is that there should not be any sudden changes,
  • You can perform a partial replacement of water in the aquarium - 10-15% every week,
  • They are able to last a week without food if they have eaten properly before, although they will most likely eat algae,
  • With good care, live to 15 years.

Disadvantages:

  • They need a large aquarium - 40-80 liters per person,
  • Prone to overeating - you need to monitor the amount of feed filled and always soak the dry mixture,
  • They produce a lot of waste, which requires careful filtration of water,
  • Poor transfer of the neighborhood with more aggressive "brothers", for example, comets.

Despite the diversity and beauty of goldfish, only a voilehvostov can recommend a newbie - all other options will require an aquarist of experience and knowledge of their content.

These schooling and very mobile fish are a decoration of many aquariums, but require plenty of space for their swims. Their color varies from crimson-red to sky-blue, the life span reaches up to 3 years. Due to the small size (about 5 cm) and the habits of living in flocks, it is better to inhabit the danios immediately in an amount of not less than 6 individuals.

Advantages:

  • Do not require the creation of special conditions
  • Omnivores
  • Feel normally at a water temperature of +16 .. + 28 ° C,
  • Are inconsiderate
  • Not bad endure the first "relocation".

Disadvantages:

  • They can jump out of the water, so a high cover with an air pocket of 3-4 cm in the aquarium is obligatory,
  • They require space - they feel good only in wide flat containers with a minimum of tall plants,
  • They love bright lighting, so you have to invest in lighting.

Despite the omnivorous, for danios it is better to buy food in the form of flakes - it is more convenient for these fish to collect food that floats on the surface.

The best aquarium fish for a novice cichlid family

They differ from other inhabitants of the aquarium not only by their beautiful coloring and forms, but also by the beginnings of intelligence, therefore it is interesting to observe them. Slow and majestic, they live to be 25 years old, are selfless parents. They are omnivorous, although this is not always a plus: cichlids eat not only dry food and algae, but they can devour smaller “neighbors” without shame.

The most popular and easily recognizable fish in any aquarium. They have long been adapted to their home conditions, and are not as capricious as previously thought. The only requirement is that the water temperature should not be below +22 ° C, otherwise the fish may get sick.

Advantages:

  • Beautiful and unusual shape,
  • It is easy to get divorced, but growing fry will require you around the clock attention,
  • Angelfish themselves care about the grown offspring (if in time to save the clutch from the parents themselves).

Disadvantages:

  • Because of their unusual shape and outstanding fins require a high aquarium of large volume (at least 100 liters),
  • It is necessary to maintain a stable water temperature of +24 .. + 27 ° C,
  • Seen in gluttony,
  • Have a very low survival rate after transportation.

Scalar is always better to buy with a margin - at least a dozen. After that, you need to trace how they break up into pairs, and distribute singles. Also, beginners should be aware that veil skalarias are not suitable for a general aquarium - even small fish will drive them.

Apistogramma Elizabeth (Apistogramma elizabethae)

Apistogramma Elizabeth (Apistogramma elizabethae) - a small aquarium fish from South America, belongs to the dwarf American cichlid - apistogramma, one of the most popular species. The apistogram Elizabeth is assigned the number A208 in the number of apistograms. There are many varieties of this species, somewhat different in appearance, mainly in color, and in the aquarium they should not be mixed to avoid crosses.

Black Striped Cychlasmas

These beautiful ornamental fish love snags and locks in which you can hide. Содержать их следует в просторном аквариуме с чистой теплой водой – тогда цихлазомы достигнут оптимальной длины тела (10-17 см) и проживут не меньше 10 лет.

Достоинства:

  • В меру крупные рыбки с красивым окрасом,
  • Легко адаптируются в изменившихся условиях содержания,
  • Просты в уходе и размножении (пара сама охраняет икру и мальков),
  • It feeds on all types of feed, but it must be remembered that in the first place tsikhlazomy - predators.

Disadvantages:

  • Aggressive in the period of spawning, especially do not like bottom somikov that encroach on caviar,
  • Dig in the ground and uproot algae,
  • The water in the aquarium from 100 liters must be constantly filtered, aerated and updated weekly at least 30%.

In general, tsikhlazomy very pugnacious, but if they are kept separate from other fish, there will be no problems.

The best aquarium catfish for a beginner

These unpretentious and inconspicuous "orderlies" will greatly benefit any aquarium, picking up fallen food or the remnants of the meal of other fish. Living on the bottom, they do not compete with even the most militant "neighbors." And because of the peculiarities of their labyrinth breathing, they survive even in very dirty and muddy water.

