Aquarium terntions are schooling fish and must live in a group of seven individuals. They love dense thickets of plants, but there should be free space in the aquarium for swimming.
In nature, thorns live in small rivers, streams and tributaries in South America. They inhabit the upper layers of water and feed on fallen insects. For sale the fish are bred on the farm. They live 3-5 years.
How large does the terns grow? The maintenance and care of this fish is simple, because it has a rather modest size - up to 5.5 cm. These crumbs look very impressive in an aquarium. The body is rhomboid, flattened laterally. There are two black stripes along the body, the anal and dorsal fins are large. The black anal fin in females resembles an elegant skirt.
There are several types of terns: classical, voilean, albino and gold. Of particular interest is the product brand GloFish - genetically modified fluorescent fish.
These artificially bred pets have a bright color, which under the influence of ultraviolet light becomes even brighter. There are red, pink, blue, green, yellow and orange forms. Color is inherited.
Red color to the terntions is given by the red coral DNA fragments. They become green due to the presence of jellyfish DNA fragments. Yellow (orange) color gives a combination of jellyfish and coral genes. How beautiful is transgenic thorns? Photos show that such fish look, at least, unusual.
Recently, “caramels” have become popular - these are artificially colored fish. They can be bright pink, blue, green, orange.
Bright coloring is given by injection of the dye. Over time, it fades and becomes paler. Such fish are somewhat weaker and more vulnerable than their classic relatives. They live less and get sick more often. Coloring is not inherited. For a beginner, normal or genetically modified ternation will be more suitable.
Maintenance and care
Ternetsii unpretentious and undemanding fish. They don't need a huge aquarium. It is enough to follow the simple rule - about 10 liters of water should fall on one fish. That is, a flock of 10-12 individuals will feel at ease in a 100-liter aquarium.
Comfortable water temperature - 22-24 degrees. The transgenic form needs a higher temperature - about 28 degrees. Hardness is not more than 18, the level of acidity is 6.5-7.5 pH. Since they prefer shady water in nature, plants should be planted in an aquarium to create natural shelters.
Filtration and aeration required. Every week you need to do a water change and cleaning the soil. In the aquarium there should be enough space for swimming, planting it too much is not necessary. On which background does termination look better? Photos show that the classic dark fish will look good on a background of light soil, and multi-colored - on a background of dark. The aquarium can be decorated with stones, snags, grottoes.
What kind of character does the terns have? Keeping and caring for fish depend on its temperament. As mentioned above, thorns are schooling fish. So, living in solitude brings them suffering. In the company of fish calm and peaceful. But, left alone, they become nervous and aggressive.
The flock can be kept with other types of fish. Ternets active, mobile fish. They can be divided into several groups and conflict with each other. In a spacious aquarium, they keep in the upper and middle layers of water, they float freely. In a small container, with overpopulation and stress, they hide in the thickets of plants, swimming only for food.
What dietary habits does termination have? The fish is omnivorous and not prone to overeating. Ternetsia eagerly eat dry food, but especially love live and frozen food - daphnia, koretra, cyclop, artemia.
If you feed the fish with a small bloodworm, be sure to use the feeder. In nature, they seize insects in the upper and middle layers of water, so the mouth is anatomically arranged to raise food from the bottom simply uncomfortable.
Health and longevity of beauties largely depends on nutrition. It must be balanced and diverse. Do not feed the fish alone with flakes and granules. Be sure to include in the diet of live food.
Even an amateur can distinguish between sexes of ternets. The ternetia female is large, full, with a wide “skirt” of the anal fin. The male is smaller, slim, with a bright color. The tail fin has a white border, and the dorsal fin is longer, pointed.
By the nature of the ternation, they are referred to as peaceful fish, but this is true only if they live in a large flock and in an appropriately sized aquarium. Who can a ternsy live with? Compatibility with peaceful fish - gouras, scalars, discus, llyaus, mollies, swordtails, guppies, neons, gambuzins, rasobrami, peaceful catfish.
It is impossible to keep in the same container with the tail cap, barbs, cichlids and other aggressive fish. Ternets will attack the slow-moving veils and tear off their fins. If ternations are contained in small groups (for example, only 2-3 individuals in an aquarium populated by other species) or in an overpopulated aquarium, they can become aggressive and literally begin to terrorize other smaller and quieter fish.
At 8 months of age, terntions that have reached a size of 3-5 cm are capable of reproduction. Smaller or larger fish are not allowed to breed. Spawning aquarium of 50 liters is filled with water at a level of 5 cm. Moss is put on the bottom. The temperature is set at a level of 24-26 degrees. Need a good aeration.
Three days later, one pair of producers is placed in the spawning tank. They need to be hard fed with live food, not allowing its remains to settle on the bottom. In 3-6 days spawning begins. The female will produce about 1000 eggs in small portions. After spawning, the parents are immediately removed.
Water temperature rises to 28 degrees. After a day, the larvae come out, after 3 days they begin to swim. Juveniles feed lively dust. As the fry grows, they are sorted, since the ternas are prone to cannibalism.
Thorns is a beautiful, bright and easy-to-care fish. Both classic and color form can decorate any aquarium. Even unusual glowing colored individuals do not require any special conditions and live long enough.
Main types and colors
Ternesia belongs to the Kharacin family. This aquarium fish is one of the most mobile creatures. The shape of the body about 5 cm long is similar to a rhombus, flattened at the sides. Under favorable aquarium conditions, lives about four years.
Ternets are divided into several species, the main ones are cinnamon and glofish ternets.
Thanks to artificial coloring, the fish will turn the aquarium into a kaleidoscope
Some aquarium terntions are dyed in brighter colors with dyes with the help of special injections, such fish are called caramel. This color is short-lived, and they are weaker than individuals with natural colors.
Bright fluorescent representative under ultraviolet radiation looks unusual
Glofish ternetia is a newly bred modified fluorescent fish. The brightness of its color is directly dependent on exposure to ultraviolet rays. These fish are:
Unlike caramels, glofish pass on their color by inheritance.
Pros and cons of a pet
In favor of breeding in the home aquarium terniyu says their simplicity and endurance. Adapt to the new environment, they quickly and easily, refined food and do not require special attention. Their friendliness allows them to get along with various relatives.
The disadvantage of aquarists call their high activity, which leads to damage to the fins of voile fish. They are annoying sluggish little neighbors.
While the fish like to dwell in the company, they are ready to periodically bite their own and damage their delicate fins. With large cyclides, ternations do not get along. It is not recommended to put them together with predatory fish.
Care and maintenance
This fish is a favorite of aquarists because of its nice appearance and easy care.
The terntions are perfectly adapted to the new conditions. It is enough to withstand generally accepted aquarium requirements.
Ternets have a great appetite and a good reaction to any food - dried, frozen and artificial. Since it is difficult for small fish to lift it from the aquarium bottom, it is recommended to use light quality flakes so that they remain on the surface for a long time. Moth, daphnia or artemia are used as additional feeding.
To preserve the long-term well-being of fish, it is important to acquire only high-quality food and be sure to control its shelf life. Meals should be balanced and varied.
Termination is not subject to frequent diseases. But in order to avoid infections from parasites, it is recommended to arrange a three-week quarantine for new fish and plants.
Changes in the behavior of fish, caused by poor health:
- They become restless or, on the contrary, inactive.
- They rise to the surface and swallow air, which means oxygen starvation.
- Poor response to external stimuli.
Diseases of aquarium fish can be caused by various reasons. Proper maintenance of the aquarium is one of the main requirements.
The negative acidity of water has a negative effect on the health of the fish - acidosis can develop. With a rare change of water, the ammonia content in it increases, which can cause acedemia. In this case, it is recommended to raise the water temperature to 30 ° C and apply salt baths.
Symptoms of bacterial diseases:
- Threadlike feces.
- Uneven color of the gills, redness.
- Excessive mucus on the gills.
- White dots on fins.
With constant visual observation, the aquarist may notice that the pet is reduced in size - this indicates a disease.
Sick fish should be bathed in a 2% solution of table salt. They are kept in it for about 25 minutes. After 2-3 days, the procedure is repeated. After such a bath, the fish are placed in a flow-through aquarium for some time.
An unknowing aquarist may be alarmed by the following symptoms of pets:
- Hard growths on the lips. They are needed for scraping food of plant origin.
- Galls and head scaling. They emphasize the originality of this type of fish.