Koridoras - speckled catfish

These fish grow in length up to 7 cm and among the aquarium catfish are considered the most mobile - it is interesting to watch them. It is preferable to keep a small flock, but do not forget to provide your pets with decorative covers.

Advantages:

  • Well clean the bottom of the aquarium from fallen food,
  • Very peaceful, get on with almost all neighbors,
  • Not too demanding in content, they can breathe at the surface of the water - they don’t need aeration at all,
  • Omnivores
  • They are simple in breeding, although it is better to separate the female to spawn in a separate aquarium.

Disadvantages:

  • They love to dig and turn the ground, stir up the water,
  • Sometimes they do not have enough food - they have to feed the bottom fish, although with modern catfish pills it is not difficult.

If there are a lot of active fish in your tank, swallowing food from the surface or on the fly, you need to have a flock of corridors. They will collect from the bottom all the food that other inhabitants did not have time to grab.

Ancistrus (stuck)

Differs in its unusual mouth-sucker. This catfish does not lie at the bottom, but slides along the walls of the aquarium, devouring algae from them. Like other catfish species, ancistrus like to hide in the bottom snags.

Advantages:

  • Survive the change in water temperature within +20 .. + 28 ° C,
  • Get their own food because they eat plant food,
  • Trouble-free breeding in the general aquarium,
  • Relatively harmless to most "neighbors",
  • Term life - 7 years or more.

Disadvantages:

  • Sometimes they drive slow fish, especially gold ones, harming them with their suckers,
  • You can not settle in an aquarium with scaly inhabitants,
  • They require a large “living space”, from which they feed at least 80 liters for each pair of antsistrus.

Some of these fish do not like because of the repulsive appearance. But catfish are of great benefit, so novice should not refuse to share them in the general aquarium. You also have less work with cleaning.

The best aquarium fish for a novice family labyrinth

More than 20 species of labyrinth family of fish have adapted to breathing atmospheric air. For an aquarist, this means that aeration of water is not necessary for them, but vegetation on the surface will have to be disposed of.

Stunningly beautiful fish with fighting inclinations, so that two males in one aquarium can not be kept. The size of these underwater inhabitants is 6-10 cm, females are traditionally smaller and do not have such luxurious fins as their cavaliers.

Advantages:

  • Feel equally well in water of any temperature from +18 to +30 ° C, but without sudden changes,
  • They can live in a small aquarium,
  • Have a very beautiful bright color and interesting habits,
  • Eat any food,
  • Term life - up to 3 years.

Disadvantages:

  • Unfriendly to each other and do not get along with phlegmatic fish,
  • Prone to overeating and as a result give a large amount of waste,
  • They can jump out of the aquarium.

Fry cockerel do not like sudden changes in temperature. To buy them, it is better to choose a warm season, and use a thermos during transportation.

Marble gourami

Curious moving fish with an interesting spotty color. Peace lovers to other neighbors, although occasionally even among them there are individual bullies. In a large aquarium, they grow up to 15 cm. Despite their rather large size, gourami cannot stand up for themselves - this must be taken into account when choosing “neighbors”.

Advantages:

  • Large enough and beautiful
  • Labyrinth breathing allows gouras to live in a small volume of water, although in this case they grow worse,
  • Omnivorous, but they need a live feed
  • With good care can live more than 7 years,
  • Easy to breed.

Disadvantages:

  • Get on not with all the fish, and more often they themselves are beaten,
  • Prone to overeating,
  • Adults require relocation to an aquarium of at least 80 liters,
  • After spawning, the female should be set aside separately from the “daddy” guarding the calf so that he does not kill her.

Make sure that each male has its own female, otherwise the fish will fight. In extreme cases, you can simply take care of natural shelters for individuals, such as thick algae plantations.

What aquarium fish for a beginner to buy

1. Has the child persuaded him to buy an aquarium? First of all, start it with mollies or swordtails - it's easier to take care of them.

2. For the first experience, guppies are suitable, but only the cheapest and “purebred” - bright imported fish die more often after replanting.

3. Do you want a round classic aquarium with a minimum of inhabitants? Then buy a golden tail fish.

4. If you prefer active pets that are fun to watch, you can stop at danios.

5. In a large aquarium, which simultaneously plays the role of interior decoration, it is better to keep the cychlase. But it is not worthwhile to add other fish to them.

6. In a small room, a tall, flat aquarium with scalars will look just as beautiful.

7. If you often leave the house for a few days or do not have time to thoroughly care for the aquarium, it is better to stop at the representatives of the labyrinth family. Gourami and cockerels can even live in polluted water.

8. Whatever fish you choose, do not forget to get yourself catfish-sweepers for help. For beginners, the corridor and antsistrus will be the best choice.

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