- The second dorsal fin is similar to a fatty growth and does not have fin rays.
All these features of the structure have nothing to do with fish diseases, as well as the fact that some Chinese veils of tails do not have a dorsal fin, and the caudal finishes are bifurcated.
Conditions of detention
The mistake of novice aquarists - a small aquarium for small fish
To the new conditions of ternation get used quickly. But in order to make the fish comfortable, it is recommended to observe the norms of water consumption - 10 liters per individual.
Requirements for fish habitat:
- The acidity (pH) of water is 6.5–7.5.
- Stiffness - not more than 18 ° C.
- The temperature of the medium is kept in the range of 22-24 ° C.
- Needed dimmed lighting.
- The presence of plants: high algae placed in the background, low plants and moss - in the front.
- Substrate in the form of coarse sand or small pebbles.
Since the oxygen indicator of water is very important for the well-being of terntions, it is recommended to provide a reservoir with filtration and aeration.
Mandatory replacement of 1/5 of the water is carried out at least once a week.
To avoid jumping out of active terntions from the aquarium, it is covered with a lid.
Mating and spawning
After spawning, it is necessary to transplant the fish, otherwise the caviar will be eaten.
Breeding at home requires the creation of favorable conditions. For this you need:
- Create spawning volume of at least 15 liters.
- Place sliced small-leaved plants at the bottom. When choosing a grid, it is important to pay attention to the size of the cells, which should allow the eggs to fail unhindered, you can also use a special washcloth.
- To set a pregnant female and a large male into the prepared tank.
In order to induce spawning, the terntions are previously transferred to feed of protein origin and the water temperature is raised by 1–2 degrees. It will take about five days before spawning begins.
On the readiness of the female to spawn will indicate the behavior of the pair. The male starts chasing the female through the aquarium - this is how he cares for her. The duration of courtship can range from 30 minutes to several hours. Then the female spawns, and the male at this time fertilizes her. So that the fish do not eat their future offspring, they are transplanted into a common aquarium, and the temperature in the spawn is lowered to 24 ° C.
Purple glofish fry inherit the color of their parents in 90% of cases.
Eggs will turn into larvae on the second day. After a week, they will become fry, which begin to feed the usual food for fish, after having ground it into powder. The frequency of feeding - 3-4 times a day. With the growth of fry the amount of feed increases.
Unfertilized and diseased eggs are removed with a syringe or pipette. In order to prevent spawning, it is necessary to disinfect the aquarium.
Owner reviews on ternetia care
One day I bought a flock of ternations from 4 individuals. This is a miraculous fish, with something reminiscent of butterflies with bright black polasami. Always flock flock. Peaceful, with the rest of the inhabitants of the aquarium do not conflict.
I have had the aquarium for many years, since my childhood I have been keen on fish farming. I always chose unpretentious types, because from time to time I had to leave the “reservoir” with minimal care. Guppies, swordtails, molly, antsistrusy - they are all livable, require minimal care and can even spend many days without any food. Therefore, when my wife unexpectedly bought four beautiful pink “caramels” that were completely unfamiliar to me, I was skeptical about them. Painfully tender in appearance, they seemed. But it turned out, in vain! Thorns is completely not picky and get along well with its neighbors. Others do not touch and do not give offense to themselves.
Thorns - schooling fish, it is necessary to maintain five or more fish. This is important, because only in a flock the unique behavior of terntions is revealed. They are peaceful, do not touch other fish. They play, communicate within the pack. But in case of danger - they will not give each other offense. Their motto is “one for all and all for one!” Once she launched a rooster - a hermit into a common aquarium. Such a stir he gave there! I drove all the fish in the corners. Only the terntions lined up in a defensive position, and with a friendly flock they fought back. More cock did not touch them. (He still had to be sent to separate apartments, since, apart from ternets, all the fish were shaken). They have a clear hierarchy in the flock. Each fish occupies a specific place in the aquarium. Ternation love to frolic. Watching their games is fun. They live not by themselves, but by a flock. Even spawned periodically in the general aquarium. I did not try to save caviar, as there was no goal to breed fish. My terntions lived successfully with neons, catfish and live bears. Shrimp for terntion - food, you should not try to keep them together. I inexperience tried. The ternets of the flock began to hunt for shrimp, the youngster, an amateur spectacle. In general, I survived the shrimp survivors.
A beginner or experienced aquarist should be responsible for the care and maintenance of terntions. Only in this case, funny and colorful fish will bring joy from observing life in the water kingdom.
For the first time, an ordinary thorny was described in the 19th century, more precisely, in 1895, by the well-known Belgian zoologist, botanist, and ichthyologist, J. A. Boulanger. It is also known as mourning or black tetra.
In nature, thorns can be found in the waters of South America - in Paraguay, as well as in the basin of the r. Guaporé, which flows through Argentina, Brazil and Bolivia. Fish is found in small streams, tributaries and rivers with a quiet flow. It prefers the upper layer of water closer to the shore, where there are areas shaded by tropical trees. It feeds on insects, worms, larvae and various small crustaceans. In captivity, tetras are grown in large quantities on special farms that supply it to the aquarium industry that is extremely advanced in our time.
The aquarium fish, ternetia, whose photo is located below, has a high and flat body shape. It is small in size, as its length does not exceed 5.5 cm. It is noteworthy that it is ready for spawning as soon as it grows up to 4 cm. With good care and maintenance it can live up to 3-5, and sometimes even up to 6- 7 years.
Отличительной чертой тернеции могут служить три черные вертикальные полоски, две из которых расположены на ее теле, а одна – пересекает глаз. Кроме того, она имеет необычные спинной и большой анальный плавники. The last of the above can serve as a kind of calling card of this small fish, as its appearance resembles a skirt, which distinguishes it from other inhabitants of the aquarium. Over time, the color of the termination may fade and lighten slightly.
These fish, like their close relatives, red neons, are quite peaceful and are accustomed to living in a flock, so it is advisable to acquire several individuals at once, which will almost never conflict with each other.
There are several more fashionable options for termination. Colored aquarium fish, the types of which may differ from each other in color, first appeared in Europe.
- Veil thorns. It can be purchased at almost any specialty store. It is kept under the same conditions as ordinary terntions, however, it is a little more difficult to breed it. This is due to the intragenital crossing of these fish.
- Albino. It is quite rare. It differs from ordinary only in its color.
- Caramel It is one of the species of the aquarium fish, terne, which is stained artificially. Nowadays this is a very fashionable trend, but it is necessary to keep such pets with great care. The fact is that the chemical composition of the coloring matter is not at all safe. In addition, their large quantities are imported from the territory of Vietnam, and it takes a lot of time. On the road there is a big risk that the fish may become infected with some dangerous disease.
Conditions and care
The content of the aquarium fish is rather simple because it is not at all picky. However, compliance with the basic conditions under which she will feel comfortable, yet you need to perform. First of all, it is necessary to ensure good filtration and aeration, as well as weekly replacement of aquarium water to ¼ of the volume of the available tank. Nothing will happen if it takes a little longer, as these fish are extremely hardy and able to adapt to almost any conditions. If the aquarium is large, then the water can be replaced monthly.
As for the size of the tank, it should be spacious enough so that the fish can swim freely. If the aquarium is small, then it should not be too thick plants to plant. It is better to leave open areas for swimming.
You can decorate the aquarium with the help of stones, grottoes, snags and other decorations. It is necessary to take into account the fact that ternation ordinary dark color, so the back wall of the tank must have a light background, the same applies to the color of the soil. Shelters in the form of caves and grottoes for these fish are optional, as they are accustomed to hiding in the thickets of plants.
What to feed
As a colored fish aquarium ternii, and ordinary, are omnivorous. Practically any food will do for them: live and frozen, bread crumbs, flakes, scraped meat, etc. They eat food from the surface of the water, and sometimes they catch it when it slowly drops to the bottom. If he sinks to the ground, the thorns will not be able to eat it because of the special location of the oral cavity.
How to create breeding conditions
First of all, the pregnant female, as well as the largest male, should be deposited in the spawn. Spawning can be caused by gradually raising the water temperature from 24 to 28 C. In addition, feeding the aquarium fish with termination of protein food, for example, with bloodworms, can help.
Spawning usually takes about 4-5 days. Before the female starts spawning, the male will aggressively care for her. It is easy to determine, it is worth just to watch their behavior. The grooming of the male will look as if he is chasing a female throughout the aquarium. This can go on for hours. As soon as she starts to spawn, the male immediately fertilizes her. After this procedure is completed, it is necessary to move both parents from the spawner back to the general aquarium so that they do not eat their offspring. Now the water temperature can be reduced to the usual 24 ⁰C.
After two days, the eggs will turn into larvae, and after a week - into fry. Small ternation can eat either special or regular food, ground into powder. Fry need to be fed 3-4 times a day, and as they mature, gradually increase the amount of food.
Aquarium fish, like the other species, can be attacked by skin flukes and parasitic invasions, such as worms, protozoa, etc. In addition, it can be various bacterial infections, ichthyodosis and other diseases. However, it is known that terntions are very hardy, therefore no problems should arise in a more or less well-kept aquarium.
But it should be remembered that any disease can be introduced by adding some new decoration, plant or substrate to the container, which can act as carriers of bacteria. Before diving it is necessary to send new fish to quarantine, and carefully process all items. To reduce the risk of diseases, it is necessary to clean the aquarium in time, replace the water and give a high-quality and balanced feed. Do not forget that the more natural the habitat created in the aquarium, the fish will be healthier and more active.
Miracle in a skirt
What does this brisk and mobile creature look like? It grows up to only 4-5 cm. The structure of the body is quite original - diamond-shaped, strongly flattened on the sides.
But the main difference is the three vertical black stripes (two go through the body, one is located next to the eye) and large fins. And the bottom looks like an elegant skirt. Thanks to this pet is not confused with anyone else.
The color of the scales is the most diverse (in young people it is richer than in adults). To the main silver one more has been added - black, greenish, blue, pink, brick. This was facilitated by artificial staining with special injections.
Get used to everything
The first mention of terntion refers to 1895 (they were brought to Russia after half a century). In nature, it cuts through the rivers of Brazil, Paraguay and other countries of South America, preferring a slow current and shade.
Having settled it at home, you must follow a few simple rules:
- Aeration and filtration are necessary,
- it is desirable to change a quarter of the water every 7 days.
Quickly getting used to any conditions, the fish still love
- temperature 21-25 degrees
- pH 6-8,
- stiffness not higher than 18.
At the bottom, you can scribble withered leaves and coats that will make the water brownish and sour.
Inside the aquarium
The main thing is to make the most swimming space.
- A small house is better not to overload with flowers in pots and decorative elements.
- But if space allows, you can install stones and grottoes.
- The beauty likes it when plants float on the surface, casting shadows.
- Prefers dim light.
In food is unpretentious, agrees to all types of live, frozen and artificial food. The main delicacy is flakes. In addition, in the diet add koretra, daphnia and cyclops. Motylya give a special trough.
Because of the peculiarities of the mouth structure, it is inconvenient for South American women to pick up food from the bottom, therefore, the remains of a sunken treat are recommended to be cleaned.
Water dwellers sell and buy very well. Therefore, many are engaged in their breeding.
To do this, prepare a separate spawning 30-40 liters with softer and sour water than usual. Dark soil is laid on the bottom (for example, moss), small-leaved plants are added.
Dim, diffused light or twilight is recommended. The front glass can be covered with paper.
The water must infuse and become completely transparent. This happens after two or three days. Only then in the capacity manufacturers start.
Parents of large families
Future mom and dad are selected by age (minimum 8 months, maximum 2 years) and size (3 cm). To distinguish them from each other is easy. Females have a less saturated and contrasting color, fins are not so big. But they are larger and thicker than males.
The chosen pair is actively fed, and after reproduction they are deposited so that they do not eat the eggs, which, by the way, can be up to a thousand.
Malkam give food suitable for any of their relatives of the same age (in particular, ciliates and nauplii). In addition, boiled chicken yolk and powdered milk will do. Grown up children sorted by size. So they will not engage in cannibalism.
South American women rarely get sick, and they are traditionally treated with fever up to 30 degrees, methylene blue and baths with salt. If necessary, contact the experts. On average, this species of fish lives for 3-4 years, and under good conditions, up to 5-6 years.
To be proud of your aquarium, it is not necessary to live there fashionable or large inhabitants. Little thorns will be one of his best jewels. Despite its mourning stripes, it is a very cheerful, cheerful and bright fish. It is quite inexpensive - 60 rubles.